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Full text of "International law documents, neutrality, conduct and conclusion of hostilities with notes 1918"


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NAVAL WAR COLLEGE 



INTERNATIONAL LAW 
DOCUMENTS 

V 

NEUTRALITY, CONDUCT AND 
CONCLUSION OF HOSTILITIES 

WITH NOTES 



1918 



i 



r 



t 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1919 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBLIC VTION MAY BE PROCURED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRESTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

50 CENTS PER COPY 



PREFACE. 



As in 1915, 1916, and 1917, so in 1918 it is not possible 
to offer final opinions in matters relating to the conduct 
of the war which has been going on since July, 1914. 

On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war 
against Germany and on December 7, 1917, declared 
war against Austria-Hungary. On November 3, 1918, 
an armistice was signed with Austria-Hungary. On No- 
vember 11, 1918, an armistice was signed with the Ger- 
man Empire. 

The discussions upon international law at the Naval 
War College during 1918, conducted by George Grafton 
Wilson, LL. D., professor of international law in Harvard 
University, had given special attention to the conduct of 
the war. 

Official and other documents relating particularly to 
hostilities and to relations arising in consequence thereof 
have been under consideration. The documents in this 
volume are among those discussed. Many of these docu- 
ments are translated from foreign languages. In such 
cases the language of issue of the documents is usually 
the only official text. While some of these documents 
are easily accessible, they are usually scattered, others 
have been published locally and have not yet appeared 
in any collection. The arrangement is usually chrono- 
logical under the name of the State issuing the document. 
Since some of the documents relate to several subjects, 
the index has been made unusually complete in order that 
the volume may be easily serviceable. 

As in previous years, the Naval War College desires to 
receive such questions as officers may deem worthy of 
consideration, and for such questions the documents here- 
with published may furnish many suggestions. 

J. P. Parker, 

Commodore, United States Navy, 

Acting President Naval War College, 

Newport, R. I. 
December 30, 1918. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page. 

Declarations of War, Supplementary list 11 

Recognition of New States and Changes of Government 11 

Armistices 12 

Austria-Hungary : 

Recognition of independence of Russian Poland, November 

4, 1916 13 

Recognition of independence of Cz echo- Slovaks and Jugo- 
slavs, October 29, 1918 13 

Proclamation of abdication of Emperor Charles, November 

13, 1918 14 

Armistice with Allied and Associated powers, November 3, 

1918 , . .' 14 

Appendix to Armistice, November 3, 1918 21 

Military Convention, Armistice in Hungary, November 13, 

1918 30 

Brazil: 

Decree revoking neutrality, June 22, 1917 34 

Bulgaria: 

Circular, Defensiva Sea Area, Bay of Bourgas, September 5, 

1916 35 

Armistice with Allied Powers, September 29, 1918 35 

Military Convention, conditions of armistice, September 29, 

1918 37 

China: 

Regulations, Sojourn of armed merchant vessels, 1917 38 

Prize Regulations, 1917 39 

Ecuador: 

Regulations, Sojourn of war vessels, January 18, 1917 45 

Finland: 

Law declaring for national autonomy, July 19, 1917 47 

France: 

Proclamation, Sojourn of vessels, August 9, 1914 47 

Law, restricting transfer of national vessels, November 11, 

1915 47 

Notice, mine fields on Turkish coast, March 4, 1916 48 

Ministerial decision restricting transfer of national vessels, 

March 16, 1916 \ 48 

Recognition of independence of Czecho-Slovaks, June 30, 

1918 49 

Germany: 

Sojourn of vessels — 

Regulations, Sojourn of war vessels, May 14, 1913 ...... 49 

5 



6 Table of Contents. 

Germany- — Continued . 

War measures — . Page. 

Declaration, War Zone, November 23, 1917 51 

Regulations, Enemy Character of Vessels, July 16, 1917. 52 
Notice, Defensive Sea Area around German Bay, March 

17, 1918... 53 

Regulations, Enemy Character of Vessels, April 21, 1918 . 53 
Recognition of Status — 

Recognition of Independence of Russian Poland, No- 
vember 4, 1916 53 

Recognition of Ukrainian Republic, February 9, 1918. . 54 
Recognitionof Independence of Lithuania, March 24,1918. 54 
Manifesto of Chancellor concerning abdication of 

Emperor, November 9, 1918 55 

Act of Abdication of Emperor, November 28, 1918 55 

Armistice — 

Armistice with Allied and Associated Powers, Novem- 
ber 11, 1918 56 

Appendices to Armistice, November 11, 1918 68 

Declaration by German Plenipotentiaries on signing 

Armistice, November 11, 1918 73 

Conditions added to Armistice, November 11, 1918 75 

Convention prolonging armistice, December 13, 1918 . . 75 
Convention prolonging armistice, January 16, 1919 .... 78 
Convention prolonging armistice, February 16, 1919. . . 84 
Great Britain: 

War measures — 

Proclamation, use of radio on vessels in territorial waters, 

August 1, 1914 86 

Act, restricting transfer of vessels, March 16, 1915 87 

Notice, visit and search regulations, April 22, 1916 87 

Act, restricting transfer of vessels, August 23, 1916 88 

Statement of foreign office, destruction of hospital ships, 

January 31, 1917 89 

Statement of Admiralty, destruction of hospital ships, 

April 22, 1917 90 

Trade Restrictions — 

Official Report on Administration of Blockade, 1918. . . 91 

Proclamation, export prohibition, August 3, 1914 95 

Proclamation, export prohibition to Scandinavian coun- 
tries, October 2 , 1917 97 

Recognition of International Status — 

Statement of Policy with reference to national home for 

the Jews, December, 1917 98 

Declaration of Supreme War Council with reference to 

Poles, Czechs, and Jugo-Slavs, June 4, 1918 98 

Recognition of Independence of Czecho-Slovaks, Au- 
gust 13, 1918 99 



Table of Contents. 7 

Honduras: Page. 

Declaration of War against Germany, July 19, 1^18 99 

Italy: 

Decree, extent of jurisdictional waters, August 6, 1914 99 

Notice, mine-infested areas of Adriatic, November 20, 1914. 100 

Agreement with Allies, entry into war, April 26, 1915 101 

Decree, requisition of vessels, November 11, 1915 104 

Decree, requisition of vessels, February 3, 1916 104 

Decree restricting transfer of national vessels, February 5, 

1916 105 

Decree restricting transfer of national vessels, April 19, 

1916 105 

Notice of mine fields in Tyrrhenian Sea, February 27, 1917 . 107 
Declaration in reference to oppressed nationalities of Aus- 
tria-Hungary, April 10, 1918 107 

Statement, attitude toward Czecho-Slovaks, October 3, 

1918 109 

Japan: 

Notification of Sasebo defensive sea area, August 23, 1914... 109 

Regulations, Sasebo defensive sea area, August 23, 1914 109 

Notification of Bako defensive sea area, August'23, 1914 110 

Regulations, Bako defensive sea area, August 23, 1914 110 

Declaration, days of grace for German vessels, August 24, 

1914 112 

Instructions, visit and search, April 20, 1916 113 

Ordinance, restricting transfer of national vessels, Septem- 

. ber 29, 1917 114 

Morocco: 

Neutrality regulations, July 18, 1917 115 

Norway: 

Note, sojourn of vessels in military ports, December 7, 1914. 117 

Note, limits of military port of Vardoe, December 29, 1917 . 117 

Regulations, extent of jurisdictional waters, June 18, 1918.. 118 
Roumania: 

Notice, mine fields in the Danube, November 30, 1915 118 

Notice, mine fields near Cernavoda, June 30, 1916 119 

Russia: 

Sojourn — 

Regulations, Sojourn of vessels, January 5, 1914 120 

Prize Regulations- 
Supplement to rules of naval war, September 22, 1914. . 121 

Regulations, appraisal of prizes, September 22, 1914 127 

Decree, treatment of cargo in national vessels, August 

23, 1915 .... 128 

Order, enemy character of vessels, March 1, 1916 129 

Declaration, repealing decree applying Declaration of 

London, November 21, 1916 :. 130 



8 Table of Contents. 

Russia — Continued . 

Mine Fields— - Pa^e. 

Regulations, navigation in Gulf of Finland, August 11, 

1914. . ! . 131 

Regulations, floating mines in Black Sea, February 9, 

1915 132 

Notice, mine laying by Sweden, July 5, 1915 132 

Notice,, floating mines in White Sea, July 10, 1915 133 

Regulations, prohibited area in White Sea, April 11, 

1916 133 

Notice, mine laying by Sweden and Denmark, 1916 134 

Notice of mine fields in Baltic Sea, August 18, 1916 . . . 135 
Notice, mine fields near Swedish coast, October 20, 

1916 135 

Notice, mine fields in Gulf of Bothnia, October 24, 1916. 136 
Anchorage prohibition, Eastern Ocean, January 23, 

1917 136 

Regulations, navigation in Gulfs of Baltic Sea, May 13, 

1918 137 

Trade Restrictions — 

Regulations for export of embargoed goods, May 17, 

1915 139 

Change of Government — 

Proclamation, abdication of Tsar, March 15, 1917 144 

Armistice — 

Armistice with Central Powers, December 15, 1917 145 

Sweden: 

Proclamation, protection of hospital ships, June 16, 1911. . .' 149 

Neutrality regulations, December 20, 1912 150 

Note, extent of jurisdictional waters, March 5, 1915 153 

Law, convoy, October 29, 1915 153 

Decree, internment of belligerent war vessels, July 7, 1915. . 155 
Regulations, navigation of Kogrund Passage, August 20, 

1916 156 

Regulations, navigation in mine fields, 1916 158 

Turkey: 

Circular, defensive sea area, coast of Asia Minor, August 26, 

1916 - . .... 159 

Armistice with Allies, October 30, 1918 159 

United States: 

War measures — 

Act, violation of defensive sea areas, March 4, 1917 161 

Act, application of neutrality laws to cobelligerents, 

May 7, 1917 162 

Regulations, navigation of jurisdictional waters, Feb- 
ruary 25, 1918 162 

Executive order, defensive sea area, June 29, 1918 164 

Proclamation, restricting transfer of national vessels, 
August 7, 1918. 165 



Table of Contents. 9 

United States — Continued. 

Requisition of Foreign Vessels — Page. 

Proclamation taking over Dutch vessels, March 20, 1918. 166 
Statement of President, taking over of Dutch vessels, 

March 20, 1918 167 

Statement of Navy Department, taking over of Dutch 

vessels, March 20, 1918 170 

Executive order, taking over material on Dutch vessels, 

March 28, 1918. , 170 

Executive order, requisitioning Austrian vessel, May 11, 

1918 171 

. Censorship Regulations — 

Executive order, censorship of cables, April 20, 1917 172 

Regulations, cable censorship, May 1, 1917 173 

Regulations, cable censorship, May 31, 1917 174 

General order, divulging naval information, June 11, 

1917 .- . . . 176 

Regulations, cable censorship, June 26, 1917 177 

Regulations, cable censorship, July 25, 1917 180 

Regulations, cable censorship, May 21, 1918 183 

Regulations, cable censorship, June 6, 1918 389 

Proclamation, taking over cables, November 2, 1918. . . 190 

Order, operation of cables, November 20, 1918 ' 191 

Trade restrictions — 

Executive order creating exports council, June 22, 1917 . 192 
Official statement, policy of War Trade Board, February 

25, 1918 193 

Proclamation, exports prohibition, July 9, 1917 195 

Proclamation, exports prohibition, February 14, 1918. . 197 
Proclamation, imports prohibition, February 14, 1918 . . 199 
Navigation regulations — 

Regulations, prohibition of license to sailing vessels, 

September 29, 1917 201 

Regulations, bunker coal, February 1, 1918 202 

Regulations, registration of vessels, February 23, 1918.. 205 

Regulations, export of dunnage, September 9, 1918 206 

Regulations, restriction of deck cargo on sailing vessels, 

September 10, 1918 207 

Recognition of international status — 

Recognition of French protectorate in Morocco, January 

17, 1917 208 

Recognition of provisional government in Russia, March 

22, 1917 208 

Recognition of aspirations of Czecho- Slovaks and Jugo- 
slavs, May 31, 1918 209 

Recognition of belligerency of Czecho- Slovaks, Septem- 
ber 3, 1918 209 



10 Table of Contents. 

United States — Continued. 

Recognition of international status — Continued. Pa f?e. 

Demand for Austrian recognition of independence of 

Czecho-Slovaks and Jugo-Slavs, October 18, 1918 209 

Recognition of belligerency of Poles, November 2, 1918. . 209 
Note informing Germany of terms on which armistice 

may be concluded, November 5, 1918 211 

Recognition of provisional government of Poland, 

January 30, 1919 212 

Uruguay: 

Decree, requiring radio telegraphy on vessels, January 13, 

1912 .212 

Decree, requisitioning German vessels, September 14, 1917 . . 213 



INTERNATIONAL LAW DOCUMENTS. 

DECLARATIONS OF WAR. 1 

Bulgaria against Roumania, September 1, 1916. (Naval War College, 

International Law Documents, 1917, p. 67.) 
Costa Rica, against Germany, May 24, 1918. (N. W. C, 1917, p. 77.) 
. Cuba against Austria, December 16, 1917. 

Guatemala against Austria, April 22, 1918. (N. W. C, 1917, p. 162.) 
Guatemala against Germany, April 22, 1918. (N. W. C, 1917, p. 162.) 
Haiti against Germany, July 15, 1918. 
Honduras against Germany, July 19, 1918. (p. 99.) 
Nicaragua against Austria, May 6, 1918. 
Nicaragua against Germany, May 6, 1918. 

RECOGNITION OF NEW STATES AND CHANGES OF 

GOVERNMENT. 

Austria: Abdication of Emperor Charles, November 13, 1918. (p. 14.) 
Bulgaria: 

Abdication of King Ferdinand, October 5, 1918. 

Abdication of King Boris, November 2, 1918. 
Czecho-Slovak Republic: 

Declaration of Autonomy, May 30, 1917. 

Declaration of Independence, Paris, October 18, 1918. 

Declaration of Independence, Philadelphia, October 26, 1918. 

Recognition by France, June 30, 1918. (p. 49.) 

Recognition by Italy, June 30, 1918. (p. 109.) 

Recognition by Great Britain, August 13, 1918. (p. 99.) 

Recognition by United States, September 3, 1918. (p. 209.) 

Recognition by Japan, September 9, 1918. 

Recognition by Cuba, November 5, 1918. 

Recognition by Austria, October 29, 1918. (p. 13.) 
Esthonia: Recognition by Great Britain, May 5, 1918. 
Finland: 

Law declaring national autonomy, July 19, 1917. (p. 47.) 

Declaration of Independence, December 7, 1917. 

Recognition by Sweden, January 3, 1918. 

Recognition by France, January 7, 1918. 

Recognition by Germany, January 7, 1918. 

Recognition by Norway, January 10, 1918. 

Recognition by Denmark, January 10, 1918. 

Recognition by Switzerland, January 17, 1918. 

Recognition by Russia, March 1, 1918. 



1 Additions to list in Naval War College, International Law Documents, 1917, p. 15' 
See list in Official U. S. Bulletin, Nov. 7, 1918, p. 3. 

Uruguay having assumed an attitude of partiality toward the United States and the 
Allies and having broken relations with Germany (N. W. C, 1917, p. 249), requested 
on Apr. 11, 1918, whether Germany regarded war as existing. Germany replied in the 
negative May IB, 1918. CN. Y. Times, Current History, 8 (pt. 1); 429.) 

11 



12 Recognition of Status.* 

Germany: Abdication of Emperor William, November 28, 1918. (p.. 

55.) 
Hedjaz: 

Declaration of Independence, June 27, 1916. (N. W. 0., 1917, 

p. 17.) 
Recognition by Great Britain, March 19, 1917. (N. W. 0., 1917, 
p. 20.) 
Jugo-Slav Peoples: 

Declaration of Corfu, July 27, 1917. 

Declaration of Rome, April 10, 1918. (p. 107.) 

Approval of nationalistic aspirations by United States, May 31, 

1918. (p. 209.) 
Approval of nationalistic aspirations by Allied Supreme War Coun- 
cil, June 4, 1918. (p. 98.) 
Approval of nationalistic aspirations by Austria, October 29, 1918. 
(p. 13.) 
Lithuania: Recognition by Germany, March 24, 1918. (p. 54.) 
Poland : 

Recognition by Germany, November 4, 1916. (p. 53.) 
Recognition by Austria, November 4, 1916. (p. 13.) 
Recognition of belligerency by United States, November 2, 1918. 

(p. 209.) 
Recognition of Provisional Government by United States, Janu- 
ary 30, 1919. (p. 212.) 
Russia: 

Abdication of Czar Nicholas, March 15, 1917. (p. 144.) 
Recognition of Provisional Government by United States, March 

22, 1917. (p. 208.) 
Recognition of Provisional Government by France, March 22, 1917. 
Recognition of Provisional Government by Great Britain, March 

22, 1917. 
Recognition of Provisional Government by Italy, March 22, 1917. 
Ukraine: 

Declaration of Independence, November 20, 1917. 
Recognition by Germany, February 9, 1918. (54.) 
Recognition by Russia, June 13, 1918. 

ARMISTICES. 

Roumania with Germany, Austria, Turkey, Bulgaria, December 9, 
1917. 1 

1 The terms of this armistice, signed at Focshani, were denounced Mar. 2 and expired, 
Mar. 5, 1918, at 12 noon, hut before that time preliminaries of peace were signed at Buftea, 
Mar. 5, 1918, providing for a 14-day truce, to run from midnight, Mar. 5, 1918, with a 
period of three days for denunciation. (N. Y. Times, Current History, 8 (pt. 1): 57; 
London Times, History of the War, 17: 39.) A treaty of peace was signed at Bucharest 
May 6, 1918 (N. Y. Times, Current History, 8 (pt. 1): 531; 8 (pt. 2): 127; London Times, 
History of the War, 17: 44.) 



Armistices. 13 

Russia with Germany, Austria, Turkey, Bulgaria, December 16, 1917. 

(p. 145.) 
Bulgaria with Allies, September 29, 1918. (p. 35.) 
Turkey with Allies, October 30, 1918. (p. 159.) 

Austria with Allies and Associated Powers, November 3, 1918. (p. 14.) 
Germany with Allies and Associated Powers, November 11, 1918. 

p. 56.^- 

AUSTRIA-HUNGARTl 

Recognition of independence of Rusiian Poland and autonomy of Galicia 

November 4, 1916* 

Dear Dr. von Koerber: In accordance with the understanding J 
reached between me and the German Emperor, an independent Stat e 
with an hereditary monarchy and a constitution will be formed of the 
Polish districts which our brave armies have snatched from Russian 
rule. On this occasion I recall with deep emotion the many proofs of 
devotion and loyalty which during my reign I have received from 
Galicia and the great and heavy sacrifices which this Province, exposed 
in the present war to a fierce enemy assault, had to bear in the interest 
of the victorious defense of the eastern frontiers of the Empire, sacri- 
fices which secure for it a lasting claim on my warmest fatherly regard. 

It is therefore my will at the moment when the new State comes into 
existence and coincident with this development to grant Galicia also 
the right to manage independently its own internal affairs in as full a 
measure as this can be done in accordance with its membership of the 
State as a whole and with the latter' s prosperity, and thereby give the 
population of Galicia a guarantee for its racial and economic develop- 
ment. In informing you of this my intention I charge you to prepare 
suitable proposals for its legal realization and to submit these to me. 

Francis Joseph, 
(Countersigned) Koerber. 

Vienna, November 4, 1916. 

Recognition of independence of Czechoslovaks and Jugo-Slavs, October 29, 

1918. 

[Official U. S. Bulletin, No. 451, p. 1.] 

Swedish Minister to Secretary of State. 

Department of Austro-Hungarian Interests, 

Legation of Sweden, 
Wahington, D. C, October 29, 1918. 
Excellency: By order of my Government, I have the honor to beg 
you to transmit to the President the following communication from 
the Imperial and Royal Government of Austria-Hungary. 

I n reply to the note of the President, Mr. Wilson, to the Austro-Hungarian Government 
dated October 18 of this year, 2 and about the decision of the President to take up with 
Aust • illun^ary S3parately the question of armistice and peace, the Austro-Hungarian 



1 Infra, p. 53. 2 Infra, p. 209. 



14 



Austria-Hungary, Armistice. 



Government has the honor to declare that it adheres both to the previous declarations 
of the President an! his opinion of th3 rights of the peoples of Anstro-Hungary, notably 
those of the Czeeho-Slovaks and the Jugo-Slavs, contained in his last note. Austria- 
Hungary, having thereby accepted all the conditions which the President had put 
upon ent3ring into negDtiations on the subject of armistice and peace, nothing, in the 
opinion of the Austro-Hungarian Government, longer stands in the way of beginning 
these negotiations. The Austro-Hungarian Government therefore declares itself ready 
to enter, without waiting for the outcome of other negotiations, into negotiations for a 
peace between Austria-Hungary and the entente states and for an immediate armistice 
on all the fronts of Austria-Hungary, and begs the President, Mr. Wilson, to take the 
necessary measures to that effect. 

Be pleased to accept, excellency, the assurance of my high con- 
sideration. 

W. A. F. Ekengren. 
His Excellency, Robert Lansing, 

Secretary of State of the United States, 

Wa king ton, D. C. 

Proclamation of abdication issued by Emperor Charles, November 13, 1918. 

Filled with unalterable love for my peoples, I will not hinder their 
free development. 

I acknowledge German Austria's decision to become a separate 
State. 

I relinquish all participation in the administration of State affairs. 

May the peoples harmoniously and peacefully adjust themselves to 
the new conditions. 

Terms of Armistice with Allied and Associated Powers, signed at Villa 

Giusti November 3, 1918. 



[Appendices; 1 protocol with sketch map.] 

I. 

MILITARY CLAUSES. 

1. The immediate cessation of 
hostilities by land, sea, and air. 

2. Total demobilization of the 
Austro-Hungarian Army and im- 
mediate withdrawal of all Austro- 
Hungarian forces operating on the 
front from the North Sea to 
Switzerland. 

Within Austro-Hungarian terri- 
tory, limited as in clause 3 below, 
there shall only be maintained as 
Austro-Hungarian military forces 
a maximum of 20 divisions, re- 
duced to prewar effectiveness. 

Half the divisional and army 
corps artillery and equipment 
shall be collected at points to be 



[Annexes: 1 protocole avec croquis.] 

I. 

CLAUSES MILITAIRES. 

1. Cessation immediate des hos- 
tilites sur terre, sur mer et dans 
l'air. 

2. Demobilisation totale de 
l'armee austro-hongroise et retrait 
immediat de toutes les unites qui 
operent sur le front de la mer du 
Nord a la Suisse. 

II ne sera maintenu sur le terri- 
toire austro-hongrois, dans les 
limites ci-dessous indiquees au 
§ 3, comme forces militaires 
austro-hongroises, qu'un maxi- 
mum de 20 divisions reduites a 
TerTectif du pied de paix d'avant 
guerre. 

La moitie du materiel total 
d'artillerie divisionnaire, d'artil- 



Austria-Hungary j Armistice. 



15 



indicated by the Allies and United 
States of America for delivery to 
them, beginning with all such 
material as exists in the territories 
to be evacuated by the Austro- 
Hungarian forces. 



3. Evacuation of all territories 
invaded by Austria-Hungary since 
the beginning of war. Withdrawal 
within such periods as shall be 
determined by the commanders in 
chief of the allied forces on each 
front of the Austro-Hungarian 
armies behind a line fixed as fol- 
lows: From Piz Umbrail to the 
north of the Stelvio it will follow 
the crest of the Rhetian Alps up to 
the sources of the Adige and the 
Eisach, passing thence by Mounts 
Reschen and Brenner and the 
heights of Oetz and Ziller. The 
line thence turns south, crossing 
Mount Toblach and meeting the 
present frontier of the Carnic Alps. 
It follows this frontier up to Mount 
Tar vis, and after Mount Tar vis the 
watershed of the Julian Alps by 
the Col of Predil, Mount Mangart, 
the Tricorno (Terglou), and the 
watershed of the Cols of Podberdo, 
Podlaniscam, and Idria. From 
this point the line turns southeast 
toward the Schneeberg, excludes 
the whole basin of the Save and 
its tributaries. From Schneeberg 
it goes down toward the coast in 
such a way as to include Castua, 
Mattuglia, and Volosca, in the 
evacuated territories. 

It will also follow the adminis- 
trative limits of the present Prov- 
ince of Dalmatia, including to the 
north Lisarica and Tridania and, 



lerie de corps d'armee ainsi que 
l'equipement correspondant en 
commencant par tout ce qui se 
trouve sur les territoires a evacuer 
par l'armee austro-hongroise, de- 
vra §tre reuni entre des points 
a fixer par les Allies et les Etats- 
Unis d'Amerique pour leur §tre 
livre. 

3. Evacuation de tout territoire 
envahi par l'Autriche-Hongrie de- 
puis le debut de la guerre et 
retrait des forces austro-hongroises 
dans un delai a determiner par les 
generaux commandants en chef 
les forces alliees sur les differents 
fronts, au del a d'une ligne fixee 
comme suit: 

Du Piz Umbrail jusqu'au nord 
du Stelvio, elle suivra la cr&te 
des Alpes Rhetiennes jusqu'aux 
sources de 1' Adige et de 1' Eisach, 
passant alors par les monts Re- 
schen et Brenner et sur les hau- 
teurs de l'Oetz et du Ziller. 

La ligne ensuite se dirigera vers 
le sud, traversera le Mont Toblach 
et rejoindra la frontiere actuelle 
des Alpes Carniques. Elle suivra 
cette frontiere jusqu'au Mont 
Tarvis, et apres le Mont Tarvis, 
la ligne de partage des eaux des 
Alpes Juliennes par le Col Predil, 
le Mont Mangart, le Tricorno 
(Terglou) et la ligne de partage 
des eaux des Cols de Podberdo, 
de Podlaniscam et d' Idria. A 
partir de ce point, la ligne suivra 
la direction du sud-est vers le 
Schneeberg, laissant en dehors 
d'elle tout le bassin de la Save et 
de ses tributaires; du Schneeberg, 
la ligne descendra vers la cdte, de 
maniere a inclure Castua, Mat- 
tuglia et Volosca dans les terri- 
toires evacuee. 



16 



Austria-Hungary, Armistice. 



to the south, territory limited by a 
line from the coast of Cape Planca 
to the summits of the watershed 
eastward, so as to include in the 
evacuated area all the valleys and 
watercourses flowing toward Sebe- 
nico, such as the Cicola, Kerka, 
Butisnica, and their tributaries. 
It will also include all the islands 
in the north and west of Dalma- 
tia from Premuda, Selve, Ulbo, 
Scherda, Maon, Pago, and Punta- 
dura in the north up to Meleda in 
the south, embracing Sant' An- 
drea, Busi, Lissa, Lesina, Tercola, 
Curzola, Cazza, and Lagosta, as 
well as the neighboring rocks and 
islets and Pelagora, only excepting 
the islands of Great and Small 
Zirona, Bua, Solta, and Brazza. 
All territory thus evacuated shall 
be occupied by the forces of the 
Allies and of the United States of 
America. 

Maintenance in place of all the 
military and railway material of 
the enemy found on the territory 
to be evacuated. Surrender to the 
Allies and the United States of all 
this material (supplies of coal and 
others included), according to the 
detailed instructions given by the 
commanders in chief of the asso- 
ciated powers on the different 
fronts. 

No new destruction, pillage, or 
requisition to be done by enemy 
troops in the territories to be 
evacuated by them and occupied 
by the forces of the associated 
powers. 



Elle suivra egalement les limited 
administratives actuelles de la pro- 
vince de Dalmatie, en y compre- 
nant, au nord, Lisarica et Tridania 
et au sud, jusqu'a une ligne par- 
tant sur la cote du Cap Planka et 
suivant vers Test les sommets des 
hauteurs formant la ligne de par- 
tage des eaux, de maniere a com- 
prendre dans les territoires evacues 
toutes les vallees et cours d'eau 
descendant vers Sebenico, comme 
la Cicola, la Kerka, la Butisnica et 
leurs affluents. Elle enfermera 
aussi toutes les iles situees au nord 
et a l'ouest de la Dalmatie depuis 
Premuda, Selve, Ulbo, Scherda, 
Maon, Pago et Puntadura au nord, 
jusqu'a Meleda au sud, en y com- 
prenant Sant' Andrea, Busi, Lissa, 
Lesina, Tercola, Curzola, Cazza et 
Lagosta, ainsi que les rochers et 
ilots environnants, et Pelagosa, a 
1' exception seulement des iles 
Grande et Petite Zirona, Bua, 
Solta et Brazza. 

Tous les territoires ainsi eva- 
cues seront occupes par les forces 
des Allies et des Etats-Unis d'Ame- 
rique. 

Maintien sur place de tout le 
materiel militaire et de chemin de 
fer ennemi qui se trouve sur les 
territoires a evacuer. 

Livraison aux Allies et aux 
Etats-Unis de tout ce materiel 
(approvisionnements de charbon 
et autres compris) suivant les 
instructions de detail donnees par 
les Generaux Commandants en 
chef les forces des Puissances asso- 
ciees sur les differents fronts. 

Aucune destruction nouvelle, ni 
pillage, ni requisition nouvelle par 
les troupes ennemies dans les terri- 
toires a evacuer par 1' ennemi et a 
occuper par les forces des Puis- 
sances associees. 



Austria-Hungary, Armistice. 



17 



4. The Allies shall have the 
right of free movement over all 
road and rail and waterways in 
Austro-Hungarian territory and of 
the use of the necessary Austrian 
and Hungarian means of trans- 
portation. The armies of the asso- 
ciated powers shall occupy such 
strategic points in Austria-Hun- 
gary at times as they may deem 
necessary to enable them to con- 
duct military operations or to 
maintain order. 

They shall have the right of 
requisition on payment for the 
armies of the associated powers 
wherever they may be. 

5. Complete evacuation of all 
German troops within 15 days not 
only from the Italian and Balkan 
fronts but from all Austro-Hun- 
garian territory. 

Internment of all German troops 
which have not left Austria-Hun- 
gary within the date. 



6. The administration of the 
evacuated territories of Austria- 
Hungary will be entrusted to the 
local authorities under the control 
of the allied and associated armies 
of occupation. 

7. The immediate repatriation 
without reciprocity of all allied 
prisoners of war and interned sub- 
jects and of civil populations 
evacuated from their homes on con- 
ditions to be laid down by the com- 
manders in chief of the forces of the 
allied powers on the various fronts. 

8. Sick and wounded who can 
not be removed from evacuated 
territory will be cared for by 
Austro-Hungarian personnel, who 
will be left on the spot with the 
medical material required. 

116506—19 2 



4. Possibility pour les Armies 
des Puissances associees de ee 
mouvoir librement par 1' ensemble 
des routes, chemins de fer et voies 
fluviales des territoires austro- 
hongrois n^cessaires. 

Occupation par les Armees des 
Puissances associees de tous points 
strategiques en Autriche-Hongrie 
et a tous moments juges neces- 
saires par ces Puissances, pour ren- 
dre possible toutes operations mili- 
taires ou pour maintenir Pordre. 

Droit de requisition contre paie- 
ment pour les Armees des Puis- 
sances associees dans tous les ter- 
ritoires oil elles se trouveront. 

5. Complete evacuation, dans 
un delai de 15 jours, de toutes 
troupes allemandes, non seule- 
ment des fronts d'ltalie et des 
Balkans, mais de tous territoires 
austro-hongrois. 

Internement de toutes troupes 
allemandes qui n'auraient pas 
quitte avant ce delai le territoire 
austro-hongrois. 

6. Les territoires austro-hongrois 
evacues seront provisoirement ad- 
ministres par les autorites locales 
sous le controle des troupes alliees 
ou associees d' occupation. 

7. Rapatriement immediat, sans 
reciprocity de tous les prisonniers 
de guerre, sujets, allies internes et 
populations civiles evacuees, dans 
les conditions a fixer par les Gen6- 
raux Commandants en chef les 
Armees des Puissances alliees sur 
les fronts. 

8. Les malades et blesses ineVa- 
cuables seront soignes par du per- 
lsonnel austro-hongrois qui sera 
aisse sur place avec le materiel 
necessaire. 



18 



Austria-Hungary, Armistice. 



II. 

NAVAL CONDITIONS. . 

1. Immediate cessation of all 
hostilities at sea and definite in- 
formation to be given as to the 
location and movements of all 
Austro-Hungarian ships. 

Notification to be made to neu- 
trals that freedom of navigation in 
all territorial waters is given to the 
naval and mercantile marine of 
the allied and associated powers, 
all questions of neutrality being 
waived. 

2. Surrender to Allies and the 
United States of 15 Austro-Hun- 
garian submarines completed be- 
tween the years 1910 and 1918, and 
of all German submarines which 
are in or may hereafter enter 
Austro-Hungarian territorial wa- 
ters. All other Austro-Hungarian 
submarines to be paid off and com- 
pletely disarmed and to remain 
under the supervision of the Allies 
and United States. 

3. Surrender to Allies and United 
States with their complete arma- 
ment and equipment of 3 battle- 
ships, 3 light cruisers, 9 destroyers, 
12 torpedo boats, 1 mine layer, G 
Danube monitors to be designated 
by the Allies and United States of 
America. All other surface war- 
ships (including river craft) are to 
be concentrated in Austro-Hun- 
garian naval bases to be designated 
by the Allies and United States of 
America, and are to be paid off and 
completely disarmed and placed 
under the supervision of Allies and 
United States of America. 



IT- 



CLAUSES NAVALES. 

I. Cessation immediate de toute 
hostilite sur mer et indications 
precises de 1' emplacement et des 
mouvements de tous les batiments 
austro-hongrois. 

Avis sera donne aux neutres de 
la liberte concedee a la navigation 
des marines de guerre et de com- 
merce des Puissances alliees et 
associees dans toutes les eaux ter- 
ritoriales, sans soulever des ques- 
tions de neutrality. 

II. Livraison aux Allies et aux 
Etats-Unis d'Amerique de 15 
sous-marins austro-hongrois ache- 
ves de 1910 a 1918 et de tous les 
sous-marins allemands se trouvant 
ou pouvant penetrer dans les eaux 
territoriales austro - hougroises. 
Desarmement complet et demo- 
bilisation de tous les autres sous- 
marins austro-hongrois, qui de- 
vront rester sous la surveillance 
des Allies et des Etats-Unis 
d'Amerique. 

Ill Livraison aux Allies et aux 
Etats-Unis d'Amerique, avec leur 
armement et equipement com- 
plets, de 3 cuirasses, 3 croiseurs 
legers, 9 destroyers, 12 torpilleurs, 
1 mouilleur de mines, 6 monitors 
du Danube a, designer par les 
Allies et les Etats-Unis d'Ameri- 
que. 

Tous les autres batiments de 
guerre de surface (y compris ceux 
de riviere) devront etre concentres 
dans les bases navales austro- 
hongroises qui seront designees 
par les Allies et les Etats-Unis 
d'Amerique et devront £tre de- 
mobilises et completement des- 
armes et places sous la surveil- 
lance des Allies et des Etats-Unis 
d'Amerique. 



Austria-Hungary, Armistice. 



19 



4. Freedom of navigation to all 
warships and merchant ships of 
allied and associated powers to he 
given in the Adriatic and up the 
River Danube and its tributaries 
in the territorial waters and terri- 
tory of Austria-Hungary. 

The Allies and associated powers 
shall have the right to sweep up 
all mine fields and obstructions 
and the positions of these are to be 
indicated. 

In order to insure the freedom of 
navigation on the Danube the 
Allies and the United States of 
America shall be empowered to 
occupy or to dismantle all fortifica- 
tions or defense works. 

5. The existing blockade condi- 
tions set up by the allied and asso- 
ciated powers are to remain un- 
changed and all Austro-Ilungarian 
merchant ships found at sea are to 
remain liable to capture, save ex- 
ceptions which may be made by a 
commission nominated by the 
Allies and the United States of 
America. 

G. All naval air craft are to be 
concentrated and immobilized in 
Austro-Hungarian bases to be 
designated by the Allies and the 
United States of America. 

7. Evacuation of all the Italian 
coasts and of all ports occupied by 
Austria-Hungary outside their na- 
tional territory and the abandon- 
ment of all floating craft, naval 
materials, equipment, and ma- 
terials for inland navigation of all 
kinds. 

8. Occupation by the Allies and 
the United States of America of 
the land and sea fortifications and 
the islands which form the de- 
fenses and of the dockyards and 
arsenal at Pola. 



IV. Liberte de navigation de 
tous les batiments des marines de 
guerre et de commerce des Puis- 
sances alliees et associees dans 
l'Adriatique, y compris les eaux 
territorial es, sur le Danube et ses 
affluents en territoire austro-hon- 
grois. 

Les Allies et les Puissances as- 
sociees auront le droit de draguer 
tous les champs de mines et 
detruire les obstructions dont 
1' emplacement devra leur etre 
indique. 

Pour assurer la liberte de navi- 
gation sur le Danube les Allies et 
les Etats-Unis d'Amerique pour- 
ront occuper ou demanteler toutes 
les ouvrages fortifies et de defense. 

V. Maintien - du blocus des 
Puissances alliees et associees 
dans les conditions actuelles, les 
navires austro-hongrois trouves 
en mer restent sujets a capture, 
sauf les exceptions qui scront 
admises par une Commission qui 
sera designee par les Allies et les 
Etats-Unis d' A -nerique. 

VI. Groupement et immobili- 
sation dans les bases austro-hon- 
groises designees par les Allies et 
les Etats-Unis d'Amerique de 
toutes les forces aeriennes navales. 

VII. Evacuation de toute la 
cote italienne et de tous les ports 
occupes par l'Autriche-Hongrie 
en dehors de son territoire national 
et abandon de tout le materiel 
flottant, materiel naval, equipe- 
ment et materiel pour voie navi- 
gable de tout ordre. 

VIII. Occupation par les Allies 
et les Etats-Unis d'Amerique des 
fortifications de terre et de mer, 
et des iles constituant la defense 
de Pola, ainsi que des chantiers et 
de V Arsenal. 



20 



Austria-Hungary, Armistice. 



9. All merchant vessels held by 
Austria-Hungary belonging to the 
Allies and associated pow ers to be 
returned. 

10. No destruction of ships or of 
materials to be permitted before 
evacuation, surrender, or restora- 
tion. 

11. All naval and mercantile 
marine prisoners of the allied and 
associated powers in Austro-Hun- 
garian hands to be returned with- 
out reciprocity. 

The undersigned plenipoten- 
tiaries, duly authorized, declare 
approval of the above indicated 
conditions. 

November 3, 1918. 

The Representatives of the 
supreme command of the 
Austro-Hungarian Army: 

Signed: 
Victor Weber Edler von 

Webenau. 
Karl Schnelleu. 
Y. von Liechtenstein. 
J. V. Nyekhegyi. 
zwierkowski. 

Victor Freiherr von Seiller. 
Kamillo Ruggera. 

The Representatives of the 
supreme command of the 
Italian Army: 
Signed: 

Lieut. Gen. Pietro Badoglio. 

Maj. Gen. Scipione Scipioni. 

Col. Tuliio March etti. 

Col. Pietro Gazzera. 

Col. Pietro Maravigna. v 

Col. Alberto Pariani. 

Nav. Capt. Francesco Accinni. 

Note. — In the text of the Armistice, 
after par. 11, the following words have 
been written by hand: "It is acknowl- 
edged that five words written by hand 
have been added on the first page." This 
refers to the phrase: "Appendices: 1 pro- 
tocol with sketch-map." 



IX. Restitution de tous les 
navires de commerce des Puis- 
sances alliees et associ^es detenus 
par 1 ' Autriche-Hongrie . 

X. Interdiction de toute des- 
truction des navires ou de mate- 
riel avant evacuation, livraison ou 
restitution. 

XI. Restitution, sans reci pro- 
cite, de tous les prisonniers de 
guerre des marines de guerre et de 
commerce des Puissances alliees et 
associees au pouvoir des austro- 
hongrois. 

Les plenipotentiaires soussignes, 
dument autorises, declarent d'ap- 
prouver les conditions sus-indi- 
quees. 
3 Novembre 1918. 

Les repr^sentants du Com- 
mandement Supreme de 
l'Armee Austro-Hungroise : 

Signes: 
Victor Weber Edler von 

Webenau. 
Karl Schneller. 
Y. von Liechtenstein. 
J. V. Nyekhegyi. 
zwierkowski. 

Victor Freiherr von Seiller. 
Kamillo Ruggera. 

Les representants du Com- 
mandement Supreme de 
l'Armee Italienne: 
Signes: 
ten. gen. Pietro Badoglio. 

MAGG. GEN. SciPIONE SciPIONI. 

colonn. ttjllio marchetti. 

colonn. Pietro Gazzera. 

colonn. Pietro Maravigna. 

colonn. Alberto Pariani. 

cap. vasc. Francesco Accinni. 

Note . —Dans le texte de Y Armistice apres 
le § XI on a ecrit par main les mots 
suivants: "Onreconnait Padjonction de 
cinq mots ecrits par main dans la pre- 
miere page." II s'agit de la phrase: 
"Annexes: 1 protocole avec croquis." 



Austria-Hungary, Appendix to Armistice. 
APPENDIX. 



21 



APPENDED PROTOCOL 

Containing the details and the execu- 
tion clauses of certain points of 
the armistice between the allied and 
associated powers and Austria- 
Hungary. 

I. 

MILITARY CLAUSES. 

1. Hostilities by land, at sea, 
and in the air shall cease on all the 
fronts of Austria-Hungary 24 hours 
after the signature of the armistice ; 
that is, at 15 o'clock (3 p. m.) on 
November 4 (Central European 
time). 

From that moment the Italian, 
allied, and associated troops shall 
refrain from advancing beyond the 
line attained up to then. 

The Austro-Hungarian troops 
and the troops of the countries 
allied with Austria-Hungary shall 
withdraw to a distance at least 3 
kilometers in an air line from the 
line reached by the Italian troops 
or by the troops of the allied and 
associated countries. The inhabit- 
ants of the 3-kilometer zone com- 
prised between the two above- 
mentioned line-s may, in order to 
obtain the necessary provisions, 
apply to their own national army 
or to the armies of the allied or 
associated powers. 

All the Austro-Hungarian troops 
who at the time of cessation of 
hostilities are behind the righting 
line reached by the Italian troops 
shall be considered as being pris- 
oners of war. 

2. As regards the clauses con- 
tained in the second and third 
articles on the subject of the 



PROTOCOLE ANNEXE 

contenant les details et les clauses 
d' execution de certains points de 
V Armistice entre les Puissances 
alliees et associees et V Autriche- 
Hongrie. 

I. 

CLAUSES MLLITAIRES. 

1. Les hostility par terre, par 
mer et dans Pair cesseront sur tous 
les fronts de l'Autriche-Hongrie 
24 heures apres la signature de 
1' Armistice, c'est-a-dire a 15 heures 
du 4 novembre (heure de l'Europe 
centrale). 

A partir de ce moment les 
troupes italiennes et associees 
s'abstiendront d'avancer au dela 
de la ligne jusqu'a ce moment re- 
jointe. 

Les troupes austro-hongroises et 
les troupes des Pays allies a 
l'Autriche-Hongrie devront se 
retirer a line distance d'au 
moins 3 Km. en ligne d'air, de 
la ligne rejointe par les troupes 
italiennes ou par les troupes des 
Pays allies et associes. Les habi- 
tants de la zone de 3 Km. com- 
prise entre les deux lignes sus- 
indiquees pourront s'adresser, pour 
obtenir les ravitaillements neces- 
saires, a leur propre armee natio- 
nale ou aux armees des Puissances 
associees. 

Toutes les troupes austro-hon- 
groises qui a 1' heure de la cessation 
des hostilites se trouveront a 
l'arriere de la ligne de combat 
rejointe par les troupes italiennes, 
doivent 6tre considerees comme 
etant prisonnieres de guerre. 

2. Pour ce qui concerne les 
clauses contenues dans les articles 
2 et 3 au sujet des artilleries et de 



22 Austria-Hungary, Appendix to Armistice. 



Artillery and its equipment and 
of the military material which is 
to be assembled at places indicated 
or left on the spot in the territories 
which are to be evacuated, the 
Italian plenipotentiaries, as repre- 
sentatives, of all the allied and 
associated powers, declare that 
they give said clauses the follow- 
ing interpretation, which shall be 
authoritative (aura un caractere 
executif ) : 

(a) Every article which may be 
used for a war purpose, or the com- 
ponent parts of which can be used 
for such a purpose, shall be ceded 
to the allied and associated powers. 

The Austro-Hungarian Army 
and the German troops are author- 
ized to carry off only what consti- 
tutes a part of the equipment and 
the psrsonal armament of the 
soldiers who are to evacuate the 
territories indicated in article 3, 
as well as the horses of the officers, 
the train, and the horses organ- 
ically intended for each unit for 
the transportation of food, of 
kitchens, of the baggage of officers, 
and of the sanitary material. 
This clause applies to all the differ- 
ent armies and to all the services 
of the armies. 

(b) As regards particularly the 
Artillery, it is settled that the 
Austro-Hungarian Army and the 
German troops shall leave in the 
territory to be evacuated all the 
artillery material and all their 
equipment. 

The necessary calculation, in 
order to determine accurately 
and completely the total number 
of divisional artilleries and Army 
corps which Austria-Hungary pos- 
sesses at the moment of the cessa- 



leur equipement, et du materiel 
militaire qui doit etre reuni en 
des lieux indiques ou laisse sur 
place dans les territoires qui 
seront evacues, les plenipoten- 
tiaires italiens en qualite de repre- 
sentants de toutes les Puissances 
alliees et associees declarent de 
donner aux dites clauses 1' inter- 
pretation, qui aura caractere 
executif: 

(a) Tout objet dont on puisse se 
servir dans un but de guerre, ou 
dont les parties qui le compose 
puissent etre employees dans un 
tel but, devra etre cede aux Puis- 
sances alliees et associees. 

L'armee austro-hongroise et les 
troupes allemandes sont autorisees 
a emporter uniquement ce qui 
fait partie de 1' equipement et de 
l'armement personnel des mili- 
taires qui doivent evacuer les ter- 
ritoires indiques a 1' article 3, ainsi 
que les chevaux des officiers, le 
train et les chevaux organique- 
ment destines a chaque unite pour 
le transport des vivres, des cui- 
sines, du bagage des officiers et 
du materiel sanitaire. Cette clause 
s' applique a toutes les differentes 
armes et a tons les services des 
armees. 

(6) En ce qui eoncerne rjartiei?- 
lierement l'artillerie, il est etabli 
que l'armee austro-hongroise et les 
troupes allemandes laisseront dans 
le territoire qui doit etre evacue 
tout le materiel d'artillerie et tout 
son equipement. 

Le calcul necessaire pour etablir 
d'une facon exacte et complete le 
nombre total des artilleries di- 
visionnaires et de corps d'armee 
dont dispose l'Autriche-Hongrie 
au moment de la cessation des 



Austria-Hungary, Appendix to Armistice. 23 



tion of hostilities (and half of 
which is to be ceded to the allied 
and associated powers), will be 
made later on so as to settle, if 
necessary, the delivery of other 
artillery material of the Austro- 
Hungarian Arm / and possibly the 
return of material to the Austro- 
Hungarian Army to be made by 
the allied and associated armies. 

All artilleries which do not con- 
stitute an organic part of the divi- 
sional artilleries and of Army corps 
shall be ceded without any excep- 
tion; nevertheless it will not be 
necessary to calculate their num- 
ber. 

(c) The delivery of all the divi- 
sional artilleries and of Army corps 
shall take place, for the Italian 
front, in the following localities: 
Trento, Bolzano, Pieve di Cadore, 
Stazione par la Carnia, Tolmino, 
Gorizia, and Trieste. 

3. The commanders in chief of 
the allied and associated armies on 
the different fronts of Austria- 
Hungary shall appoint special 
commissions which shall immedi- 
ately proceed, accompanied by the 
necessary escorts, to the places 
which they may deem most ap- 
propriate in order to see to the 
execution of what is provided 
above. 

4. The names M. Toblach and 
M. Tarvis indicate groups of 
mountains which overlook the 
Toblach saddle (selle) and the 
Tarvis conch, as appears from the 
sketch on a scale of 1-500,000, ap- 
pended hereto by way of elucida- 
tion. 1 

5. The evacuation of the Austro- 
Hungarian troops and of the allied 
troops from Austria-Hungary be- 

i Not printed. 



hostilites, dont la moitie doit §tre 
cede aux Puissances associees, sera 
execute" plus tard, de facon a fixer 
s'il y en aura lieu, la remise d'autre 
materiel d'artillerie de l'armee 
austro-hongroise et eventuelle- 
ment le retour de materiel a 
l'armee austro-hongroise a effec- 
tuer par les armees alliees et 
associees. 

Toutes les artilleries qui ne font 
pas organiquement partie des 
artilleries divisionnaires et de 
corps d'armee devront etre cedees, 
sans exception aucune; pourtant il 
ne sera pas necessaire d'en calculer 
le nombre. 

(c) La remise de toutes les ar- 
tilleries divisionnaires et de corps 
d'armee devra's'effectuer, pour le 
front italien, dans les localites 
suivantes: Trento, Bolzano, Pieve 
di Cadore, Stazione per la Carnia, 
Tolmino, Gorizia, Trieste. 

3. Les Commandants en chef des 
armees alliees et associees sur les 
differents fronts d'Autriche- 
Hongrie, nommeront des Commis- 
sions speciales qui devront im- 
mediatement se rendre, accompa- 
gnees des escortes necessaires, dans 
es lieux qu'elles jugeront les plus 
mdiques pour controlerl' execution 
de ce qui est ci-dessus etabli. 

4. II est etabli que les denomi- 
nations M. Toblach et M. Tarvis 
veulent indiquer les groupes de 
montagnes qui dominent la selle 
de Toblach et la conque de Tarvis. 
ainsi qu'il ressort du croqui-i 
1/500,000 ei-joint a titre d'eclaii- 
cissement. 

5. L'eVacuation des troupes 
austro-hongroises et des troupes 
alliees a rAutriehe-Hongrie au- 



24 Austria-Hungary, Appendix to Armistice. 



yond the line indicated in article 3 
of the protocol of the armistice 
conditions shall take place, for the 
Italian front, within a period of 
15 days (a fortnight) from the date 
on which the hostilities cease. 

On the 5th day the Austro-Hun- 
garian troops or those allied with 
Austria-Hungary shall, as regards 
the Italian front, be situated 
beyond the line: Tonale-Noce- 
Lavis-Avisio-Pci dci-L i\ inallongo- 
Falzarego-Pieve di Cadore-Colle 
Mauria-Alto Tagliamento-Fella- 
Raccolana-Sella di Nevea-Isonzo. 
They shall, moreover,have effected 
their retreat out of the territory of 
Dalmatia as fixed in the above- 
mentioned article. 

The Austro-Hungarian troops of 
land and sea or the troops allied 
with Austria-Hungary, which shall 
not have effected their retreat out 
of the territory fixed within a pe- 
riod of two weeks, shall be con- 
sidered as prisoners of war. 

6. The payment of the requisi- 
tions which the armies of the allied 
and associated powers may make 
in the Austro-Hungarian territory 
shall take place according to the 
rules fixed in the first paragraph of 
page 227 of "Servizio in Guerra 
(War Sendee), Part II, edition of 
1915," now in force in the Italian 
Army. 

7. As regards the railroads and 
the exercise of the right recognized 
in favor of the allied and associated 
powers by article 4 of the armistice 
protocol between the allied and 
associated powers and Austria- 
Hungary, it is settled that the 
transportation of troops and of 
war material and the supplying 
of the allied and associated powers 



dela de la ligne indiquee a Particle 
3 du Protocole des conditions d' ar- 
mistice, devra s'effectuer pour le 
front italien dans un delai de 
quinze jours a partir du jour ou les 
hostilites prendront fin. 

Au 5 me jour les troupes austro- 
hongroises ou alliees de l'Autriche- 
Hongrie devront, pour ce qui 
cone erne le front italien, se trduver 
au-dela de la ligne: Tonale — 
Noce — Lavis — Avisio — Por- 
doi — Livinallongo — Falzarego — 
Pieve di C adore — Colle Mauria — 
Alto Tagliamento — Fella — Rac- 
colana — Sella Nevea — Isonzo: 
elles devront en plus avoir erf ectue 
leur retraite hors du territoire de 
la Dalmatie fixe dans Particle plus 
haut indique. 

Les troupes austro-hongroises de 
terre et de mer ou les troupes 
alliees de l'Autriche-Hongrie qui 
n'auront pas effectue leur retraite 
hors du territoire etabli dans le 
delai de 15 jours doivent etre 
considerees comme etant prison- 
nieres de guerre. 

6. Le payement des requisitions 
que les armees des Puissances 
alliees et associees pourront ex6- 
cuter dans le territoire austro- 
hongrois devra s'accomplir selon 
les regies fixees contenues dans le 
premier § de la page 227 du 
''Servizio in Guerra — Parte II — 
Edizione 1915" actuellement en 
vigueur pres de l'armee italienne. 

7. Pour ce qui concerne les 
chemins de fer et l'exercice du 
droit reconnu aux Puissances 
associees par Particle 4 du Proto- 
cole d'armistice entre les Puis- 
sances alliees "et associees" et 
l'Autriche-Hongrie, il est etabli 
que le transport des troupes, du 
materiel de guerre et des ravi- 
taillements des Puissances alliees 



Austria-Hungary , Appendix to Armistice. 25 



over the Austro-Hungarian rail- 
roads outside the territory evacu- 
ated under the armistice clauses, 
as well as the direction and oper- 
ation of the railroads, shall be in- 
trusted to the employees of the 
Austro-Hungarian railroad admin- 
istrations under the control, how- 
ever, of the special commissions 
appointed by the allied and as- 
sociated powers and of the military 
commanders of the railroad sta- 
tions which it may be deemed 
necessary to appoint. 

The Austro-Hungarian authori- 
ties must give right of way to this 
transportation before all other and 
guarantee its safety. 

8. In the territory to be evacu- 
ated at the end of hostilities, it 
shall be necessary to discharge 
and render entirely harmless all 
the mines along the roads and 
railroads, all mine fields, and 
every other prearranged work for 
the interruption of roads and rail- 
roads. 

9. Within a period of one week 
from the cessation of hostilities, 
the prisoners and the citizens in- 
terned in Austria-Hungary shall 
cease all work except for agricul- 
ture labor as regards prisoners and 
interned persons already em- 
ployed on agricultural labor be- 
fore the date of signing the armi- 
stice. They must, at all events, 
be ready to depart immediately 
as soon as request is made to that 
end by the commander in chief of 
the Italian Army. 

10. Austria-Hungary shall pro- 
vide for the protection, safety, and 
provisioning (cost to be repaid) of 



et associees sur le reseau des che- 
mins de fer austro-hongrois en 
dehors du territoire evacue selon 
les clauses de 1' armistice, ainsi 
que la direction et le fonctionne- 
ment du reseau sera confle aux 
employes des Administrations 
des chemins de fer austro-hougrois 
sous le controle cependant de 
Commissions speciales^ nominees 
par les Puissances alliees "asso- 
ciees" et des Commandements 
militaires des gares de chemin de 
fer qu'il sera juge necessaire 
d'etablir. 

Les autorites Austro-hongroises 
devront donner passage aux dits 
transports avant tout autre et en 
garantir la siirete. 

8. Dans le _ territoire qui doit 
etre evacue au moment de la fin 
des hostilites il devra etre procede" 
au dechargement et a rendre com- 
pletement inoffensives toutes les 
mines des routes et des chemins 
de fer, les champs de mines et 
toute autre ceuvre pr£dispos£e 
pour 1' interruption des routes et 
des voies de chemin de fer. 

9. Dans un delai de 8 jours a 
partir de la fin des hostilites, les 
prisonniers et les citoyens italiens 
internes en Autriche-Hongrie de- 
vront cesser tout travail, exception 
faite pour les travaux agricoles, 
en ce qui concerne les prison- 
niers et internes deja employes 
aux travaux agricoles avant le 
jour de la signature de l'Armistice. 
lis devront en tout cas etre prets 
a partir imm£diatement des que 
requete en sera faite par le Com- 
mandant en chef de Parmee 
italienne. 

10. L' Autriche - Hongrie devra 
pourvoir a la protection, a la 
surete et au ravitaillement (dont 



26 Austria-Hungary , Appendix to Armistice. 



the different commissions of the 
allied and associated governments 
charged with receiving the war 
material and with control (super- 
vision) of all kinds, whether the 
said commissions are in the ter- 
ritory to be evacuated or whether 
they are in any other part of the 
Austro-Hungarian territory. 



II. 



NAVAL CLAUSES. 

I. The hour of cessation of hos- 
tilities at sea is the same as for 
the cessation of hostilities on land 
and in the air. 

At the same hour the Austro- 
Hungarian Government shall have 
furnished to the Italian Govern- 
ment and to the allied and asso- 
ciated Governments, through the 
wireless station at Pola (which 
shall transmit it to Venice), the 
necessary indications in order to 
make known the place where 
all the Austro-Hungarian ships are 
situated as well as their move- 
ments. 

II. All the units referred to in 
Articles II and III, and which are 
to be ceded to the allied and as_ 
sociated powers, shall reach Venice 
before 8 o'clock a. m. and 3 o'clock 
p. m. of November 6. 'They shall 
embark a pilot 14 miles from the 
shore. 

Exception is made with respect 
to the monitors of the Danube, 
which shall present themselves at 
the port fixed by the commander 
in chief of the allied and associated 
forces on the Balkan front, accord- 
ing to the conditions which the 
said commander in chief shall 
deem it necessary to lay down. 



les frais seront remboursds) des 
differentes Commissions des Gou- 
vernements allies charges de re- 
cevoir le materiel de guerre et 
des controles de tout genre, soit 
dans le cas que les dites Com- 
missions se trouvent dans le ter- 
ritoire a evacuer, soit dans le cas 
qu'elles se trouvent dans toute 
autre partie du territoire austro- 
hongrois. 

II. 

CLAUSES NAVALES. 

I. L'heure de la cessation des 
hostilites sur mer est la meme que 
pour la cessation des hostilites de 
terre et d'air. 

A la meme heure le Gouverne- 
ment austro-hongrois devra avoir 
fourni au Gouvernement italien 
et aux Gouvernements associes, 
par l'entremise de la station R. T. 
de Pola, qui les transmettra a 
Venise, les indications necessaires 
pour faire connaitre le lieu oil se 
trouvent tons les batiments austro- 
hongrois ainsi que leurs mouve- 
ments. 

II. Toutes les unites, dont il 
est question au N. II et au N. Ill 
qui doivent etre cedees aux Puis- 
sances associees, devront rejoindre 
Venise entre 8 heures et 15 heures 
du 6 novembre: elles embarque- 
ront un pilote a 14 milles de la 
cote. 

Exception est faite pour les 
monitors du Danube, qui devront 
se presenter au port fixe par le 
Commandant en chef des forces 
associees sur le front balkanique, 
selon les conditions que le dit 
Commandant en chef croira de 
devoir etablir. 



Austria-Hungary, Appendix to Armistice. 27 



III. The ships which are to 
proceed to Venice are the fol- 
lowing: 

Teghethoff. Saida. 

Prinz Eugen. Novara. 

Ferdinand Max. Helgoland. 

Nine destroyers of the Tatra 
type (800 tons minimum) of more 
recent construction. 

Twelve torpedo boats of the 200- 
ton type. 

The mine-laying ship Chame- 
leon. 

Fifteen submarines built be- 
tween 1910 and 1918 and all the 
German submarines which are or 
may be in the Austro-Hungarian 
territorial waters. 

Any destruction which may be 
prearranged or which may take 
place on board the ships to be 
ceded shall be considered by the 
allied and associated Governments 
as a most grave infraction of the 
present armistice. 

The flotilla of Lake Garda shall 
be delivered to the allied and as- 
sociated powers in the port of 
Riva. 

All the ships which are not to 
be delivered to the allied and 
associated powers shall be as- 
sembled within a period of 48 
hours from the moment of cessa- 
tion of hostilities in the ports of 
Buccari and Spalato. 

IV. As regards the right to drag 
mine fields and destroy all barriers, 
the Austro-Hungarian Government 
undertakes on its honor to deliver 
within 48 hours from the cessation 
of hostilities, to the commander 
of Venice and to the commander 
of the naval army at Brindisi, the 
plans of the mine fields and bar- 
riers of the ports of Pola, Cattaro 



III. Les navires qui doivent 
faire route sur Venise sont les 
suivants: 

Teghethoff, Saida, 

Prinz Eugen, Novara, 

Ferdinand Max. Helgoland. 

Neuf contre-torpilleurs du type 
Tatra (de 800 tonnes au minimum) 
de construction plus recente. 

Douze torpilleurs du type de 
200 tonnes. 

Le navire pose mines Camaleon. 

Quinze sous marins construits 
entre le 1910 et le 1918 et tous 
les sous marins allemands qui se 
trouvent ou qui peuvent se trouver 
dans les eaux territoriales austro- 
hongroises. 

Les degats qui auraient 6te* 
predisposes ou qui auraient lieu 
a bord des navires a ceder seront 
considered par les Gouvernements 
associes comme representant une 
infraction des plus graves au pre- 
sent armistice. 

La flottille du Lac de Garda 
sera remise aux Puissances asso- 
ciees dans le port de Riva. 

Tous les navires qui ne doivent 
pas etre remis aux Puissances asso- 
ciees devront §tre reunis dans un 
terme de 48 heures a partir du 
moment de la cessation des hosti- 
lites, dans le port de Buccari et 
de Spalato. 

IV. En ce qui concerne le droit 
de draguer tous les champs de 
mines et de detruire tous les bar- 
rages, leGouvernementd'Autriche- 
Hongrie s'engage sur son honneur 
a remettre, dans un delai de 48 
heures a partir du moment ou les 
hostilites doivent cesser, au Com- 
mandant de la Place de Venise et 
au Commandant de l'Armee na- 



28 Austria-Hungary, Appendix to Armistice. 



and Fiume; and within 96 hours 
from the same time, the plans of 
mine fields and barriers of the 
Mediterranean and of Italian 
rivers and lakes, while notifying 
in addition the plan of mine fields 
and barriers laid by order of 
the German Government and 
which mav be known to it. 



In this same period of 96 hours a 
similar communication concerning 
all that relates to the Danube and 
the Black Sea shall be addressed 
to the commander of the associated 
forces of the Balkan front. 

V. The return of the merchant 
vessels which belong to the asso- 
ciated powers shall take place 
within a period of 96 hours from 
the time of cessation of hostilities, 
according to the formalities to be 
established by each allied or asso- 
ciated power, and which shall be 
brought to the knowledge of the 
Austro-Hungarian Government. 

The allied and associated powers 
reserve the right to form the com- 
mission referred to in article 5 and 
to make known to the Austro- 
Hungarian Government the de- 
tails of its operation and the place 
where it is to meet. 

VI. The naval base referred to 
in article 6 is Spalato. 

VII. The evacuation referred to 
in article 7 shall be carried out 
within the period fixed for the 
withdrawal of the troops beyond 
the armistice lines. 

No injury shall be done to any 
stationary, movable, or floating 
material in the ports. 



vale a Brindisi, les plans des 
champs de mines et des barrages 
des ports de Pola, Cattaro et Fiume 
et dans un delai de 96 heures a 
partir du meme instant, les plans 
des champs de mioes et des bar- 
rages de la Mediterranee des 
fleuves et des lacs italiens, en 
notifiant en plus le plan des 
champs de mines et des barrages 
poses par ordre du Gouvernement 
allemand et qui seraient a sa con- 
naissance. 

Dans ce meme delai de 96 heures 
une communication semblable, 
concernant tout ce qui regarde le 
Danube et la mer Noire, devra 
etre adresse au Commandant des 
forces associees du front Balka- 
nique. 

V. La restitution des navires de 
commerce appartenant aux Puis- 
sances associees devra s'effectuer 
dans l'espace de 96 heures a partir 
du moment de la cessation des 
hostilites, selon les modalites qui 
seront etablies par chaque Puis- 
sance associee et qui viendront 
portees a connaissance du Gouver- 
nement austro-hongrois. 

Les Puissances associees se re- 
servent de constituer la Commis- 
sion dont il est question a Particle 
V et de porter a connaissance du 
Gouvernement austro-hongrois le 
detail de son fonctionnement et 
le lieu ou elle devra se reunir. 

VI. La base navale dont il est 
question a Particle VI est Spalato. 

VII. L' evacuation dont il est 
question a Particle VII devra 
s'executer dans le delai fixe pour 
la retraite des troupes au-dela des 
lignes d' armistice. 

Aucun dommage ne devra etre 
porte a tout matenel fixe, mobile 
ou flottant existant dans les ports 



Austria-Hungary, Appendix to Armistice. 



29 



The evacuation may take place 
through the canals of the lagoon, 
making use of the Austro-Hun- 
garian draft which may be brought 
from outside. 

VIII. The occupation referred 
to in article 8 shall take place 
within a period of 82 hours from 
the moment of cessation of hos- 
tilities. 

The Austro-Hungarian authori- 
ties shall guarantee the safety of 
the ships transporting the per- 
sonnel intended for taking posses- 
sion of Pola, the islands, and the 
other places contemplated in the 
armistice for the army. 

The Austro-Hungarian Govern- 
ment shall give the necessary 
orders to the end that the ships of 
the allied and associated nations 
proceeding toward Pola may find, 
14 miles from the place, pilots who 
are capable of indicating the safest 
route to be followed. 

IX. Any injury which may be 
caused to the persons and property 
of the allied and associated powers 
shall be considered as a very grave 
infraction of the present armistice. 

The undersigned plenipotentia- 
ries, duly authorized, declare that 
they approved the above-men- 
tioned conditions. 

November 3, 1918. 

The representatives of the 
supreme command of the 
Austro-Hungarian army: 
Signed: 
F. Victor Weber Edler von 

Webenau. 
Karl Schneller. 

Y. VON LlCHTENSTEIN. 

J. V. Nyekhegyi. 

ZWIERKOWSKI. 

Victor Baron von Seiller. 
Kamilio Run CERA. 



L'evacuation pourra s'effectuer 
a travers les canaux de la Lagune 
en faisant usage des embarcations 
austro-hongroises qui pourront etre 
amenees du dehors. 

VIII. L'occupation dont il est 
question au N. VIII aura lieu dans 
le delai de 48 heures a partir du 
moment de la cessation des hos- 
tility. 

Les autorites austro-hongroises 
doivent garantir la surety des 
navires transportant le personnel 
destine a prendre possession de 
Pola, des iles et autres lieux prevus 
dans l'armistice pour l'armee. 

Le Gouvemement austro- hon- 
grois donnera les dispositions n£- 
cessaires pour que les navires des 
nations associees se dirigeant sur 
Pola trouvent a 14 milles de la 
Place les pilotes capables d'indi- 
quer la route plus sure a suivre. 



IX. Tout dommage qui vien- 
drait apporte aux personnes et aux 
biens des Puissances associees sera 
regarde comme une tres grave 
infraction au present Armistice. 

Les plenipotentiaries soussignes, 
dument autorises, declarent d'ap- 
prouver les conditions sus-indi- 
quees. 

3 Novembre 1918. 

Les representants du Com- 
mandement Supreme de l'Ar- 
mee Austro-Hongroise: 
Signes: 

Victor Weber Edler von 
Webenau. 

Karl Schneller. 

Y. von Liechtenstein. 

J. V. Nyekhegyi. 

Zwierkowski. 

Victor Freiherr von Seiller. 

KAMTLLO RlTGGERA. 



30 



Hungary, Armistice. 



The representatives of the 
supreme command of the 
Italian Army: 

Sfgned: 
Lieut. Gen. Pietro Badoglio. 
Maj. Gen. Scipione Scipiont. 
Col. Tullio Marchetti. 
Col. Pietro Gazzera. 
Col. Pietro Maravigna. 
Col. Alberto Pariani. 
Naval Capt. Francesco 
Accinni. 



Les representants du Com- 
mandement Supreme de l'Ar- 
mee Italienne: 
Signes: 
ten. gen. Pietro Badoglio. 

MAGG. GEN. SCIPIONE SciPIONI. 

colonn. tullio marchetti. 
colonn. pletro gazzera. 
colonn. Pietro Maravigna. 
colonn. Alberto Pariani. 
cap. vasc. Francisco Ac- 

CTNNI. 



Military Convention relative to the Armistice in Hungary, signed at 
Belgrade, November 13, 1918. 



1. The Hungarian Government 
will withdraw all troops north of 
a line drawn through the upper 
valley of the Szamos, Bistritz, 
Maros-Vasarhely, the river Maros 
to its junction with the Theiss, 
Maria-Theresiopel, Baja, Funf- 
kirchen (these places not being 
occupied by Hungarian troops), 
course of the Drave, until it coin- 
cides with the frontier of Slavonia- 
Croatia. 

The evacuation to be carried 
out in 8 days, the Allies to be 
entitled to occupy the evacuated 
territory on the conditions laid 
down by the General Commander 
in Chief of the Allied Armies. 
Civil Administration will remain 
in the hands of the Government. 

In actual fact only the police 
and Gendarmerie will be retained 
in the evacuated zone, being 
indispensable to the maintenance 
of order, and also such men as are 
required to ensure the safety of 
the railways. 

2. Demobilization of Hungarian 
naval and military forces. An 
exception will be made in the 
case of six infantry divisions aud 
two cavalry divisions, required 



I. Le Gouvernement hongrois 
retire toutes ses troupes au Nord 
de la ligne marquee par la haute 
vallee du Grand Szamos, Bistritz, 
Maros (village), le Maros jusqu'a 
son confluent avec la Tissa, Maria- 
theresippol, Baja, Funfkirchen, 
ces localites etant non occupees 
par les troupes hongroises, le cours 
de la Drave jusqu'au raccord de 
cette rivere avec la frontiere de 
Slavonie-Croatie. L' evacuation 
sera terminee dans un delai de 
huit jours. 

Les Allies occuperont de plein 
droit la region evacuee dans les 
conditions que fixera le General 
Commandant en chef les armees 
alliees. L' Administration civile 
y restera entre les mains du Gou- 
vernement actuel. 

Seules seront maintenues dans la 
zone evacuee les forces de police et 
la gendarmerie indispensables au 
maintien de l'ordre ainsi que celles 
qui sont chargees d' assurer la 
securite des voies ferrees. 

II. Demobilisation de l'armee 
hongroise, de terre et de mer, ex- 
ception faite de six divisions 
d'infanterie et de deux divisions 
de cavalerie destinees a, assurer 



Hungary, Armistice. 



81 



for the maintenance of internal 
order and in the case of small 
sections of police mentioned in 
paragraph 1. 

3. The Allies to have the right 
of occupying all places and strate- 
gic points, which may be perma- 
nently fixed by the General Com- 
mander in Chief of the Allied 
Armies. 

The Allied troops to be allowed 
to pass through or to remain in 
any part of Hungary. 

The Allies to have permanent 
right of use, for military purposes 
of all rolling stock and shipping 
belonging to the State or to private 
individuals resident in Hungary, 
also of all draught animals. 



4. The rolling stock and railway 
staff usually employed in the 
occupied territory will remain 
(see paragraph 1), and a reserve 
of 2,000 wagons and 100 locomo- 
tives (normal gauge), and 600 
wagons and 50 locomotives (nar- 
row gauge), will also be handed 
over within the month to the 
General Commander in Chief. 
These will be for the use of the 
Allied troops, and to compensate 
for the deficiency of material from 
Serbia due to the war. Some por- 
tion of this material could be 
levied from Austria. The figures 
are approximate. 

5. The ships and crews, usually 
employed in the service of the 
occupied territory will remain 
in place. 

In addition six monitors will 
be surrendered to the Allies 
immediately at Belgrade. 

The rest of the Danube flotilla 
will be assembled in one of the 



l'ordre interieur et des fractions 
de police mentionnees au para- 
graphe I. 

III. Droit d'occupation par les 
Allies de toutes localites ou tous 
points strategiques qu'aura le 
droit de fixer en permanence le 
General Commandant en chef les 
armees alliees. 

Droit de passage et de sejour 
pour les troupes allies sur toute 
l'etendue du territoire hongrois. 

Droit permanent d' utilisation 
pour les besoins militaires des Allies 
de tout le materiel roulant sur 
routes et voies ferrees et materiel 
navigant appartenant a l'Etat et 
aux particuliers habitant la Hon- 
grie. Dito pour les animaux de 
trait et de bat. 

IV. Le personnel et le materiel 
de chemin de fer normalement 
affectes au service du territoire 
occupe (voir paragraph e I)resteront 
sur place: en outre, une reserve de 
2,000 wagons et de 100 locomotives 
(voie normale) et de 600 wagons et 
50 locomotives (voie etroite) seront 
livres dans un delai d'un mois au 
General en chef pour les besoins 
des troupes alliees et pour compen- 
ser les deficits de materiel serbe 
provenant du fait de la guerre. 
Une partie de ce materiel pourra 
etre preleve sur l'Autriche.- — Ces 
chiffres sont approximatifs. 

V. Le personnel et le materiel 
navigants, affectes normalement au 
service du territoire occup6, reste- 
ront sur place. 

En outre, six monitors seront 
livres immediatement a Belgrade 
aux Allies. 

Le reste de la flottille du Danube 
sera reuni dans un des ports du 



32 



Hungary j Armistice. 



Danube ports, to be appointed 
later by the General Commander 
in Chief, and will be disarmed 
there. A levy of 10 passenger 
vessels, 10 tugs, and 60 lighters 
will be made on this flotilla as 
soon as possible for the use of the 
Allied troops, to compensate for 
the deficiency of material from 
Serbia, due to the war. The 
figures are approximate. 

6. Within 15 days a detachment 
of 3,000 men from the railway 
technical troops are to be placed 
at the disposal of the General 
Commander in Chief supplied 
with the material necessary to 
repair the Serbian railways. These 
figures are approximate. 



7. Within 15 days a detachment 
of sappers of the Telegraph branch 
are to be placed at the disposal 
of the General Commander in 
Chief, together with such trans- 
port material as he may deem 
necessary for establishing tele- 
graphic and telephone communi- 
cations with Serbia. 

8. Within one month, 25,000 
horses are to be placed at the dis- 
posal of the General Commander 
in Chief, together with such trans- 
port material as he may deem 
necessary. These figures are ap- 
proximate. 

9. Arms and war material to be 
deposited at places appointed by 
the General Commander in Chief. 
A portion of this material will be 
levied for the purpose of supply- 
ing units to be placed under the 
orders of the General Commander 
in Chief. 



Danube qui sera designe ult£- 
rieurement par le General Com- 
mandant en chef pour y dtre 
desarme. Sur cette nottille, un 
prelevement de dix bateaux a 
passagers, dix remorqueurs et 
soixante chalands sera fait dans le 
plus bref delai pour les besoins des 
armees alliees et pour compenser 
les deficits de materiel navigant 
serbe provenant du fait de la 
guerre. — Ces chiffres sont approxi- 
matifs. 

VI. Mise a la disposition du 
General Commandant en chef dans 
un delai de quinze jours d'un 
detachement de trois mille hommes 
de troupe de chemin de f er pour- 
vus du materiel necessaire pour 
la reparation des voies ferries 
en Serlie. — Ces chiffres sont ap- 
proximatifs. 

VII. Mise a la disposition du 
General Commandant en chef dans 
un delai de quinze jours de de- 
tachements de sapeurs telegra- 
phistes pourvus du materiel neces- 
saire pour le retablissement des 
communications telephoniques et 
telegraphiques en Serbie. 

VIII. Mise a la disposition du 
General Commandant en chef 
dans un delai d'un mois de 25,000 
chevaux et du materiel de trans- 
port qu'il jugera necessaire. — Ces 
chiffres sont approximatifs. 

IX. Depots des armes et du 
materiel de guerre en des points 
qui seront fixes par le General 
Commandant en chef. Une partie 
de ce materiel sera prelevee pour 
la constitution d' unites placees 
sous les ordres du General Com- 
mandant en chef. 



Hungary, Armistice. 



33 



10. Immediate liberation of all 
Allied prisoners of war and in- 
terned civilians, who will be col- 
lected at places convenient for 
their dispatch by rail; they will 
there receive directions as to time 
and place of repatriation, accord- 
ing to the orders issued by the 
General Commander in Chief. 
Hungarian prisoners of war to be 
provisionally retained. 

11. A delay of 15 days is granted 
for the passage of German troops 
through Hungary and their quar- 
tering meanwhile, dating from the 
signing of the Armistice by Gen- 
eral Diaz (4th November, 3 p. m.). 

Postal and telegraphic communi- 
cation with Germany will only be 
permitted under the military con- 
trol of the Allies. The Hungarian 
Government undertakes to allow 
no military telegraphic communi- 
cation with Germany. 

12. Hungary will facilitate the 
supplying of the Allied troops of 
occupation; requisitions will be 
allowed on condition that they 
are not arbitrary, and that they 
are paid for at current rates. 

13. The situation of all Austro- 
Hungarian mines in the Danube 
and the Black Sea must be com- 
municated immediately to the 
General Commander in Chief. 

Further, the Hungarian Govern- 
ment undertakes to stop the pas- 
sage of all floating mines sown in 
the Danube upstream from the 
Hungarian and Austrian frontier 
and to remove all those actually 
in Hungarian waters. 
116506—19 3 



X. Liberation immediate des 
prisonniers de guerre et internes 
civils allies qui seront rassembl^s 
sur les points convenables d'em- 
barquement en chemin de fer d'ou 
ils seront diriges pour §tre rapatri£s 
sur les points et aux dates fixes par 
le General Commandant en chef. 
Les prisonniers de guerre hongrois 
sont conserves provisoirement. 

XI. Un delai de quinze jours est 
accord e pour le passage et le sta- 
tionnement de troupes allemandes 
a travers la Hongrie, a partir du 
jour de la signature de 1' armistice 
du General Diaz (4 novembre, 15 
heures) . 

Les communications postales et 
telegraphiques avec l'Allemagne 
n'auront lieu que sous le controle 
militaire des Allies. Le Gou- 
vernement hongrois s' engage a ne 
laisser envoyer en Allemagne au- 
cune communication tel^graphi- 
que militaire avec ce pays. 

XII. La Hongrie facilitera le 
ravitaillement des troupes alliees 
d' occupation. Les requisitions 
sont permises a condition qu'elles 
ne soient pas arbitraires: elles se- 
ront payees au prix courant. 

XIII. Tous les emplacements 
de mines austro-hongroises dans le 
Danube et dans la Mer Noire dev- 
ront §tre communiques imm^diate- 
ment au General Commandant en 
chef. 

Le Gouvernement hongrois s' en- 
gage de plus a arreter les mines 
flottantes lancees dans le Danube, 
en amont de sa frontiere avec 
PAutriche et a enlever toutes 
celles qui si trouvent actuelle- 
ment dans ses propres eaux. 



34 



Hungary, Armistice. 



14. The Hungarian postal serv- 
ice, telegraphs, telephones, and 
railways will be placed under 
Allied control. 



15. An Allied representative 
will be attached to the Hungarian 
Ministry of Supplies in order to 
safeguard Allied interests. 

16. Hungary is under an obliga- 
gation to cease all relations with 
Germany and stringently to forbid 
the passage of German troops to 
Eoumania. 



17. The Allies shall not inter- 
fere with the internal administra- 
tion of affairs in Hungary. 

18. Hostilities between Hun- 
gary and the Allies are at an end. 

Two copies made 13th Novem- 
ber, 1918, at 11.15 p. m. at Bel- 
grade. 

Signed for the Allies by the del- 
egates of the General Commander 
in Chief. 

VoiVODE MlCHITCH. 

General Henrys. 
Signed for Hungary by the del- 
egate of the Hungarian Govern- 
ment. 

Bela Linder. 



XIV. Le service des postes de* 
T. S. F. et des communications- 
telephoniques et telegraphiques 
ainsi que le service des chemins de 
fer hongrois seront places sous le 
controle des Allies. 

XV. Un representant des Allies 
sera attache au Ministre hongrois 
charge des approvisionnements 
arm de sauvegarder les interets 
allies. 

XVI. Obligation pour la Hon- 
grie de cesser toutes relations avec 
l'Allemagne et d'interdire tous 
transports de troupes et de muni- 
tions sauf autorisation speciale du 
General en chef, a destination des 
troupes allemandes en Roumanie.. 

XVII. Les Allies n'interviend- 
ront pas dans Tadministration in- 
terieure de l'Etat hongrois. 

XVIII. Les hostilites en lestre 
allies et la Hongrie ont cesse. 

Fait en double le 13 novembre 
1918, a 23 h. 15 a Belgrade, avec 
la rectification de l'en-tete et des- 
paragraphes XI et XVIII. 

Pour les Allies: 
Les Delegues du General Comman- 
dant en chef, 
Signe: Le Voivode Michitch. 
Le General Henrys. 
Pour la Hongrie: 
Le Delegue du Gouvernement hon- 
grois, 
Signe: Bela Linder. 



BRAZIL. 

Decree No. 12533 of June 22, 1917, revoking neutrality. 1 

The President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil: 
In virtue of the right conferred upon him by No. 14 of article 48 of 
the Brazilian Constitution and of tne decision of Congress set forth in 
No. 2 of article 2 of Decree No. 3266 of June 1, current, I hereby declare 



1 See note, June 4, 1917, Naval War College, International Law Documents, 1917, 
p. 64. 



Brazil, Revocation of Neutrality. 



35 



to be without effect Decrees Nos. 11038 of August 4, 11066 of August 
12, 11092 of August 24, 1914; 11984 of March 10 and 12171 of August 29, 
1916, for the observance of our complete neutrality in the war of France, 
Russia, Great Britain, Japan, Portugal, and Italy against the German 
Empire, and revoke any dispositions to the contrary. 

BULGARIA. 

Circular announcing defensive sea area, Bay o/Bourgas, September 5, 19 16. 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Public Worship, 

Sofia, September 5, 1916 ~ 
Circular Note. 
No. 1197. 

The Royal Ministry of Foreign Affairs has the honor to inform the 
legation of the United States of America that the entry and the exit of 
the Bay of Bourgas has been forbidden until further orders to all 
ships, without exception, whatever flag they fly. 

This measure is imposed by considerations of highest importance. 
To the Legation of the United States of America, 
Sofia. 

Terms of armistice signed with Allied Powers, September 29, 1918. r 



I. Immediate evacuation, in 
conformity with an arrangement 
to be concluded, of the territories 
still occupied in Greece and Serbia 
There shall be removed from these 
territories neither cattle, grain, nor 
stores of any kind. No damage 
shall be done on departure. The 
Bulgarian Administration shall 
continue to exercise its functions 
in the parts of Bulgaria at present 
occupied by the Allies. 

II. Immediate demobilisation 
of all the Bulgarian armies, save 
for the maintenance on a war foot- 
ing of a group of all arms, compris- 
ing three divisions of sixteen bat- 
talions each and four regiments of 
cavalry, which shall be thus dis- 
posed: — two divisions for the de- 
fence of the Eastern frontier of 

1 Hostilities ceased 



I. Evacuation immediate con- 
formement a un arrangement a 
inter venir des territoires encore 
occupes en ^rece et en Serbie. II 
ne sera enleve de ces territoires ni 
betail, ni grain, ni appro visionne- 
ment quelconque. Aucun degat 
ne sera fait au depart. L' Adminis- 
tration bulgare continuera a fonc- 
tionner dans les partes de Bulgarie 
actuellement occupees par les 
Allies. 

II. Demobilisation immediate 
de toutes les armees bulgares, sauf 
en ce qui concerne le maintien en 
etat de combattre d'un groupe de 
toutes armes comprenant trois 
divisions de seize batallions cha- 
cune, quatre regiments de cava- 
lerie qui seront affectes, deux 
divisions a la defense de la fron- 

noon, Oct. 30, 1918. 



36 



Bulgaria , Armistice, 



Bulgaria and of the Dobrudja, and 
the 148th Division to the protec- 
tion of the railways. 

III. Deposit, at points to be in- 
dicated by the High Command of 
the Armies of the East, of the arms, 
ammunition, and military vehicles 
belonging to the demobilised 
units which shall thereafter be 
stored by the Bulgarian authori- 
ties, under the control of the 
Allies. 

The horses likewise will be 
handed over to the Allies. 

IV. Restoration to Greece of the 
material of the IVth Greek Army 
-Corps, which was taken from the 
Greek Army at the time of the 
•occupation of Eastern Macedonia, 
in so far as it has not been sent to 
Germany. 

V. The units of the Bulgarian 
troops at the present time west of 
the meridian of Uskub, and be- 
longing to the Xlth German army, 
shall lay down their arms and shall 
be considered until further notice 
to be prisoners of watt. The offi- 
cers shall retain their arms. 

VI. Employment by the Allied 
armies of Bulgarian prisoners of 
war in the East until the conclu- 
sion of peace, without reciprocity 
as regards Allied prisoners of war. 
These latter shall be handed over 
without delay to the Allied au- 
thorities, and deported civilians 
shall be entirely free to return to 
their homes. 

VII. Germany and Austria- 
Hungary shall have a period of 
four weeks to withdraw their 
troops and military organisations. 
Within the same period the diplo- 
matic and consular representa- 
tives of the Central Powers, as also 
their nationals, must leave the 



tiere est de la Bulgarie et de la 
Dobroudja, 148° Division pour la 
garde des voies ferrees. 

III. Depot en des points a 
designer par le Haut Commande- 
ment des Armees d'Orient, des 
armes, des munitions, vehicules 
militaires appartenant aux ele- 
ments demobilises, qui seront 
ensuite emmagasines par les soins 
des autorites bulgares et sous le 
contrdle des Allies. 

Les chevaux seront egalement 
remis aux Allies. 

IV. Remise a la Grece du mate- 
riel du IV° Corps d'Armee grec 
pris a l'armee grecque au moment 
de l'occupation de la Macedoine 
orientale, en tant qu'il n'a pas ete 
envoye en Allemagne. 

V. Les elements de troupes bul- 
gares actuellement a l'ouest du 
meridien d' Uskub et appartenant 
a la XI ° Armee allemande depo- 
seront les armes et seront consi- 
deres jusqu'a nouvel ordre comme 
prisonniers de guerre; les officiers 
conserveront leurs armes. 

VI. Emploi jusqu'a la paix par 
les Armees alliees des prisonniers 
bulgares en Orient sans reciprocite 
en ce qui concerne les prisonniers 
de guerre allies. Ceux-ci seront 
remis sans delai aux autorites al- 
liees et les deportes civils seront 
completement libres de rentrer 
dans leurs foyers. 

VII. L' Allemagne etPAutriche- 
Hongrie auront un delai de quatre 
semaines pour retirer leurs troupes 
et leurs organes militaires. Dans 
le meme delai, devront quitter le 
territoire du Royaume les repr6- 
sentants diplomatiques et consu- 
lages des Puissances centrales 



Bulgaria j Armistice. 



37 



territory of the kingdom. Orders 
for the cessation of hostilities shall 
be given by the signatories of the 
present convention. 
Signed : 

General Franchet 

d'Esperey. 
Andre Liapchew. 
E. T. Loukof. 
General Headquarters, 

September 29, 1918, 10.50 p. m. 



Military convention regulating 
the conditions for the suspension 
of hostilities between the allied 
powers and Bulgaria. September 
29, 1918, 10:50 p. m. 

secret articles. 

1. The eventual passage of the 
allied military forces on the terri- 
tory of Bulgaria as well as the 
utilization of the railroads, roads, 
rivers, and ports will be the object 
of a special convention between 
the Bulgarian government and the 
High Command of the Army of the 
East. Negotiations to this effect, 
will commence after 8 days at 
most. They will concern also the 
control of telephone, telegraph, 
and radio stations. 

2. A certain number of strategic 
points will be occupied in the 
interior of Bulgarian territory by 
the great allied powers. This 
occupation will be provisional and 
will serve purely as a guaranty. 
It will give no occasion for coer- 
cion nor for arbitrary requisition. 
The General in chief of the armies 
gives assurance that, unless for 
special circumstances, Sofia will 
not be occupied. 

3. The General in Chief reserves 
the right to exact the absolute 



ainsi que leurs nationaux. Lea 
ordres pour la cessation des hos- 
tilit^s seront donnes par les signa- 
taires de la presente convention. 
Signed 

General Franchet 

d'Esperey. 
Andre Liapchew. 
E. T. Loukof. 
Grand Quartier general, 
le 29 septembre, 1918, 

22 heures 50. 

Convention militaire reglant les con- 
ditions de la suspension des hosti- 
lites entre les Puissances alliees et 
la Bulgarie. Le 29 septembre. 
1918, 22 h. 50. 

articles secrets. 

1° Le passage eventuel des forces 
militaires alliees sur le territoire 
bulgare ainsi que 1' utilisation des 
voies ferrees, routes, voies filuviales 
et ports feront l'objet d'une con- 
vention speciale entre le Gou- 
vernement bulgare et le Haut 
Commandement de l'Armee d' Ori- 
ent. Des negociations, a cet effet, 
commenceroni dans un delai de 8 
jours au plus. Elles concerneront 
aussi le controle du telephone, des 
telegraphes et des stations de T.. 
S. F. 

2° Un certain nombre de points 
strategiques seront occupes a l'in- 
terieur du territoire bulgare par les 
grandes Puissances alliees. Cette 
occupation sera provisoire et ser- 
vira purement de garantie. Elle 
ne donnera pas lieu a coercition ni 
a requisition arbitraire. Le Gene- 
ral en chef des armees donne 1' as- 
surance qu'a moins de circon- 
stances particulieres Sofia ne sera 
pas occupee. 

3° Le General en chef se reserve 
le droit d'exiger la cessation abso- 



38 



China, Armed Merchant Vessels. 



cessation of all relations between 
Bulgaria and its former Allies in 
case of necessity. 

4. Bulgarian ports will be 
opened to allied and neutral 
vessels. 

Signed : 

General Franchet D'Esperey, 

Andre Liaptchew. 

General Loukoff, * 



lue de toute relation entre la Bul- 
garie et ses anciens Allies en cas de 
necessite. 

4° Ouverture des ports bulgarea 
aux navires allies et neutres. 
Signe: 
General Franchet D'Espe- 

rey. 
Andre Liaptchew. 
General Loukoff, 



CHINA. 

Regulations for sojourn of armed merchant vessels, 1917 . 
[Hongkong Daily Press, Mar. 23, 1917.] 

A report states that the Chinese Government has drawn up the 
following regulations, to which armed merchantmen of all the bellig- 
erents entering Chinese ports shall be subject: 

(1) Any belligerent merchantman which is armed specifically for 
the purpose of self-defense shall be permitted to enter and depart 
from any Chinese port to which the said merchantman had previous 
regular sailings. 

(2) On entering the port the captain of such armed merchantman 
must declare to the customshouse of the port that the armament of 
the ship is merely for self-defense. 

(3) After report to the customshouse, the authorities thereof shall 
send officers together with the naval officers of the port to visit the 
vessel and inspect the armament on -board. Whether the vessel is 
armed only for self-defense or not shall be determined according to the 
following circumstances provided : 

(a) The number of guns on board the ship, their caliber and ammuni- 
tion and other armament are adequate only for self-defense. 

(6) The number of officers and crew of the ship does not show a 
marked increase over normal times. 

(c) The port the ship touches is one to which the ship has been 
engaged in trading or had regular sailings. 

(d) The food supply on board the ship consists only of such quantity 
as would be just sufficient to cover the voyage to the next port it is 
destined to touch. 

(e) Goods on board the ship are not suitable for warships or for 
hostile purposes. 

(/) Passengers on board the ship are not in organized units nor of 
such quality as to be organized into military or naval forces under 
ordinary circumstances. 

After the inspection of the customs and naval authorities, a report 
on the above circumstances should be made to the Government and 
the latter thereby shall determine whether the vessel is an armed 
merchantman or a warship according to the circumstances under 
which it is armed. 



China, Prize Regulations. 39 

(4) Before the departure of any belligerent armed merchantman the 
■consul of the country to which the vessel belongs at that port should 
dispatch a document to the Chinese authorities to guarantee that the 
arms carried by the vessel are only for self-defense. 

(5) The Government shall have independent power to determine 
the nature of the arms carried by an armed merchantman whether 
they are for self-defense or for warlike purpose against their enemy. 

(6) The regulations set forth above shall be subject to revision at 
.uny time by the Chinese Government. 

Prize Regulations, 1917 . 

Chapter I. — General provisions. 

1. Chinese warships during the time of war with the enemy shall 
have the right to visit, search, and capture merchant vessels at sea in 
accordance with the provisions of these regulations. 

2. No visit, search, or capture of a merchant vessel shall be made in 
the territorial waters of a neutral country or the waters of a territory 
which by international treaty stipulation is neutralized. 

3. Ships regarded as of enemy character in the present regulations 
shall be those as follows: 

(a) Ships flying the enemy flags. 

(b) Ships flying neutral flags in accordance with law but the whole 
or a portion of the owners of the ship have domicile in enemy countries. 

(c) Ships employed by the enemy countries. 

(d) Enemy ships being transferred to persons having domicile in the 
Republic or other neutral countries during the war or in anticipation 
of the war, without the transfer fully completed and having no proof 
to show the bona fide of the deal. 

4. Enemy goods are as follows: 

(a) Goods owned by persons having domicile in the enemy countries. 

(6) Goods owned by persons having domicile in the Republic or 
other neutral countries and consigned to enemy countries or subjects 
■during the war or in anticipation of it. 

(c) Enemy goods being transferred to persons having domicile in 
the Republic or other neutral countries during the war or in anticipa- 
tion of it without the transfer being fully concluded and having no 
proof to show the bona fide of the deal. 

5. "Domicile" means a certain place permanently resided in by a 
person. 

In case the party concerned is a juristic person, the place where its 
head office is situated shall be considered its domicile. 

6. The term "enemy countries" shall be equally applied to terri- 
tories being occupied by the enemy troops. 

7. The papers of a ship shall include the following documents: 
(a) Certificates denoting the nationality of the ship. 

■(b) Passport. 

(c) Agreement for the construction of the ship. 



40 China, Prize Regulations. 

(d) Agreement for chartering the ship. 

(e) Deeds for transfer of the ship in sale. 

(/) The list of the names of the officers and crew on board the ship- 

(g) The voyage journal. 

(h) The log book. 

(i) The daily records. 

(j) Passports for leaving a port. 

(Jc) Agreements for the employment of the officers and crew of the- 
ship. 

(Z) The health papers. 

(m) Certificates for the consignment of goods on board. 

(n) Receipts for the goods consigned. 

(o) The list of goods shipped. 

Ships are not necessary to produce all the above-mentioned papers 
when visited. Only those the ship is required to keep in accordance 
with the law of the country to which the vessel belongs are necessary. 

8. The contraband of war are the articles which are mentioned in thfr 
regulations governing the contraband of war. 

Regulations governing the contraband of war shall be promulgated 
separately. 

9. Combatants of the enemy countries are those who are in active 
military service of the enemy countries. 

10. " Blockade" means the effective prohibition of communication 
of an enemy port with the outside world by a fleet or squadron of ships 
having the adequate force to enforce the same. 

"To run blockade" means the attempt of vessels to get through the 
blockaded zone, for which a notice has already been issued. 

11. ' ' Prize ' ' means the arti cles seized, adjudicated by the prize court 
and confiscated. 

Chapter II. — Visit. 

12. The right of visit shall be exercised by the warships toward ves- 
sels of the following classes: 

(a) Ships flying the flag of the Republic of China or neutral flags but 
being suspected of enemy character. 

(6) Vessels of the Republic of China being suspected oi holding com- 
mercial intercourse with the enemy countries without the permission 
of the Government. 

(c) Ships of the Republic of China or of other neutral countries being 
suspected of having contraband of war or enemy combatants on board. 

(d) Ships of the Republic or other neutral countries being suspected, 
of having run the blockade. 

13. The captain of a warship can order such ships of suspicious char- 
acter to stop and demand the right of visit. 

Flag signals and whistle shall be used to order the ship to heave to 
in daytime. In night, white lanterns shall be used instead. 



China, Prize Regulations. 41 

In foul weather, or if the ship fails to obey the order after the flag and 
whistle signals, two blank cartridges shall be fired by the warship. 

In failure of complying with the order of the warship after the latter 
has discharged blank cartridges, cartridges with shots shall be fired, 
first at its sail , and then at the body of the ship, if it continues to pay 
no heed to the warning. 

14. When a vessel is brought to a standstill in obedience to the orde r 
of the warship, the captain of the latter should send a witness, an officer, 
and two sailors to proceed to the vessel to conduct the visit. 

15. On boarding the vessel the visiting party should request the cap- 
tain of the vessel with due ceremony for examining the papers. Force 
may be used when the captain of the vessel refuses to comply with the 
request. 

16. After examining the papers of the vessel, if the officer in charge 
of the visit finds that the vessel is not of suspicious character under 
any of the circumstances provided under article 12, he should set the 
vessel free at the command of the captain of the vessel. 

17. On leaving the vessel the boarding officer should enter in the 
log book of the vessel the place and date of the visit and the name of 
the captain of the warship and his own name. 

18. No visit shall be made on board of vessels under the convoy of 
the warships of neutral countries; but upon the request of the captain 
of the warship the captain of the neutral warship acting as convoy shall 
give a detailed statement regarding the nature of the vessel under his 
convoy, the cargoes on board, and its destination, and also produce a 
conclusive proof that the vessel is not of suspicious character under 
any of the circumstances as provided under article 12. 

19. Inspection shall be made along the original course of the ship 
concerned. 

Chapter III. — The search. 

20. When an officer on board a vessel in a visit finds the vessel is of 
suspicious character after examining its papers, he shall have the right 
to search the vessel. 

21. The search shall be conducted together with the captain of the- 
vessel or one acting as his representative. 

Places or articles which are either sealed or locked shall be opened 
by the captain of the vessel or the one acting as his representative. In 
case the captain or his representative refuses to comply with the order 
of the searching party to open such articles or places, the latter can 
take necessary measures in regard to the opening of such places or 
articles. 

22. If the officer conducting the search of a vessel finds that the 
vessel is not liable to capture after the search has been made, he should 
set the vessel free at the command of the captain of the warship. 

23. The measures provided under articles 16, 17, and 18 shall be- 
applicable to the conducting of a search of a vessel. 



42 China, Prize Regulations. 

24. After the search is conducted, if the boarding officer finds that 
the ship is liable to capture, he should report the case to the captain 
of the warship and the measures provided under the articles in Chapter 
IV regarding the capture of a vessel shall be adopted. 

Chapter IV. — The capture. 

25. Vessels of the following classes shall be liable to capture: 

I. Enemy ships. But the following ships which do not participate 
in hostile campaigns shall be exempt from capture in spite of their 
enemy character: 

(a) Boats engaged in coast fisheries and local trade as well as their 
appliances and cargo. 

(6) Ships engaged exclusively on a voyage of scientific discovery, 
philanthropy, and religious mission. 

(c) Hospital ships provided in the Hague Naval Convention. 

(d) Cartel-ships. 

II. Ships of the Republic of China engaged in commercial intercourse 
with the enemy without the permission of the Republican Government. 

III. The following ships are liable to capture, whether they are 
under a neutral flag or under the flag of the Republic of China: 

(a) Ships carrying contraband of war or hostile persons. 
(h) Ships in violation of blockade. 

(c) Ships engaged in giving information to the enemy or partici- 
pating in any hostile acts in the interest of the enemy. 

(d) Ships under the convoy of the enemy flag. 

(e) Ships having no necessary papers or giving fraudulent papers or 
having destroyed, concealed, defaced their papers. 

26. After having decided to capture the ship, the captain of the 
warship shall communicate to the captain of the vessel under capture 
the reason or reasons for which his vessel is liable to capture and at the 
same time dispatch a detachment of sailors under the command of an 
officer to proceed to the captured ship and take possession of the same. 

27. After having taken possession of the captured vessel, the captain 
-of the warship shall carry out the following measures: 

(a) The papers of the ship shall be taken off the ship and kept in 
safety. 

(6) To examine the cargo and other valuable articles on board the 
captured vessel and make an invoice of the same. 

(c) The hatchway of the captured vessel leading to its cargo store 
shall be locked and sealed. 

28. With the exception of officers and crew of the captured ship 
participating in any hostile acts, the passengers and the crew shall be 
subject to the following treatment: 

(a) The captain, officers, and crew of enemy nationality shall be 
•considered as prisoners of war, but they shall be released, provided 
rthat they give a written statement that they shall not be engaged in any 



China, Prize Regulations. 43 

-service directly or indirectly in connection with the war in the inter- 
ests of the enemy countries as long as the war lasts. 

(b) If the captain or officers of the vessel are of neutral nationality 
they shall not be considered as prisoners of war, provided that they 
give a written statement that they shall not be engaged in service on 
board of enemy ships during the war. 

(c) The crew or other hands of neutral nationality on board the 
captured vessel shall not be considered as prisoners of war. 

29. With the exception of the prisoners of war and those necessary 
for witnesses, all the passengers on board the captured ship shall be 
permitted to land at the nearest port. 

30. All mails on board the captured ships shall be forwarded to their 
destination, except the mails sent from or destined to a blockaded port. 

31. After the capture the captain of the captor shall make detailed 
report on the circumstances under which the capture was carried out 
to the Minister of Navy. 

32. After the capture, if the captain of the captor discovers circum- 
stances which do not justify his action, he should set the vessel free at 
once. 

33. The captain of the captor after the capture shall order the officer 
in possession of the captured ship to bring the latter to a port where the 
prize court of the Republic is situated together with all the papers of 
the vessel, for adjudication. 

34. When the captain of the captor finds goods of perishable nature 
: among the cargoes on board the captured vessel, which are not adequate 
to stand a long journey, he should order one of his officers to make a 
report, together with the captain of the captured vessel to the prize 
•court. 

In regard to the treatment of such goods, the captain of the captor 
can dispose of them at a public sale at the nearest port of the Republic 
or any neutral port, where he can obtain the permission of the local 
authorities for the sale of such goods. The kind of the goods thus dis- 
posed of and the proceeds of the sale shall be entered in the log book 
of the vessel and forward the same to the prize court. 

35. Under any of the following circumstances, the captain of the 
■captor may destroy the captured vessel, but before the destruction of 
the vessel, all the persons on board the vessel and its papers must be 
placed in safety: 

(«) That the captured vessel is no longer seaworthy. 
(6) That the existence of the captured vessel shall greatly impede 
the movement of the captor from the military point of view. 

36. In case such an event happens the captain of the captor shall 
file a statement to the prize court setting forth the circumstances under 
which lie was compelled to destroy the vessel and at the same time 
he shall hold himself fully responsible for any consequence of the 
destruction. 



44 China, Prize Regulations. 

37. When the captain of a warship recaptures a vessel of the Republic- 
or of neutral nationality which had been captured by the enemy but 
which has not been employed in the service of the enemy or brought to 
an enemy port he shall set the vessel free. 

Chapter V .—Adjudication. 

38. No ship or cargo shall be condemned without the adjudication! 
of the prize court. 

39. Enemy ships are liable to condemnation. Enemy goods on.'. 
board an enemy ship are liable to. condemnation. 

40. Enemy goods under neutral flag are not liable to condemnation. 

41. Vessels of the Republic engaged in commercial intercourse with 
the enemy without the special permission of the Government are liable 
to condemnation. 

Goods on board such vessels are not liable to condemnation unless 
they are of enemy ownership or belonging to the owner of the vessel. 

42. All contraband of war are liable to condemnation. All goods 
belonging to the owner of the contraband of war are liable to con- 
demnation. 

43. Under any of the following circumstances, the vessel carrying 
contraband of war is liable to condemnation: 

(a) When the vessel and the contraband belong to the same person. 

(6) When the weight and dimensions of the contraband of war.- 
constitute two-thirds of all the cargo on board the vessel. 

(c) When the vessel smuggles contraband of war by fraud. 

Under any of the above circumstances all the goods belonging to 1 
the owner of the vessel are also liable to condemnation. 

44. Hostile persons are liable to capture as prisoners of war. 
Vessels carrying hostile persons and the cargo belonging to the owner. 

of the vessel are liable to condemnation, unless proofs are given to- 
show that the ship had no knowledge of the passengers of enemy 
character. 

45. Vessels in violation of blockade and the cargo on board the same- 
are liable to condemnation unless the owner of such cargo can prove 
that he had no previous knowledge of the vessel's attempt to run the- 
blockade. 

46. Ships engaged in transmitting information in the interest of the- 
enemy or vessels engaged in enemy service and the cargo belonging 
to the owner of such vessels are liable to condemnation. 

47. The vessel and cargo under the convoy of enemy flag are liable- 
to condemnation. 

48. Vessels resisting the visit or search are liable to condemnation: 
Enemy goods and goods belonging to the owner of such a vessel on* 

board of the same, are liable to condemnation. 



Ecuador, Sojourn of Vessels. 45 

Chapter VI. — Final provisions. 

49. Other particulars which are not provided in the present regula- 
tions shall be carried out according to the order of the Government, 
treaty provisions and customary practice of international law. 

50. The present regulations shall be enforced on the date of their 
promulgation. 

ECUADOR. 

Regulations relating to sojourn of war vessels in port, January 18, 1917. 
[Registro Official, Jan. 26, 1917.] 

The following regulation is for the visits of foreign warships to Ecua- 
dorian waters: 

IN TIME OP PEACE. 

Article 1. The name of "warship "shall not only apply to armed 
ships belonging to a nation, but also to all classes of auxiliary ships. 

Art. 2. In time of peace, warships belonging to foreign powers may 
freely enter Ecuadorian open ports and anchor in territorial waters; 
nevertheless the Government shall be notified through diplomatic chan- 
nels of the proposed visit. The number of warships under the same 
flag shall not exceed three in the same port. 

Art. 3. No warship may remain more than 15 days in territorial 
waters or Ecuadorian ports unless special authority is given by the 
Government. They shall go to sea within six hours if the territorial 
authorities so demand, even though the terms of 15 days have not 
expired. 

If special circumstances should so demand it, the Government re- 
serves the right to modify the restrictions contained in this and the 
previous articles. 

Art. 4. The dispositions of articles 2 and 3 do not apply: 

First. In respect to warships whose admission was authorized through 
diplomatic channels under exceptional conditions. 

Second. To warships that are obliged to enter a port because of 
danger, storms, or other unforeseen conditions, while they continue. 

Third. To ships on board of which are chief magistrates or rulers of 
nations, members of reigning families, or diplomatic officials on a 
mission to the Ecuadorian Government. 

Art. 5. The designation of the anchorage for foreign warships shall 
be left to the captain of the port, as well as the right to make them 
change it. 

Art. 6. Foreign warships entering a port or territorial waters are 
-obliged to respect the police, sanitation, and finance laws and regu- 
lations. 

They are also obliged to comply with the same requirements of the 
ports as are the national warships. 



46 Ecuador, Sojourn of Vessels. 

Art. 7. Foreign warships which are in Ecuadorian waters are abso- 
lutely prohibited to make topographical and hydrographical observa- 
tions, make sketches, or take soundings, and to execute any submarine 
works with or without a diver; nor shall they execute any landing or 
torpedo firing exercises. 

The number of men permitted to go ashore at any one time and the 
hour for landing and returning on board shall be fixed by agreement 
between the captain of the port and the commander of the ship. 

Art. 8. No sentence of death shall be executed on board a foreign 
warship while at anchor or in territorial waters. 

Art. 9. The members of the crew shall not be permitted to land 
armed. The officers and noncommissioned officers only may carry the 
arms that constitute a part of their uniform. 

Art. 10. In case of obsequies or other impressive ceremony, a permit 
may be granted by the first authority of the province of the correspond- 
ing port allowing for the landing of armed forces. 

Art. 11. In case that a foreign warship does not comply with the 
rules established by this decree, the local, naval or military authority 
shall first call the attention of the commanding officer to the violation, 
and he shall be formally notified to observe the regulations. If this 
should have no effect the Government shall be notified, so that by 
means of the latter 's authority the ship shall be notified to leave the 
port and territorial waters immediately. 

Art. 12. When one or more foreign warships arrive at an Ecuadorian 
port, an officer shall be sent to greet the commander of the foreign naval 
force. The officer shall advise the said commanders, indication of its 
armament, port of departure, the time they expect to remain, and the 
sanitary conditions on board the ship. 

BELLIGERENT WARSHIPS. 

Art. 13. As regards the admission of belligerent warships, the dis- 
positions contained in the thirteenth convention of The Hague shall be 
observed, which are declared as being incorporated in the present 
regulation. 

Art. 14. Given the short time that a belligerent ship may remain in 
a port, the notification foreseen in article 2 of this regulation is not 
necessary, which shall have force in all that is not opposed to said 
convention. 

IN TIME OF WAR. 

Art. 15. The Government reserves the right to restrict or prohibit 
the admission of foreign warships granting that Ecuador was at war or 
there was danger of it. In this event, the admission and presence of 
foreign warships would be subject to the regulations which may be 
opportunely prescribed. 

The minister of foreign affairs and of war and marine shall be charged 

with the execution of this decree. 

Quito, January 18, 1917. 

A. Baquerizo Moreno. 



Finland, Declaration of Autonomy. 47' 

FINLAND. 

Law declaring for national autonomy^ July 19, 1917. , 1 

[New York Times, Current History, 7 (pt. 2); 439.] 

1. The Diet of Finland alone decides, confirms, and executes all 
Finnish laws, including those relating to home affairs, taxation, and 
customs. The Diet also malces the final decision regarding all other 
affairs which the Emperior-Grand Duke decided according to the law 
hitherto in force. The provisions of this law do not relate to matters^ 
of foreign policy, military legislation, and military administration. 

2. The Diet meets for regular sessions without special summons and 
decides when they are to be closed. Until Finland's new form of 
government is decided upon, the Diet exercises the right of deciding 
upon new elections and the dissolution of the Diet. 

3. The Diet controls the executive power of Finland. The supreme 
executive power is exercised by the economic department of the 
Finnish Senate, whose members are nominated and dismissed by the- 
Diet. 

FRANCE. 

Proclamation putting in force decree relating to sojourn oj vessels in terri- 
torial waters, August 9, 1.91 i. ' 

[Journal Officiel, Aug. 9, 1914, p. 7285.] 

In consequence of the existence of a state of war the decree of May 
26, 1913, 2 relative to the conditions of access and sojourn in time of 
Mar of vessels other than French war vessels in territorial waters of 
France and of protected countries comes into force. 

Law restricting transfer of national vessels during war, November 11, 1915.. 

[Journal Officiel, Nov. 14, 1915.] 

Article 1. For the duration of the war and until the expiration of 
a delay of six months following the end of hostilities, the voluntary 
sale of a French seagoing ship to a foreigner, either in France or abroad y 
is j>rohibited. 

1 The iniopan lence of Finland was proclaimed Dec. 7, 1917, following the Manifesto 
of the People's Commissaries of Russia, Nov. 23, 1917, that "this right of the Russian 
peoples to their self-determination is to be extended even as far as separation and the 
forming of independent States." (New York Times, Current History, 7 (pt. 2): 440.) 

Finland was recognized by Sweden, Jan. 3, 1918; by France, Jan. 7; by Germany, 
Jan. 7; by Denmark and Norway, Jan. 10; by Swit/.erland, Jan. 17; and by Russia, Mar. 
], 1918. Finland signed a treaty of peace with Germany Mar. 7, 1918 (The New Europe,, 
Apr. 4, 1918; New York Times, Current History, 8 (pt. 1); 445); and with Russia, Mar. 1, 
1918, carried out by a treaty of evacuation, Mar. 11, 1918. 

2 Journal Officiel, June 14, 1913, p. 5097. The sojourn of vessels in time of peace is 
regulated by a decree of May 21, 1913 (J. 0., June 13, 1913, p. 5060, correction, p. 5099, 
and in time of neutrality by decree of Oct. 18, 1912, putting in effect articles 11 to 15, 
19, and 23 of Xllf, Hague, 1907. 



-48 France, Transfer of Vessels. 

However, exceptions to this prohibition may be authorized under 
conditions that may be determined by the Minister of Marine. 

Art. 2. Any act committed fraudulently contrary to the preceding 
disposition is null and renders the seller liable to imprisonment from 
one to six months and to a fine of 16 to 500 francs (16 to 500 francs) or 
to one of these two penalties only. Furthermore, the ship will be 
confiscated; should it not be possible to seize same, the court will 
condemn the defendant, in lieu of confiscation, to the payment of a 
supplementary fine equal to the value of the ship, as will be fixed by 
the court. 

Article 463 of the penal code on attenuating circumstances may be 
^applied even concerning confiscation, which may be replaced by a fine 
inferior to the value of the ship. 

The present law, discussed and adopted by the Senate and the Cham- 
ber of Deputies, will be executed as a Jaw of the State. 

Paris, November 11, 1915. 

R. Poincare. 

By the President of the Republic; 

L. Lacaze, 

Minister of Marine, 
Rene Viviani, 

Keeper of the Seals, Minister of Justice. 

Notice of mine fields on Turkish coasts, March 4, 1916. 
[Moniteur de la Flotte, Mar. 4, 1916.] 

By reason of the presence of submarine mines, the navigation, until 
further notice, is dangerous on the coasts of Turkey in Asia Minor 
and Syria. 

Those mines which have been anchored by the French naval forces 
are in accord with the provisions prescribed by the VIII convention 
of The Hague, 1907. Notice is hereby given to those interested, in 
conformity to Article 3, paragraph 2, of the said convention. 

Ministerial decision for the application of the law of November 11, 1915, 
restricting transfer of national vessels during war, March 16, 1916. 

[Bulletin Officiel de la Marine, Apr. 1, 1916, p. 483; Journal Offleiel, Mar. 22, 1916.] 

Article 1. French shipowners who desire to sell a ship to a for- 
eigner must address a request mentioning the reasons upon which it 
as based to the Under Secretary of State for the Navy. 

Art. 2. After an investigation, the Under Secretary of State shall 
state his opinion from the point of view of the interests of the Merchant 
Marine and shall transmit the papers to the Chief of the General Staff 
(first section), whose duty it is to formulate an opinion as regards 
the navy. 

Art. 3. The Minister will decide. 

The Under Secretary of State will notify the decision to the parties 
-concerned and the papers in the case will be transmitted through the 



France, Recognition of Ozecho-Slovahs. 49 

delegate of the Minister of Marine to the commission on the modifi- 
cation of prohibitions of export. This commission will give the 
authority for the transfer of flag. 

L. Lacaze, 
Minister of Marine. 

Recognition of independence of Czechoslovaks, June 30, 1918} 

[New York Times, Current History, 8 (pt. 2), 489.] 

M. Pichon, French Minister of Foreign Affairs to Czecho-Slovak National Council. 

At the moment when the first unity of the autonomous Czecho-slovak 
Army of France is preparing to quit its quarters and, having received 
its flag, to proceed to man a sector amidst its French brothers in arms, 
the Government of the Republic deems it equitable and necessary to 
proclaim the rights of your Nation to independence. * * * For 
long centuries the Czecho-Slovak Nation possessed the incomparable 
blessing of independence. It was deprived of it by the violence of 
the Hapsburgs allied with Germanic princes. . The historic rights of 
nations are imprescriptible. It is for the defense of these rights that 
France, attacked, is fighting to-day, together with her allies. The 
cause of the Czechs is specially dear to it. * * * 

In the name of the Government of the Republic, I express the 
•sincerest and warmest wishes that the Czecho-Slovak State may soon 
become by the common efforts of all the allies, in close union with 
Poland and the Jugo-Slav State, an impassable barrier to Germanic 
aggression and a factor of peace in a Europe reconstructed according to 
the principles of justice and the right of nationalities. 

GERMANY. 

SOJOURN OF VESSELS. 

Regulations regarding the admission and treatment of war vescels and 
prizes of belligerents in the harbors and waters of the German coaH and 
the German colonies, May 14, 1913. 

1. With reference to the admission of warships, there shall apply 
articles 1 to 3 of the " Regulations regarding the admission and treat- 
ment of foreign warships in the harbors and waters of the German 

■coast" of May 24, 1910. 

Article l. 

War vessels (warships and war craft) of foreign powers require no special permission 
for calling at fortified and unfortified German harbors and river mouths and for the 
navigation of inland waters. Nevertheless a notice of the impending visit must be 
transmitted in good time through diplomatic channels. 

Without this, foreign war vessels, with the exception of the cases given in article 2 , 
may neither cross the outermost line of defense (fortification) nor stop in roads, harbors, 
river mouths, or inland waters. (With reference to the use of the Kaiser Wilhelm 
€anal, see article 3.) 

1 Recognition by United States, Sept. 3, 1918, infra p. 209. 
116506—19 4 



50 Germany, Sojourn of Vessels. 

The number of war vessels belonging to the same foreign nation that are permitted 
to stop at the same time in a fortified or unfortified harbor, etc., is, as a rule, limited to- 
three. Exceptions require permission requested through diplomatic channels. 

Article 2. 

The foregoing regulations do not apply. 

(a) To vessels that have on board sovereigns, members of families of sovereignsr 
presidents of republics or their suites, or ambassadors or envoys to the courts of His 
Majesty the Kaiser; 

(6) To vessels which have been obliged by danger of sea or by accident to stop in a 
German harbor, etc. 

Article 3. 

For passage through the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal foreign war vessels require previous 
permission transmitted through diplomatic channels. In case a previous notice through 
diplomatic channels is not possible, it is to be communicated without delay through 
the local authorities. 

2. Commissioned pilots may be granted ("zugestanden") only for a 
direct trip from the sea into a harbor, or for a direct trip from the harbor 
to the open sea. 

3. In the waters under German sovereignty war vessels of belligerents: 
are obliged to refrain from all hostilities including capture, interception , 
and the practice of the right of search. Neither may they hold any 
prize court therein. 

4. Within the ports and roads they may repair injuries only to such 
an extent as is necessary for their safety of navigation, but they may 
neither repair, strengthen, or increase their military stores or arma- 
ment, nor enlarge their complements, nor in any other way heighten 
their military power. 

5. At each visit they may replenish their supplies of coal to the full 
capacity of their bunkers. They may also increase their stores of food 
and drink and of anything else necessary for their peaceable operation 
of the ship. 

6. They must leave waters under German sovereignty 14 days at the 
latest after their arrival therein or, in case they have to remain longer 
in order to carry out such work as is specified in article 4, immediately 
after the completion of the said work. 

In case the weather should make it impossible for them to leave then,, 
or in case the conditions set forth in article 9 should come into effect, 
permission to remain will be extended for the necessary length of time. 

7. In the harbors which are situated in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the seat of war, 1 article 6 applies with the sole change that the 
words "24 hours" shall be substituted for " 14 days." 

8. The provisions of articles 6 and 7 do not apply to war vessels 
which are engaged exclusively in religious, scientific, or philanthropic 
work. 

9. If there should be present simultaneously in the harbor or road- 
stead war vessels of both belligerents, at least 24 hours must elapse 

i When the case arises the Imperial Chancellor will enumerate the-ports here indi - 
cated. 



Germany, Sojourn of Vessels. 51 

between the departure of ships of one belligerent and that of ships of 
the other. In case both parties have at the outset chosen the same 
day for departure, the order of their departure shall be determined by 
that of their arrival. 

Warships of a belligerent may not leave a harbor or a roadstead less 
than 24 hours after the departure of a merchant vessel flying the flag 
of the enemy of the said belligerent. 

10. Prizes may put in only: 

(a) On account of unseaworthiness, or bad weather, or on account of 
deficiency in fuel or supplies, in which cases they must leave again as 
soon as the cause that justified their putting in has been removed. 

(6) When they are to be allowed to remain in the harbor until the 
prize court has made its decision, in which case they must be given 
over to the neutral German authorities for safekeeping. 

Issued at the New Palace, May 14, 1913. 

Wilhelm I. R. 

Von Bethmann Hollweg. 

WAR MEASURES. 

War zone declaration, November 23, 1917. l 

[Official.] 

Berlin, November 20, 1917. 
The following communication has been sent to the allied, neutral, 
and enemy States: 

Supplement to the German blockade declaration of January 31, 1917. 

I. In complementing the declaration of blockade of January 31,. 1917,. 
the barred waters will be extended from the 22d of November as follows : 

1. Barred waters around England. — The border of the barred waters : 
around England and France runs from the end of points of the Belgian- 
Dutch boundary line over point 51° 35' north, 2° 57' east to 52° 2' 
north, 3° 52' east to 52° 28' north, 4° 22' east to 52° 40' north, 4° 25' 
east to 52° 40 / north, 3° 40' east to 54° 45' north, 3° 40' east to 55° 1(K 
north, 4° east to 56° north, 4° 50' east, further along on the longitude 
degree 4° 50 7 east along to the point in 10 miles distance from the 
Utfire Lighthouse, then on a circle at 10 sea miles distance west around 
the said lighthouse to the intersecting point of the connecting line,. 
Utfire Lighthouse, to the point 62° north 0° 0' eastern longitude and 
62° north 5° west to a point 3 sea miles south of the south point of the 
Faroe Islands. From there over 62° north, 10° west to 61° north,. 
15° west to 55° north, 30° west to 47° north, 30° west to 43° north, 
15° west, then on the degree of latitude 43° north along to a point 20 
sea miles along the Spanish north coast to the French- Spanish border. 

2. New barred waters. — On the enemy bases at the Azores, the 
boundary runs over the following points: From 39° north, 17° west to 
44° north, 27° 45 / west to 44° north, 34° west to 42° 30' north, 37° 



1 For other war zone declarations, see 'International Law Documents. 1917, p. 107 



52 Germany, War Zone. 

west to 57° north, 37° west to 30° north, 26° west to 34° north, 20° 
west to the point of beginning. 1 

3. Barred waters in the Mediterranean. — The channel left open in the 
former declaration is now included in the barred waters. 

II. Security against the employment of the military procedure in 
the following waters included in the barred waters heretofore can only 
be guaranteed from the 1st of January, 1918: 

First area, between — 

Point 52° 40' north, 4° 0' east. 
Point 52° 40' north, 3° 45' east. 
Point 54° 45 / north, 3° 40 / east. 
Point 55° 10 / north, 4° 0' east. 
Second area, between — 

The terminal point of the Belgian-Dutch boundary line. 
Point 51° 35' north, 3° 52' east, and the intersecting point of 

the connecting line between the last-mentioned point; and 
Point 52° 2 / north, 3° 52' east, with the blockade boundaries 

fixed heretofore off the Dutch coast. 

III. Neutral ships and ships of the Belgian Relief Commission which 
are at the time of the publication of this declaration in ports belonging 
to the new blockaded waters are permitted to leave unmolested their 
ports, taking the shortest route, providing they start before the 29th 
of November. 

Care has been taken that no military action will be taken against 
neutral ships and ships of the Belgian Relief Commission which have 
run into the forbidden zones without having a knowledge of the pub- 
lication of this declaration. 

It is urgently requested to warn neutral shipping with all available 
means and to direct them off the forbidden zones. 

Regulations, enemxj character of vessels, July 16, 1917. 2 

In further retaliation of the orders of England and her allies in regard 
to international law at sea, I approve for the present war of the follow- 
ing change in the prize rules: 

A neutral ship is to be considered and treated as an enemy ship if 
the property of the same (Eigenthum) is wholly or for the greatest 
part owned by citizens of enemy states, or if it has been chartered by 
.an enemy government, or if it has been placed on the seas in the in- 
terest of the enemies conduct of war. 

As citizens of enemy states in the sense of this ordinance are also to 
I)e considered judicial persons or societies of other countries which 

1 For other war zone declarations, see International Law Documents, 1917, p. 115. 

2 Amendment to Arts. 11 and 55c, of German Prize Code, Sept. 30, 1909, published in 
Heichsgesetzblatt, Aug. 3, 1914, No. 50. (English translation, Hertslet, Commercial 
Treaties, 1915.) This code was amended, Oct. 18, Nov. 23, and Dec. 14, 1914, and Apr. 

18, 1915. (See United States, Diplomatic Correspondence with Belligerent Govern- 
jments, May 27, 1915, p. 30.) 



Germany, Enemy Character. 53 

have their seat in enemy countries. It will be considered as equal to 
location in an enemy country if the capital belongs overwhelmingly 
to citizens of enemy countries, or if the management is carried on by 
enemy citizens or is directed from or controlled by an enemy country. 
The same holds good if the fact has been established that capital or 
other means to carry on the business is contributed from citizens of: 
enemy countries or from enemy countries themselves. 

WlLHELM_ 

Notice of defensive sea area around German Bay, March 17, 1918.. 

Berlin, March 17, 1918. 
The German Admiralty has published the following warning: 
In consequence of the conduct of British naval forces in the waters 
around the German Bay declared to be barred by England, the German 
Government sees herself compelled to take measures which makes 
neutral shipping in these waters very dangerous. Neutral shipping 
is therefore urgently warned to stay away from these waters with the 
statement that the German Government will. not guarantee for the 
consequences, except it is done in conformity with special directions 
which have to be obtained from the German Government in each 
individual case. The boundaries of the waters in question are: From 
the point of intersection of latitude 57° 8 / north, with the Danish 
territorial boundary, over point 57° 8' north, 6° east, 56° north, 4° 17' 
east, 58° 29 / north, 4° 4' east, 53° east, 4° 10 / east, to the intersection 
point of latitude 53° with the Dutch sovereignty lines. 

Regulations, enemy character of vessels, April 21, 1918} 

In case conditions do not point to the contrary a neutral ship must 
be considered as sailing in enemy war interests, when the country, the 
flag of which the vessel has a right to fly, has made an agreement with 
an enemy country relating to the cession of tonnage, or when the 
greater portion of the navigating commercial fleet of the country in 
question is in the service of the enemy. 

RECOGNITION OF INTERNATIONAL STATUS. 

Recognition of independence of Russian Poland, November 4, 1916. 2 

To the Inhabitants of the Government op Warsaw: 

His Majesty, the German Emperor, and his Majesty, the Austrian 
Emperor and Apostolic King of Hungary, sustained by their firm con- 
fidence in the final victory of their arms, and guided by the wish to 
lead to a happy future the Polish districts which, by their brave armies 



1 Amendment of regulations, July 16, 1917, supra, p. 52. 

* A similar proclamation was published by the Austro- Hungarian governor general 
at Lublin. By proclamation, Sept. 12, 1917, Germany and Austria transferred authority 
in Poland; to a regency. (New York Times, Current History,. 7. (pt. 1):29.) 



54 Germany, Recognition of States. 

were snatched with heavy sacrifices from Russian power, have agreed 
to form from these districts an independent State, with a hereditary 
monarchy and a constitution. The more precise regulation of the 
frontiers of the Kingdom of Poland remains reserved. 

In union with both the Allied Powers the new Kingdom will find the 
guarantees which it desires for the free development of its strength. 
In its own army the glorious traditions of the Polish Army of former 
times and the memory of our brave Polish fellow-combatants in the 
great war of the present time will continue to live. Its organization, 
training, and command will be regulated by mutual agreement. The 
allied monarchs confidently hope that their wishes for the State and 
national development of the Kingdom of Poland will now be fulfilled 
with the necessary regard to the general political conditions of Europe 
and to the welfare and security of their own country and peoples. 

The great western neighbors of the Kingdom of Poland will see with 
pleasure arise again and flourish at their eastern frontier a free and 
Jiappy State rejoicing in its national life. 

By order of His Majesty, the German Emperor: 

von Beseler, Governor General. 

Recognition of Ukrainian Republic, February 9, 1918} 

[New York Times, Current History, 7 (pt. 2):433.] 

Statement of Dr. von Kuhlmann, President of Conference at Brest-Litovsk. 

Gentlemen, none of you will be able to close his eyes to the historical 
significance of this hour, at which the representatives of the four allied 
powers are met with the representatives of the Ukrainian People's 
Republic to sign the first peace attained in this world war. 2 This 
peace, signed with your young State, which has emerged from the stress 
of the great war, gives special satisfaction to the representatives of the 
allied delegation. May this peace be the first of a series of blessed 
conclusions — peace blessed both for the allied powers and for the 
Ukrainian People's Republic, for the future of which we all cherish 
the best wishes. 

Recognition of independence of Lithuania, March 24, 1918. z 

[Official U. S. Bulletin, No. 286, p. 1.] 

Note of German Chancellor von Hertling to a delegation of the Lithuanian National 

Council. 

Whereas the Lithuanian National Council, as recognized representa- 
tives of the Lithuanian people, on December 11, 1917, declared Lithu- 
ania an independent State united with Germany through eternal and 
close alliances and connections in traffic, monetary, and other fields, 



i The Ukrainian National Council had issued a proclamation of independence Nov. 

20, 1917 (New York Times, Current History, 7 (pt. 2):428), and concluded a treaty of 

peace with Russia, June 13, 1918 (London Times, June 15, 1918). 

2 Text of treaty, Feb. 9, 1918. (New York Times, Current History, 7 (pt. 2):435.) 
s The Lithuanian National Council presented claims for recognition of independence 

to President Wilson May 7, 1918. (Official U. S. Bulletin, No. 303, p. 8.) 



Germany, Abdication of Kaiser. 55 

and asked Germany's protection and help in reconstruction of the 
State, we hereby recognize Lithuania as free and independent. The 
German Empire is prepared to lend Lithuania the required help and, 
in concert with Lithuania's population, to take the necessary measures. 
Conventions for the establishment of confederation with the German 
Empire will be made. The Imperial Government presupposes that the 
conventions will be to Germany's interest as well as Lithuania's, and 
Lithuania will take a share of Germany's war burdens, which are pro- 
moting- Lithuania's emancipation. A formal document of recognition 
of Lithuania's independence will be forwarded to the National Council. 

Manifesto of German Chancellor concerning abdication of Emperor, 

November 9, 1918. 

[Official IT. S. Bulletin, No. 460, p. 1.] 

Nauen, November 9, 1918. 
(Received by Navy Radio Service, Nov. 10, 1918.) 
German Chancellor Prince Max von Baden publishes the following 
manifesto : 

Emperor and King has decided to abdicate the throne. Chancellor will remain so 
long in office until the questions connected with the abdication of Emperor, renuncia- 
tion of the throne by Crown Prince of German Empire and of Prussia, and of introduc- 
tion of regency are regulated. He intends to propose to the regent the appointment of 
Reichstag member Ebert as chancellor and the bringing in of a bill for the immediate 
proclamation for a general election of a German national constituent assembly which 
will have the duty of determining the future political form of German people, including 
those parts of nationalities who should wish to enter within the limits of the State. 

(Signed) Max, Prince von Baden, 

German Chancellor. 

Transocean, Berlin, November 9. 

Act of abdication by German Emperor, November 28, 1918. 1 

By the present document I renounce forever my rights to the crown 
of Prussia and the rights to the German imperial crown. I release at 
the same time all the officials of the German Empire and Prussia and 
also all officers and noncommissioned officers and soldiers of the Prus- 
sian Navy and Army and of contingents from confederated States from 
the oath of fidelity they have taken to me as their Emperor, King, and 
supreme chief. 

I expect from them until a new organization of the German Empire 
exists that they will aid those who effectively hold the power in Ger- 
many to protect the German people against the menacing dangers of 
anarchy, famine, and foreign domination. 

Made and executed and signed by our own hand with the imperial 
seal at ximerongen, November 28. 

William. 

1 Issued Nov. 30, 1918, by the new German Government "in order to reply to certain 
misunderstandings which have arisen with regard to the abdication. " 



56 



Germany, Armistice. 



ARMISTICE. 

Terms of armistice with Allied and Associated Powers, 5 a. m., November 

if, 1918. 1 



Convention. 

Between Marshal Foch, Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Allied Ar- 
mies, acting in the name of the 
Allied and Associated Powers, 
with Admiral Wemyss, First Sea 
Lord, on the one hand; and 

Herr Erzberger, Secretary of 
State, President of the German 
Delegation, 

Count von Oberndorff, Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary, 

Major-General von Winter- 

FELDT, 

Captain Vanselow (German 
Navy), 

duly empowered and acting with 
the concurrence of the German 
Chancellor, on the other hand. 

An Armistice has been con- 
cluded under the following condi- 
tions: 

Conditions of the Armistice 
Concluded with Germany. 

a. — the western front. 

I. Cessation of hostilities on 
land and in the air six hours after 
the signing of the Armistice. 



Convention. 

Entre le Marechal Foch, Com- 
mandant en Chef des Armees 
Alliees, stipulant au nom des 
Puissances Alliees et Associees, 
assiste de l'Amiral Wemyss, First 
Sea Lord, d'une part; et 

M. le Secretaire d'Etat Erz- 
berger, President de la Delega- 
tion Allemande, 

M. l'Envoye Extraordinaire et 
Ministre Plenipotentiaire Comte 
von Oberndorff, 

M. le General Major von Win- 

TERFELDT, 

M. le Capitaine de Vaisseau 
Vanselow, 

munis de pouvoirs reguliers et 
agissant avec l'agrement du Chan- 
celier Allemand, d' autre part. 

II a ete conclu un armistice aux 
conditions suivantes: 



Conditions de l'Armistice con- 
clu AVEC l'AlLEMAGNE. 

A.- — SUR LE FRONT D'OCCIDENT. 

I. Cessation des hostilites, sur 
terre et dans les airs, 6 heures apres 
la signature de F armistice. 



1 Execution of Armistice terms. 

Nov. 20, 20 German submarines were surrendered. 

Nov. 21, German high seas fleet of 9 battleships, 5 battle cruisers, 7 light cruisers, and 
50 destroyers surrendered. 

Nov. 17, the allied army of occupation began its march for Germany. 

Nov. 25, Marshal Foch, with Gens. Guillaumat and Gouraud, entered Strasbourg. 

Nov. 29, the Germans began withdrawing across the Rhine. 

Dec. 1, the American Army entered Germany. 

Dec. 3, British troops crossed the Belgian frontier and entered Germany. 

Dec. 13, the armistice was extended until Jan. 17. 

Dec. 13, the American Army crossed the Rhine and the French entered Mainz. 

Dec. 16, the American Army reached its final objective at Coblenz, and the British 
formally occupied Cologne. 



Germany, Armistice 



57 



II. Immediate evacuation of 
invaded countries— Belgium, 
France, Luxembourg, as also- Al- 
sace-Lorraine, — so ordered as to 
be completed within 15 days from 
the signature of the Armistice. 

German troops which have not 
left the above-mentioned terri- 
tories within the period fixed will 
become prisoners of war. 

Occupation by the Allied and 
United States forces jointly will 
keep pace with evacuation of these 
areas. 

All movements of evacuation 
and occupation will be regulated 
in accordance with a Note (Ap- 
pendix I) determined at the time 
of the signing of the Armistice. 

III. Repatriation, beginning at 
once, to be completed within 15 
days, of all inhabitants of the 
countries above enumerated (in- 
cluding hostages, and persons 
under trial or convicted). 

IV. Surrender in good con- 
dition by the German Armies of 
the following equipment: 

5,000 guns (to wit 2,500 heavy 

and 2,500 field), 
25,000 machine guns, 
3,000 Minenwerfer, 
1,700 fighting and bombing 
aeroplanes — primarily all 
the D.7's and all the night 
bombing machines. 
The above to be delivered in situ 
to the Allied and United States 
troops in accordance with the de- 
tailed conditions laid down in 
the Note (Appendix I) deter- 
mined at the time of the signing 
of the Armistice. 

V. Evacuation by the German 
Armies of the districts on the left 



II. Evacuation immediate des- 
pays envahis — Belgique, France,. 
Luxembourg, ainsi que de 1 'Al- 
sace-Lorraine, — regime de maniere 
a etre realisee dans un delai de 15 
jours a dater de la signature de 
1' armistice. 

Les troupes allemandes qui 
n'auront pas e>acue les territoires 
prevus dans les delais fixes seront 
faites prisonnieres de guerre. 

L'occupation par l'ensemble des : 
troupes alliees et des Etats-Unis- 
suivra, dans ces pays, la marche de 
1' evacuation. 

Tous les mouvements d' eva- 
cuation ou d 'occupation sont 
regies par la Note Annexe No. 1, 
arreted au moment de la signature 
de T Armistice. 

III. Rapatriement, commen- 
cant immediatement et devant 
etre termine dans un delai de 15 
jours, de tous les habitants des 
pays enumeres ci-dessus (y com*- 
pris les otages et les prevenus ou 
condamnes). 

IV. Abandon par les Armee& 
Allemandes du materiel de guerre 
suivant en bon etat: 

5,000 canons (dont 2,500 lourda 

et 2,500 de campagne) r 
25,QQO mitrailleuses, 
3,000 Minenwerfer, 
1,700 avions de chasse et de- 
bombardement, en premier 
lieu tous les D.7 et tous les 
avions de bombardement de 
nuit, 
a livrer sur place aux Troupes des 
Allies et des Etats-Unis, — dans les 
conditions de detail fixees par la 
Note Annexe No. 1, arretee au 
moment de la signature de P Ar- 
mistice. 

V. Evacuation des pays de la 
rive gauche du Rhin par les- 



•58 



Germany, Armistice. 



bank of the Rhine. These dis- 
tricts on the left bank of the 
Rhine shall " be administered by 
Hie local authorities under the 
control of the Allied and United 
States armies of occupation. 

The occupation of these terri- 
tories by Allied and United States 
troops will be assured by garrisons 
holding the principal crossings of 
the Rhine (Mayence, Coblenz, 
Cologne) together with bridge- 
heads at these points of a 30-kilo- 
metre (about 19 miles) radius on 
the right bank, and by garrisons 
similarly holding the strategic 
points of the regions. 

A neutral zone shall be set 
apart on the right bank of the 
Rhine between the river and a 
line drawn parallel to the bridge- 
heads and to the river, and 10 
kilometres (6| miles) deep, from 
the Dutch frontier to the Swiss 
frontier. 

Evacuation by the enemy of 
the Rhine districts (right and left 
bank) shall be so ordered as to 
be completed within a further 
period of 16 days, in all 31 days 
after the signing of the Armistice. 

All movements of evacuation 
and occupation will be regulated 
according to the Note (Appen- 
dix I) determined at the time of 
the signing of the Armistice. 

VI. In all territories evacuated 
by the enemy, all evacuation of 
inhabitants shall be forbidden; 
neither damage nor harm shall be 
to the persons or property of the 
inhabitants. 

No person shall be prosecuted 
for having taken part in any mili- 
tary measures previous to tha 
signing of the Armistice. 

No destruction of any kind shall 
be committed. 



Armees Allemandes. Les pays de 
la rive gauche du Rhin seront 
administres par les autorites 
locales, sous le controle des troupes 
d' occupation des Allies et des 
Etats-Unis. 

Les troupes des Allies et des 
Etats-Unis assureront 1' occupation 
de ces pays par des garnisons 
tenant les principaux points de 
passage du Rhin (Mayence, Co- 
blentz, Cologne) avec, en ces 
points, des tetes de pont de 30 
klm. de rayon sur la rive droite, — 
et des garnisons tenant egalement 
les points strategiques de la region. 

Une zone neutre sera reservee, 
sur la rive droite du Rhin, entre 
le fleuve et une ligne tracee 
parallelement aux tetes de pont 
et au fleuve, et a 10 klm. de dis- 
tance, depuis la frontiere de 
Hollande jusqu'a la frontiere de la 
Suisse, 

L' evacuation par l'ennemi des 
pays du Rhin (rive gauche et rive 
droite) sera reglee de facon a etre 
realisee dans un delai de 16 nou- 
veaux jours, — soit 31 jours apres la 
signature de 1 'Armistice. 

Tous les mouvements d' evacua- 
tion ou d' occupation sont regies 
par la Note Annexe No. 1, arretee 
au moment de la signature de 
I'Armistice. ' 

VI. Dans tous les territoires 
evacues par l'ennemi, toute evacu- 
ation des habitants sera interdite; 
il ne sera pas apporte aucun dom- 
mage ou prejudice a la personne ou 
a la propriete des habitants. 

Personne ne sera poursuivi pour 
delit de participation a des mes- 
ures de guerre anterieures a la sig- 
nature de I'Armistice,. 

II ne sera fait aucune destruction 
d'aucune sorte. 



Germany, Armistice 



59 



Military establishments of all 
kinds shall be delivered intact, as 
well as military stores of food, mu- 
nitions, and equipment, which 
shall not have been removed dur- 
ing the periods fixed for evacua- 
tion. 

Stores of food for all kinds for 
the civil population, cattle, <fcc, 
shall be left in situ. 

No measure of a general or offi- 
cial character shall be taken which 
would have as a consequence the 
depreciation of industrial estab- 
lishments or a reduction of their 
personnel. 

VII. Roads and means of com- 
munication of every kind, rail- 
roads, waterways, roads, bridges, 
telegraphs, telephones, shall be in 
no manner impaired. 

All civil and military personnel 
at present employed on them shall 
remain so employed. 

5,000 complete locomotives, 
150,000 wagons in good Avorking 
order, with all necessary spare 
parts and fittings, shall be deliv- 
ered to the Associated Powers with- 
in the period fixed in Appendix 
No. II the total of which shall not 
exceed 31 days. 

5,000 motor lorries are also to be 
delivered in good condition within 
36 days. 

The railways of Alsace-Lorraine 
shall be handed over within 31 
days, together with all personnel 
and material belonging to the or- 
ganization of this system. 

Further, working material in the 
territories on the left bank of the 
Rhine shall be left in situ. 

All stores of coal and material 
for upkeep of permanent way, sig- 
nals, and repair shops shall be left 
in situ and kept in an efficient 



Les installations militaires de 
toute nature seront livrees in- 
taetes; — de mdme les appro vi- 
sionnements militaires, vivres, 
munitions, 6quipements, qui 
n'auront pas ete emportes dans les 
delais d' evacuation fixes. 

Les depots de vivres de toute 
nature pour la population civile, 
betail etc., devront §tre laisse\s sur 
place. 

II ne sera pris aucune mesure 
generale ou d'ordre officiel ayant 
pour consequence une deprecia- 
tion des etablissements indus- 
triels ou une reduction dans leur 
personnel. 

VII. Les voies et moyens de 
communication de toute nature, 
voies ferrees, voies navigables, 
routes, ponts, telegraphes, tele- 
phones, ne devront etre l'objet 
d' aucune deterioration. 

Tout le personnel civil et mili- 
taire, actuellement utilise, y sera 
maintenu. 

II sera livre aux Puissances Asso- 
ciees: 5,000 machines montees et 
150,000 wagons, en bon etat de 
roulement et pourvus de tous re- 
changes et agres necessaires, dans 
les delais dont le detail est fixe a 
l'Annexe No. 2 et dont le total ne 
devra pas depasser 31 jours. 

II sera egalement livre 5,000 
camions automobiles en bon etat, 
dans un delai de 36 jours. 

Les chemins de fer d'Alsace- 
Lorraine, dans un delai de 31 jours, 
seront livres, dotes de tout le per- 
sonnel et materiel affectes organi- 
quement a ce reseau. 

En outre, le materiel necessaire 
a i' exploitation dans les pays de la 
rive gauche du Rhin sera laisse sur 
place. 

Tous les approvisionnements en 
charbon et matieres d'entretien. 



60 



Germany, Armistice. 



state by Germany, as far as the 
means of communication on the 
left bank of the Rhine are con- 
cerned. 

All lighters taken from the Allies 
shall be restored to them. The 
Note attached as Appendix I de- 
fines the details of these measures. 



VIII. The German Command 
must reveal, within 48 hours after 
the signing of the Armistice, all 
mines or delay-action engines laid 
within the territories evacuated 
by the German troops, and shall 
facilitate their discovery and de- 
struction. 

Further the German Command 
shall reveal all destructive meas- 
ures that may have been taken 
(such as poisoning or pollution of 
wells, springs, &c). All the fore- 
going under penalty of reprisals. 

IX. The right of requisition 
shall be exercised by the Allied 
and United States Armies in all 
occupied territories, except pay- 
ment to those who are entitled 
thereto. 

The upkeep of the troops of oc- 
cupation in the Rhine districts 
(excluding Alsace-Lorraine) shall 
be charged to the German Gov- 
ernment. 

X. The immediate repatriation, 
without reciprocity, according to 
detailed conditions which shall be 
fixed, of all Allied and United 
States prisoners of war, including 
those under trial and already con- 
victed. The Allied Powers and 
the United States of America shall 
be able to dispose of these pris- 
oners as they think fit. This con- 



en materiel de voies, de signalisa 
tion et d' ateliers, seront laisses sur 
place. — Ces approvisionnements 
seront entretenus par l'Allemagne, 
en ce qui concerne 1' exploitation 
des voies de communication des 
pays de la rive gauche du Rhin. 

Tous les chalands enleves aux 
Allies leur seront rend us. La. 
Note Annexe No. 1 regie le detail 
de ces mesures. 

VIII. Le Command ement Alle- 
mand sera tenu de signaler, dans 
un delai de 48 heures apres la 
signature de V Armistice, toutes les 
mines ou dispositifs a, retard 
agences sur les territoires evacues 
par les troupes allemandes, et d'en 
faciliter la recherche et la destruc- 
tion. 

II signalera egalement toutes les 
dispositions nuisibles qui auraient 
pu etre prises (tel qu'empoisonne- 
ment ou pollution de sources et de 
puits, etc.). — Le tout sous peine 
de represailles. 

IX. Le droit de requisition sera 
exerce par les Armees des Allies 
et des Etats-Unis dans tous les 
territoires occupes, sauf reglement 
de comptes avec qui de droit. 

L'entretien des troupes d'occu- 
pation des .pays du Rhin (non 
compris 1'Alsace-Lorraine) sera a 
la charge du Gouvernement Alle- 
mand. 

X. Rapatriement immediat, 
sans reciprocite, dans des condi- 
tions de detail a regler, de tous les 
prisonniers de guerre, y compris les 
prevenus et condamnes, des Allies 
et des Etats-Unis. — Les Puissances 
Alliees et les Etats-Unis pourront 
en disposer comme bon leur sem- 
blera. Cette condition annule les 
conventions anterieures au sujet.. 



Germany, Armistice. 



61 



tlition annuls all previous con- 
ventions regarding prisoners of 
war, including that of July 1918, 
now heing ratified. 1 However, the 
repatriation of German prisoners 
-of war interned in Holland and 
Switzerland shall continue as 
'heretofore. The repatriation of 
German prisoners of war shall be 
settled at the conclusion of the 
peace preliminaries. 

XI. Sick and wounded who 
cannot be removed from territory 
evacuated by the German forces 
shall be cared for by German per- 
sonnel, who will be left in situ 
^with the necessarv material. 



H. — CLAUSES RELATING TO THE 
EASTERN FRONTIERS OF GER- 
MANY. 

XII. All German troops at 
present in any territory which, 
before the war, formed part of 
Austria-Hungary, Roumania, or 
Turkey shall withdraw within the 
frontiers of Germany as they 
existed on August 1st, 1914. All 
German troops at present in terri- 
tories which before the war formed 
part of Russia must likewise re- 
turn to within the frontiers of 
Germany as above defined as soon 
as the Allies shall think the 
moment suitable, account being 
taken of the internal situation of 
these territories. 



XIII. Evacuation by German 
troops to begin at once; and all 
German instructors, prisoners, and 



de l'echange des prisonniers de 
guerre, y compris celle de Juillet 
1918 en cours de ratification. 
Toutefois, le rapatriement des 
prisonniers de guerre allemands, 
internes en If ollande et en. Suisse, 
continuera comme pr^cedem- 
ment. — Le rapatriement des pri- 
sonniers de guerre allemands sera 
regie a la conclusion des prelimi- 
naires de paix:. 

XI. Les malades et blesses in- 
eVacuables, laisses sur les terri- 
toires e vac lies par les Armees 
Allemandes, seront soignes par du 
personnel allemand, qui sera laisse 
sur place avec le materiel neces- 
saire. 

b. — dispositions relatives aux 
frontieres orientales de 
l'allemagne. 

XII. Toutes les troupes alle- 
mandes qui se trouvent actuelle- 
ment dans les territoires qui fai- 
saient partie avant la guerre de 
1'Autriche-Hongrie, de la Rou- 
manie, de la Turquie, doivent 
rentrer immediatement dans les 
frontieres de l'Allemagne telles 
qu'elles etaient au l er aout 1914. 
Toutes les troupes allemandes 
qui se trouvent actuellement dans 
les territoires qui faisaient partie 
avant la guerre de la Russie de- 
vront egalement rentrer dans les 
frontieres de l'Allemagne definies 
comme ci-dessus, des que les 
Allies jugeront le moment venu, 
compte tenu de la situation inte- 
rieure de ces territoires. 

XIII . Mise en train immediate de 
1' evacuation par les troupes alle- 
mandes et du rappel de tous les 



1 Agreements concerning prisoners of war, Great Britain-Germany, British Parlia- 
mentary Papers, Misc. No. 20 (1918); United States-Germany, Nov. 11, 1918, Official 
U. S. Bulletin, Jan. 11, 1919, p. 10. 



62 



Germany, Armistice. 



civilian as well as military agents 
now on the territory of Russia 
(frontiers as existing on August 
1st, 1914) to be recalled. 

XIV. German troops to cease at 
once all requisitions and seizures, 
and any other coercive measure 
with a view to obtaining supplies 
intended for Germany in Rou- 
mania and Russia (frontiers as 
existing on August 1st, 1914). 

XV. Denunciation of the trea- 
ties of Bukarest and Brest-Litovsk 
and of the supplementary treaties. 

XVI. The Allies shall have free 
access to the territories evacuated 
by the Germans on their Eastern 
frontier, either through Danzig 
or by the Vistula, in order to 
convey supplies to the populations 
of those territories and for the 
purpose of maintaining order. 

C. — EAST AFRICA. 

XVII. Evacuation of all German 
forces operating in East Africa 
within a period specified by the 
Allies. 

D. — -GENERAL CLAUSES. 

XVIII. Repatriation without 
reciprocity, within a maximum 
period of one month, in accordance 
with detailed conditions hereafter 
to be fixed, of all interned civilians 
including hostages and persons 
under trial and convicted who 
may be subjects of other Allied or 
Associated States other than those 
mentioned in Clause III. 

Financial Clauses. 

XIX. With the exception of any 
future concessions and claims by 
the Allies and United States of 
America: 



instructeurs, prisonniers et agents 
civils et militaires allemandes se 
trouvant sur les territoires de la 
Russie (dans les limites du l eir 
aout 1914). 

XIV. Cessation immediate par les 
troupes allemandes de toutes re- 
quisitions, saisies ou mesures coer- 
citives, en vue de se procurer des 
ressources a destination de l'Alle- 
magne, en Roumanie et en Russie 
(dans leurs limites du l cr aout 
1914). 

XV. Renonciation au Traite de 
Bucarest et de Brest-Litovsk et 
traites complementaires. 

XVI. Les Allies auront libre acces 
aux territoires evacues par les Alle- 
mands sur les frontieres orientales, 
soit par Dantzig, soit par la Vistule, 
afin de pouvoir ravitailler les popu- 
lations et dans le but de maintenir 
l'ordre. 



C. — DANS L AFRIQUE ORIENTALE. 

XVII. Evacuation de toutes les 
forces allemandes operant dans 
TAfrique Orientale dans un delai 
regie par les Allies. 

D. CLAUSES GENERALES. 

XVIII. Rapatriement sans re- 
ciprocity, dans le delai maximum 
d'un mois, dans des conditions 
de detail a fixer, de tous les 
internes civils, y compris les 
otages, les prevenus ou condamnes, 
appartenant a des Puissances 
Alliees ou Associees autres que 
celles enumerees a 1' article III- 



Clauses financieres 

XIX. Sous reserve de toute- 
revendication et reclamation ulte- 
rieures de la part des Allies et des 
Etats-Unis: 



Germany, Armistice. 



63 



Repair of damage done. 

While the Armistice lasts no 
public securities shall be removed 
by the enemy which can serve as a 
pledge to the Allies for the re- 
covery of war losses. 

Immediate restitution of the 
cash deposit in the National Bank 
of Belgium, and, in general, imme- 
diate return of all documents, 
specie, stock, shares, paper money, 
together with plant for the issue 
thereof, affecting public or private 
interests in the invaded countries. 

Restitution of the Russian and 
Rumanian gold yielded to Ger- 
many or taken by that Power. 

This gold shall be held in trust 
by the Allies until peace is signed. 

E. NAVAL CLAUSES. 

XX. Immediate cessation of all 
hostilities at sea, and definite in- 
formation to be given as to the 
position and movements of all 
German ships. 

Notification to be given to 
neutrals that freedom of navigation 
in all territorial waters is given to 
the Naval and Mercantile Marines 
of the Allied and Associated 
Powers, without raising questions 
of neutrality. 

XXI. All Naval and Mercantile 
Marine prisoners of war of the 
Allied and Associated Powers in 
German hands to be returned, 
without reciprocity. 

XXII. The surrender at the 
ports specified by the Allies and 
the United States of all subma- 
rines at present in existence (in- 
cluding all submarine cruisers and 
minelayers), with armament and 



Reparation des dommages. 

Pendant la duree de l'armistice- 
il ne sera rien distrait par l'ennemi 
des valeurs publiques pouvant 
servir aux Allies de gages pour le 
recouvrement des reparations de 
guerre. 

Restitution immediate de l'en- 
caisse de la Banque Nationale de 
Belgique et en general remise 
immediate de tous documents, 
especes, valeurs (mobilieres et fi- 
duciaires, avec le materiel d'emis- 
sion) touchant aux interets publics 
et prives danssles pays envahis. 

Restitution de l'or russe ou 
roumain pris par les Allemands 
ou remis a eux. 

Cet or sera pris en charge par les 
Allies jusqu' a la signature de la 
paix. 

E. CLAUSES NAVALES. 

XX. Cessation immediate de 
toute hostilite sur mer et indication 
precise de 1' emplacement et des 
mouvements des batiments alle- 
mands. 

Avis donne aux Neutres de 
la liberte concedee a la naviga- 
tion des marines de guerre et de 
commerce des Puissances Alliees 
et Associees dans toutes eaux 
territoriales sans soulever de ques- 
tions de neutrality. 

XXI. Restitution, sans recipro- 
cite, de tous les prisonniers de 
guerre des marines de guerre et de 
commerce des Puissances Alliees 
et Associees au pouvoir des Alle- 
mands. 

XXII. Livraison aux Allies et 
aux Etats-Unis de tous les sous- 
marins (y compris tous les croiseurs 
sous-marins et tous les mouilleurs 
de mines) actuellement existants, 
avec leur armemeht et equipe- 



tf4 



Germany, Armistice. 



equipment complete. Those 
which cannot put to sea shall be 
►denuded of crew and equipment, 
and shall remain under the super- 
vision of the Allies and the United 
States. Submarines ready to put 
.to sea shall be prepared to leave 
German ports immediately on re- 
ceipt of wireless order to sail to the 
port of surrender, the remainder 
"to follow as early as possible. The 
conditions of this article shall be 
completed within 14 days of the 
-signing of the Armistice. 



XXIII. The German surface 
warships, which shall be desig- 
nated by the Allies and the United 
States of America, shall forthwith 
be dismantled and thereafter in- 
terned in neutral ports, or, failing 
them, Allied ports, to be desig- 
nated by the Allies and the United 
States of America. They shall re- 
main there under the surveillance 
of the Allies and the United States 
of America, only care and mainte- 
nance parties being left on board. 

The vessels designated by the 
Allies are: 1 



ment complets, dans les ports de- 
signed par les Allies et les Etats- 
Unis. Ceux qui ne peuvent pas 
prendre la mer seront desarmes de 
personnel et de materiel et ils 
devront rester sous la surveillance 
des Allies et des Etats-Unis. 

Les sous-marins qui sont prets 
pour la mer seront prepares a 
quitter les ports allemands aussi- 
tot que des ordres seront recus par 
T. S. F. pour leur voyage au port 
designe de la livraison, et le reste 
le plus tot possible. 

Les conditions de cet article 
seront realisees dans un delai de 
14 jours apres la signature de 
1' armistice. 

XXIII. Les navires de guerre 
de surface allemands qui seront 
designes par les Allies et les Etats- 
Unis seront immediatement des- 
armes, puis internes dans des ports 
neutres, ou, a leur defaut, dans les 
ports allies designes par les Allies 
et les Etats-Unis. 

Ils y demeureront sous la sur- 
veillance des Allies et des Etats- 
Unis,— des detachements de gar- 
des etant seuls iaisses a bord. 

La designation des Allies portera 
sur: 



i The Deutsche Aligemeine Zeitung, Nov. 16, 1918, published the following as Beilage 
2 to the armistice: 

" The following ships and vessels of the German Fleet with their complete armament 
and equipment are to be surrendered to the Allied and United States of America Gov - 
ernments, in ports which will be specified by them, namely: 

"Battleships: Third battle squadron: Kbnig, Bayern, Grosser Kurfiirst, Kronprinz 
Wilhelm, Markgraf. Fourth battle squadron: Friedrich der Orosse, Konig Albert, 
.Kaiserin, Prinzregan Luitpold, Kaiser. 

"Battle cruisers: Hindenburg, Derfflinger, Seydlitz, Molfke, Von der Tann, Mackensen. 
"Light cruisers: B rummer, Bremse, Koln, Dresden, Emden, Frankfurt, Niirnberg f 
Wiesbaden. 
"Destroyers: Fifty of the most modern destroyers. 

"(Signed) 



(Holland News, 11; 2396, Dec. 2, 1918.) 
(See also additional clause, infra p. 75.) 



J. Foch, 

"R. E. Wemtss, Admiral." 



Germany, Armistice. 



65 



6 Battle Cruisers. 
v 10 Battle Ships. 

8 Light Cruisers (of which 
two shall be mine-layers). 
50 Destroyers of the most mod- 
ern type. 
All other surface warships (in- 
cluding river craft) are to be con- 
centrated in German Naval bases 
to be designated by the Allies and 
the United States of America, com- 
pletely dismantled, and placed 
under the supervision of the Allies 
and the United States of America. 
The military equipment of all ves- 
sels of the Auxiliary Fleet is to be 
landed. All vessels specified for 
internment shall be ready to leave 
German ports seven days after the 
signing of the Armistice. Direc- 
tions for the voyage shall be given 
by wireless. 

XXIV. The Allies and the 
United States of America shall 
have the right to sweep up all 
minefields and to destroy obstruc- 
tions laid by Germany outside 
German territorial waters, the po- 
sitions of which are to be indi- 
cated. 

XXV. Free access to and from 
the Baltic for the Naval and Mer- 
cantile Marines of the Allied and 
Associated Powers, secured by 
the occupation of all German 
forts, fortifications, batteries and 
defence works of all kinds in all 
the channels between the Catte- 
gat and the Baltic, and by the 
sweeping up and destruction of all 
mines and obstructions within 
and without German territorial 
waters, the positions of all such 
mines and obstructions to be indi- 

116506—19 5 



6 croiseurs de bataille. 
10 cuirasses d'escadre. 
8 croiseurs legers (dont 2 
mouilleurs de mines). 
50 destroyers des types les 
plus recents. 
Tous les autres navires de guerre 
de surface (y compris ceux de 
riviere) devront etre reunis et com- 
pletement desarmes dans les bases 
navales allemandes designees par 
les Allies et les Etats-Unis, et y 
etre places sous la surveillance des 
Allies et des Etats-Unis. 

L'armement militaire de tous 
les navires de la flotte auxiliaire 
sera debarque. 

Tous les vaisseaux design 6s pour 
etre internes. seront prets a quitter 
les ports allemands 7 jours apres 
la signature de 1' armistice. 

On donnera par T. S. F. les di- 
rections pourle voyage. 

XXIV. Droit pour les Allies et 
les Etats-Unis, en dehors des eaux 
territoriales allemandes, de dra- 
guer tous les champs de mines et 
de detruire les obstructions placees 
par l'Allemagne, dont l'emplace- 
ment devra leur etre indique\ 

XXV. Libre entree et sortie de 
la Baltique pour les marines de 
guerre et de commerce des Puis- 
sances Alliees et Associees, assuree 
par 1' occupation de tous les forts, 
ouvrages, batteries et defense de 
tout ordre allemands, dans toutes 
les passes allant du Cattegat a la 
Baltique, et, par le dragage et la 
destruction de toutes mines ou 
obstructions dans et hors les eaux 
territoriales allemandes, dont les 
plans et emplacements exacts 
seront fournis par l'Allemagne f 



66 



Germany, Armistice. 



cated by Germany, who shall be 
permitted to raise no question of 
neutrality. 

XXVI. The existing blockade 
conditions set up by the Allied 
and Associated Powers are to 
remain unchanged, German mer- 
chant ships found at sea remain- 
ing liable to capture. The Allies 
and United States contemplate 
the provisioning of Germany dur- 
ing the Armistice as shall be found 
necessary. 

XXVII. All Aerial Forces are 
to be concentrated and immo- 
bilized in German bases specified 
by the Allies and the United 
States of America. 

XXVIII. In evacuating the 
Belgian coasts and ports Germany 
shall abandon in situ and intact 
the port material and material for 
inland waterways, also all mer- 
chant ships, tugs, and lighters, all 
naval aircraft and air materials 
and stores, all arms and arma- 
ments, and all stores and appa- 
ratus of all kinds. 



XXIX. All Black Sea ports are 
to be evacuated by Germany; all 
Russian warships seized by Ger- 
many in the Black Sea are to be 
handed over to the Allies and the 
United States of America; all 
neutral merchant ships seized in 
the Black Sea are to be released; 
all warlike and other material of 
all kinds seized in those ports are 
to be handed over, and German 
materials as specified in Clause 
XXVIII are to be surrendered. 

XXX. All merchant ships at 
present in German hands belong- 
ing to the Allied and Associated 
Powers are to be restored to ports 



qui ne pourra soulever aucune 
question de neutralite. 

XXVI. Maintien du blocus des 
Puissances Alliees et Assoc iees 
dans les conditions actuelles, — 
les navires de commerce alle- 
mands trouves en mer restant 
sujets a capture. Les Allies et 
les Etats-Unis envisagent le ravi- 
taillement de l'Allemagne pen- 
dant 1' armistice, dans la mesure 
reconnue necessaire. 

XXVII. Groupement et im- 
mobilisation dans les bases alle- 
mandes designees par les Allies et 
Etats-Unis de toutes les forces 
aeriennes. 

XXVIII. Abandon par l'Alle- 
magne, sur place et intacts, de 
tout le materiel de ports et de 
navigation fluviale, de tous les 
navires de commerce, remor- 
queurs, chalands, de tous les 
appareils, materiel et approvi- 
sionnements d'aeronautique ma- 
ritime, toutes armes, appareils, 
approvisionnements de toute na- 
ture, en evacuant la c6te et les 
ports beiges. 

XXIX. Evacuation de tous les 
ports de la Mer Noire par l'Alle- 
magne et remise aux Allies et 
aux Etats-Unis de tous les b.ati- 
ments de guerre russes saisis par 
les Allemands dans la Mer Noire; — 
liberation de tous les navires de 
commerce neutres saisis; — remise 
de tout le materiel de guerre ou 
autre saisi dans ces ports, — et 
abandon du materiel allemand 
enumere a la clause XXVIII. 

XXX. Restitution, sans reci- 
procite, dans des ports designes 
par les Allies et les Etats-Unis, 
de tous les navires de commerce 



Germany, Armistice. 



67 



specified by the Allies and the 
United States of America without 
reciprocity. 

XXXI. No destruction of ships 
or of materials to be permitted be- 
fore evacuation, delivery or resto- 
ration. 

XXXII. The German, Govern- 
ment shall formally notify all the 
neutral Governments, and par- 
ticularly the Governments of Nor- 
way, Sweden, Denmark, and Hoi- 
land, that all restrictions placed on 
the trading of their vessels with the 
Allied and Associated countries, 
whether by the German Govern- 
ment or by private German inter- 
ests, and whether in return for 
special concessions, such as the 
export of shipbuilding materials or 
not, are immediately canceled. 



XXXIII. No transfer of Ger- 
man merchant shipping of any 
description to any neutral flag is 
to take place after signature of the 
Armistice. 



F. — DURATION OP ARMISTICE. 

XXXIV. The duration of the 
Armistice is to be 36 days, with 
power of extension. During this 
period, on failure of execution of 
any of the above clauses, the 
Armistice may be repudiated by 
one of the contracting parties on 
48 hours' previous notice. It is 
understood that failure to execute 
Articles III and XVIII com- 
pletely in the period specified is 
not to give reason for a repudiation 
of the Armistice, save where such 
failure is due to malice afore- 
thought. 



appartenant aux Puissances Al- 
liees et Associees, actuellement 
au pouvoir de l'Allemagne. 

XXXI. Interdiction de toute 
destruction de navires ou de ma- 
teriel avant evacuation, livraison 
ou restitution. 

XXXII. Le Gouvernement al- 
lemand notifiera formellement a 
tous les Gouvernements neutres, 
et en particulier aux Gouverne- 
ments de Norvege, de Suede, du 
Danemark, et^de la Hollande, que 
toutes les restrictions imposees au 
trafic de leurs batiments avec les 
Puissances Alliees et Associees, 
soit par le Gouvernement alle- 
mand lui-meme, soit par des 
entreprises allemandes privees, 
soit en retour de concessions 
definies, comme l'exportation de 
materiaux de construction navals, 
ou non, sont immediatement 
annulees. 

XXXIII. — Aucun transfert de 
navires marchands allemands de- 
toute espece sous un pavilion 
neutre quelconque ne pourra avoir 
lieu apres la signature de l'Armis- 
tice. 

F. — DUREE DE L' ARMISTICE. 

XXXIV. La duree de V Armis- 
tice est fixee a 36 jours, avec 
faculte de prolongation. 

Au cours de cette duree 1' Armis- 
tice peut, si les clauses ne sont pas 
executees, etre denonce par l'une 
des parties contractantes, qui 
devra en donner le preavis 48 
heures a l'avance. II est entendu 
que l'execution des Articles III et 
XVIII ne donnera lieu a denoncia- 
tion de 1' Armistice pour l'insufn- 
sance d'execution dans les delais 
voulus que dans le cas d'une exe- 
cution mal intentionn6e. 



68 



Germany, Armistice. 



To ensure the execution of the 
present convention under the 
most favourable conditions, the 
principle of a permanent Inter- 
national Armistice Commission is 
recognized . This Commission will 
act under the supreme authority of 
the High Command, military and 
naval, of the Allied Armies. 

The present Armistice was 
signed on November 11, 1918, at 
5 o'clock (French time). 

(Signed :) 

F. Foch. Erzberger. 

R. E.Wemyss. Oberndorff. 

WlNTERFELDT. 

Vanselow. 



Pour assurer dans les meilleures 
conditions T execution de la pre- 
sente Convention, le principe d'une 
Commission d' Armistice Inter- 
nationale Permaneute est admis. 
Cette Commission fonctionnera 
sous la haute autorite du Com- 
mandement en Chef Militaire et 
Naval des Armees Alliees. 

Le present Armistice a ete signe 
le 11 Novembre 1918 a 5 heures 
(cinq heures), heure francaise. 

(Signed) 

F. Foch. Erzberger. 

R. E.Wemyss. Oberndorff. 

WlNTERFELDT. 

Vanselow. 



APPENDICES. 



Appendix No. 1. 



I. — Evacuation of the invaded ter- 
ritories, Belgium, France and 
Luxembourg, as also of Alsace- 
Lorraine: 

Shall be carried out in three 
successive stages according to the 
following conditions: 

1st stage. Evacuation of the 
territories situated between the 
existing front and line No. 1 on 
the enclosed map * to be completed 
within 5 days after the signing of 
the Armistice. 

2nd stage. Evacuation of terri- 
tories situated between Line No. 1 
and Line No. 2 to be carried out 
within 4 further days (9 days in 
all after the signing of the Armi- 
stice). 

3rd stage. Evacuaiion of the 
territories situated between Line 
No. 2 and Line No. 3 to be com- 
pleted within 6 further days (15 
days in all after the signing of the 
Armistice). 



Note Annexe No. 1. 

I. — Evacuation des pays envahis: 
Belgique, France, Luxembourg , 
ainsi que de V Alsace-Lorraine: 

Se fera en 3 phases successives 
dans les conditions suivantes: 

l e Phase: Evacuation des terri- 
toires situes entre le front actuel et 
la ligne No. 1 de la carte jointe: — 
terminee dans un delai de 5 jours 
apres la signature de 1' Armistice. 

2 e Phase: Evacuation des terri- 
toires situes entre la ligne No. 1 et 
la ligne No. 2: — terminee dans un 
delai de 4 nouveaux jours (9 jours 
au total apres la signature de 
V Armistice). 

3 e Phase: Evacuation des terri- 
toires situes entre la ligne No. 2 et 
la ligne No. 3: — terminee dans un 
delai de 6 nouveaux jours (15 jours 
au total apres la signature de 
1' Armistice). 



Not printed. 



Germany j Ajipendices to Armistice, 



69 



Allied and United States troops 
shall enter these various terri- 
tories on the expiration of the 
period allowed to the German 
troops for the evacuation of each 
of them. 

In consequence the Allied troops 
will cross the present German 
front as from the 6th day following 
the signing of the Armistice, Line 
No. 1 as from the 10th day, and 
Line No. 2 as from the 16th day. 

II. — Evacuation of the Rhine 
district. 

This evacuation will also be 
carried out in several successive 
stages: 

1. Evacuation of territories situ- 
ated between Lines 2 and 3 and 
Line 4 to be completed within 4 
further days (19 days in all after 
the signing of the Armistice). 

2. Evacuation of territories situ- 
ated between Lines 4 and 5 to be 
completed within 4 further days 
(23 days in all after the signing of 
the Armistice). 

3. Evacuation of territories situ- 
ated between Lines 5 and 6 (Line 
of the Rhine) to be completed 
within 4 further days (27 days in 
all after the signing of the Armi- 
stice) . 

4. Evacuation of bridge-heads 
and of the neutral zone on the right 
bank of the Rhine to be completed 
within 4 further days (31 days in 
all after the signing of the Armi- 
stice). 

The Allied and United States 
Army of Occupation shall enter 
these various territories after the 
expiration of the period allowed to 
the German troops for the evacua- 
tion of each of them; consequently 
the Army will cross Line No. 3 20 



Des troupes alliens et des Etats- 
Unis penetreront dans ces cliffy- 
rents territoires apres 1' expiration 
des delais accordes aux troupes 
allemandes pour Pevacuation de 
chacun d'eux. 

En consequence: — le front alle- 
mand actuel sera f ranch i par les 
troupes alliees a partir du 6 e jour 
qui suivra la signature de PArmis- 
tice. — la ligne No. 1 a partir du 10 e 
jour; — la ligne No. 2 a partir du 16 e 
jour. 

II. — Evacuation des pays du Rhin. 

Gette evacuation se. fera egale- 
ment en plusieurs phaser succes- 
sives: 

1°) Evacuation des territoires 
situes entre la ligne 2, 3 — et la 
ligne 4: — terminee dans un delai 
de 4 nou veaux jours (19 jours au 
total apres la signature de PArmis- 
tice). 

2°) Evacuation des territoires 
situes entre la ligne 4 et la ligne 
5: — terminee dans un delai de 4 
nouveaux jours (23 jours au total 
apres la signature de 1' Armistice). 

3°) Evacuation des territoires 
situes entre la ligne 5 et la ligne 6 
(ligne du Rhin): — terminee dans 
un delai de 4 nouveaux jours (27 
jours au total apres la signature de 
P Armistice). 

4°) Evacuation des tetes de 
pont et de la zone neutre de la 
rive droite du Rhin. — Terminee 
dans un delai de 4 nouveaux jours 
(31 jours au total apres la signa- 
ture de P Armistice). 

Les troupes d'occupation alliees 
et des Etats-Unis penetreront dans 
ces differents territoires apres Pex- 
piration des delais accorded aux 
troupes allemandes pour l'evacua- 
tion de chacun d'eux. En con- 
sequence: la ligne No. 3 sera 



70 



Germany, Appendices to Armistice. 



days after the signing of the Arm- 
istice. It will cross Line No. 4 as 
from the 24th day after the sign- 
ing of the Armistice, Line No. 5 as 
from the 28th day, Line No. 6 
(Rhine) as from the 32nd day for 
the occupation of the bridge- 
heads. 

III. — Surrender by the German 
Army of the war material specified 
by the Armistice. 

This war material shall be sur- 
rendered according to the follow- 
ing conditions: the first half be- 
fore the 10th day, the second half 
before the 20th day. This mate- 
rial will be handed over to each 
of the Allied and United States 
Armies by each tactical group of 
the German Army in the propor- 
tions which may be fixed by the 
permanent Armistice Commission. 

Appendix No. 2. 

Conditions with reference to means 
of communication (railways, water- 
ways, roads, river and sea ports, 
and telegraphs and telephones). 

1. All lines of communication as 
far as the Rhine, inclusive, or 
comprised, on the right bank of 
this river, within the bridge-heads 
occupied by the Allied Armies 
will be placed under the supreme 
authority of the Commander-in- 
Chief of the Allied Armies, who 
will have the right to take any 
measure he may think necessary 
to assure their occupation and use. 
All documents relative to com- 
munications will be held ready 
to be handed to him. 1 



franchie par elles a partir du 20 e 
jour qui suivra la signature de 
1' Armistice; la ligne No. 4 sera 
franchie par elles a partir du 24 e 
jour qui suivra la signature de 
1' Armistice; la ligne No. 5 a 
partir du 28 e jour; la ligne No. 6 
(Rhin) a partir du 32 e jour, pour 
Poccupation des tetes de pont. 

III. — Livraison par les Armies Al- 
lemandes du materiel de Guerre 
fixe par V Armistice. 

Ce materiel de guerre devra etre 
livre dans les conditions suivantes: 
la premiere moitie avant le 10 e 
jour; la deuxieme moitie avant 
le 20 e jour. Ce materiel sera rem is 
a chacune des Armees Alliees et 
des Etats-Unis, par chacun des 
Groupements Tactiques de l'Ar- 
mee Allemande, dans les propor- 
tions qui seront fixe'es par la Com- 
mission Permanente d'Armistice. 

Note Annexe No. 2. 

Conditions interessant les voies de 
communication (voies ferrees, voies 
navigables, routes, ports fluviaux 
et mar i times, telegraphes et tele- 
phones). 

1. Toutes les voies de com- 
munication situees jusqu'au Rhin 
inclus ou comprises, sur la rive 
droite de ce fleuve, a l'interieur 
des tetes de pont occupees par les 
Armees Alliens, seront places sous 
l'autorite pleine et entiere du 
Commandant en Chef des Armees 
Alliees, qui aura le droit de 
prendre toutes les mesures qu'il 
jugera necessaires pour en assurer 
1' occupation et 1' exploitation. 
Tous les documents relatifs aux 
voies de communication seront 
tenus prets a lui §tre remis. 



i Instructions for meeting of representatives of both sides, to arrange for the extended 
operations of the interallied commission of railways in the field and the interallied com- 
mission of navigation in the field, and for the taking over the Belgian railroad, water- 
way, telephone and telegraph systems were published in the London Times, November 
14, 1918, p. 6. 



Germany, Appendices to Armistice. 



71 



2. All the material and all the 
civil and military personnel at 
present employed for the main- 
tenance and working of all lines of 
communication are to be main- 
tained in their entirety upon these 
lines in all territories evacuated by 
the German troops. 

All supplementary material nec- 
essary for the upkeep of these 
lines of communication in the 
■districts on the left bank of the 
Rhine will be supplied by the 
German Government throughout 
the duration of the Armistice. 

3. Personnel. — The French and 
Belgian personnel belonging to 
the services of the lines of com- 
munication, whether interned or 
not, are to be returned to the 
French and Belgian Armies dur- 
ing the 15 days following the 
signing of the Armistice. The 
personnel belonging to the organ- 
ization of the system controlled 
by the Alsace-Lorraine railways 
are to be maintained or reinstated 
in such a way as to ensure the 
working of the system. 

The Commander-in-Chief of the 
Allied Armies will have the right 
to make all changes and substitu- 
tions that he may desire in the 
personnel of the lines of com- 
munication. 

4. Material — (a) Rolling Stock. — 
The rolling stock handed over to 
the Allied Armies in the zone com- 
prised between the present front 
and Line No. 3, not including 
Alsace-Lorraine, will be of value 
at least equal to 5,000 locomotives, 
150,000 wagons. This surrender 
will be carried out within the 
period fixed by Clause 7 of the 
Armistice, and under conditions 
the details of which shall be fixed 



2. Tout le materiel et tout le 
personnel civil et militaire utilises 
actuellement pour l'entretien et 
l'exploitation des voies de com- 
munication seront maintenus in- 
tegralement sur ces voies, dans 
tous les territoires evacues par les 
troupes allemandes. 

Tout le materiel supplementaire 
necessaire pour l'entretien de ces 
voies de communication dans les 
pays de la rive gauche du Rhin, 
sera fourni par le Gouvernement 
allemand pendant toute la dur6e 
de 1' armistice. 

3. Personnel. — Le personnel 
francais et beige appartenant au 
service des voies de communica- 
tion, qu'il soit interne ou non, 
sera remis aux Armees francaises 
et beiges dans les 15 jours suivant 
la signature de rarmistice. 

Le personnel affecte organique- 
ment au reseau exploite par les 
chemins de fer d 'Alsace-Lorraine 
sera maintenu ou remis en place 
de facon a assurer l'exploitation 
du reseau. 

Le Commandant en Chef des 
Armees Alliees aura le droit de 
faire dans le personnel des voies 
de communication toutes les muta- 
tions et tous les remplacements 
qui lui conviendront. 

4. Materiel — (a) Materiel rou- 
lant. — Le materiel roulant remis 
aux Armees Alliees dans la zone 
comprise entre le front actuel et 
la ligne N° 3 non compris l'Alsace- 
Lorraine, sera d'une importance 
au moins egale a: 5,000 locomo- 
tives, 150,000 wagons. Cette li- 
vraison sera effectuee, dans les 
delais fixes par la clause 7 de 
1 'Armistice, et dans des condi- 
tions de detail a arreter par la 



72 



Germany , Appendices to Armistice. 



by the permanent International 
Armistice Commission. 

All this material is to be in good 
condition and in working order, 
with all the ordinary spare parts 
and fittings. It may be employed 
together with the regular personnel 
or with any other upon any part 
of the railway system of the Allied 
Armies. 

The material necessary for the 
working of the system controlled 
by the Alsace-Lorraine railways is 
to be maintained or replaced for 
the use of the French Army. 

The material to be left in situ in 
the territories on the left bank of 
the Rhine, as well as that on the 
inside of the bridge-heads, on the 
other hand, should permit of the 
normal working of the railways in 
these districts. 

(6) The material for signal lines, 
repair shops, material for signal- 
ling, machine tools and tool out- 
fits taken from the workshops and 
depots of the French and Belgian 
lines are to be replaced under 
conditions the details of which 
are to be arranged by the perma- 
nent International Armistice Com- 
mission, 

The Allied Armies are to be sup- 
plied with railroad material, rails, 
incidental fittings, plant, bridge 
building material and wood neces- 
sary for the repair of the lines 
destroyed beyond the present 
front. 

(c) Combustibles and mainten- 
ance material. — The German Gov- 
ernment are to be responsible 
throughout the duration of the 
Armistice for the release of com- 
bustibles and maintenance mate- 
rial to the depots normally work- 
ing in the territories on the left 
bank of the Rhine. 



Commission d' Armistice Inter- 
nationale Permanente. 

Tout ce materiel sera en bon 
£tat d'entretien et de roulement 
et pourvd de toutes les pieces de 
rechanges ou agres usuels. II 
pourra §tre utilise avec son per- 
sonnel propre ou tout autre, sur 
un point quelconque du reseau 
ferre des Armies Alliees. 

Le materiel affecte organique- 
ment au Reseau exploite par les 
chemins de fer d 'Alsace-Lorraine 
sera maintenu ou remis en place 
a la disposition de l'Armee Fran- 
caise. 

Le materiel a laisser sur place 
dans les pays de la rive gauche 
du Rhin ainsi qu'a l'interieur des 
tetes de pont d' autre part, de\ra 
permettre 1' exploitation normale 
des voies ferrees de ces territoires. 

(b) Materiel de voie de signalisa- 
tion et d'atelier. — Le materiel de 
signalisation, les macbines-outils 
e t l'outillage preleves sur les 
ateliers, les depdts des reseaux 
francais et beige, seront remis, 
dans des conditions de detail a 
arreter par la Commission d' Armis- 
tice Internationale Permanente. 
II sera fourni aux Armees Alliees 
le materiel de voie, rails, petit 
materiel, appareils, materiel de 
pont et les bois necessaires a la 
remise en etat des lignes detruites 
au dela du front actuel . 



(c) Combustible et mature d'en- 
tretien. — Pendant la duree de 
l'Armistice, les combustibles et 
matieres d'entretien seront liberes 
par les soins du Gouvernement 
Allemand aux depots normale- 
ment affectes a 1' exploitation dans 
les pays de la rive gauche du 
Rhin. 



Germany, Appendices to Armistice. 



73 



5. Telegraphic and Telephonic 
Communications. — All telegraphic 
and telephonic lines, all fixed W. 
T. stations are to be handed over 
to the Allied Armies with all the 
civil and military personnel and 
all their material, including all 
stores on the left bank of the 
Rhine. 

Supplementary stores necessary 
for the upkeep of the line are to be 
supplied throughout the duration 
of the Armistice by the German 
Government as and when re- 
quired. 

The Commander-in-Chief of the 
Allied Armies will occupy this 
line in a military sense, and will 
ensure its control, and will make 
all changes and substitutions in 
personnel which he may think 
necessary. 

He will send back to the Ger- 
man Army all the military per- 
sonnel who are not in his judg- 
ment necessary for the working 
and upkeep of the railway. 

All plans of German telegraphic 
and telephonic lines are to be 
handed over to the Commander- 
in-Chief of the Allied Armies. 



5. Communications Teler/raphi- 
ques et Telephoniques . — Toutes les 
lignes telegraphiques et telephoni- 
ques, tous les postes de T. S. F. 
fixes seront passes aux Arme'es 
Alliees avec tout le personnel 
civil et militaire et- tout leur ma- 
teriel, y compris tous les appro- 
visionnements constitues sur la 
rive gauche du Rhin. 

Les appro visionnements supple- 
mentaires necessaires pour l'entre- 
tien du reseau devront etre fournis, 
pendant la duree de 1' armistice, 
par le Gouvernement Allemand 
au fur et a mesure des besoins. 

Le Commandant en Chef des 
Armees Alliees occupera ce reseau 
militairement, en assurera la direc- 
tion et fera, dans le personnel, 
tous les remplacements et muta- 
tions qu'il jugera utile. 

II renverra a l'Armee Alle- 
mande tout le personnel militaire 
qu'il n'estimera pas necessaire 
pour 1' exploitation et l'entretien 
du reseau. 

Tous les plans du reseau tele- 
graphique et telephonique alle- 
mand seront remis au Comman- 
dant en Chef des Armies Alliees. 



Declaration Made by German Plenipotentiaries on Signing Armistice. 



German Government will natur- 
ally endeavour with all its power 
to take care that the duties im- 
posed upon it shall be carried out. 

The undersigned Plenipoten- 
tiaries recognize that in certain 
points regard has been paid to 
their suggestions. They can there- 
fore regard the comments made on 
November 9th on the conditions 
of the Armistice with Germany 
and the answer handed to them 



Die deutsche Regierung wird 
selbstverstandlich bestrebt sein, 
mit alien Kraften fur die Dureh- 
f tinning der auferlegten Ver- 
pflichtungen Sorge zu tragen. 

Die unterzeichneten Bevoll- 
machtigten erkennen an, dass in 
einigen Punkten auf ihre Anre- 
gung hin Entgegenkommen gezeigt 
word en ist. Sie diirfen daher die 
am 9. November iibergebenen 
Bemerkungen zu den Bedingun- 
gen des Waffenstillstands mit 



74 



Germany, Comments on Armistice. 



on November 10th as an essential 
condition of the whole agreement. 



They must, however, allow no 
doubt to exist on the point that 
in particular the short time al- 
lowed for evacuation as well as the 
surrender of indispensable means 
of transport threaten to bring about 
a state of things which without its 
being the fault of the German 
Government and the German peo- 
ple may render impossible the 
further fulfilment of the condi- 
tions. 

The undersigned Plenipoten- 
tiaries further regard it as their 
duty with reference to their re- 
peated oral and written declara- 
tion once more to point out with 
all possible emphasis that the 
carrying out of this agreement 
must throw the German people 
into anarchy and famine. Ac- 
cording to the declarations which 
preceded the Armistice, condi- 
tions were to be expected which 
while completely ensuring the 
military situation of our opponents 
would have ended the sufferings 
of women and children who took 
no part in the war. 

The German people, which has 
held its own for fifty months 
against a world of enemies, will in 
spite of any force that may be 
brought to bear upon it preserve 
its freedom and unity. 

A people of 70 millions suffers 
but does not die. 

(Signed) Erzberger, 
Oberndorff, 
w t interfeldt, 
Vanselow. 



Deutschland und die ihnen am 10. 
November iiberreichte Antwort 
als einen integrierenden Bestand- 
teil des Gesamtabkommens an- 
sehn. 

Sie diirfen aber keinen Zweifel 
dariiber lassen, dass insbesondere 
die Kurze der Raumungsfristen 
sowie die Abgabe unentbehr- 
licher Transportmittel einei Zu- 
stand herbeizufuhren drohen, der 
Ohne Verschulden der deutschen 
Regierung und des deutschen 
Volkes die weitere Erfullung der 
Bedingungen unmoglich machen 
kann. 

Die unterzeichneten Bevoll- 
machtigten erachten es ferner fur 
ihre Pflicht, unter Berufung auf 
ihre wiederholten miindlichen 
und schriftlichen Erklarungen 
noch einmal mit allem Nachdruck 
darauf hinzuweisen, dass die 
Durchfiihrung dieses Abkommens 
das deutsche Volk in Anarchie und 
Hungersnot stiirzen muss. Nach 
den Kundgebungen, die den Waf- 
fenstillstand eingeleitet haben, 
mussten Bedingungen erwartet 
werden, die bei voller militarischer 
Sicherung unserer Gegner die 
Qualen der am Kampfe Unbe- 
teiligten, der Frauen und Kinder, 
beendet hatten. 

Das deutsche Volk, das 50 Mo- 
nate lang Stand gehalten hat gegen 
eine Welt von Feinden, wird un- 
geachtet jeder Gewalt seine Frei- 
heit und Einheit wahren. 

Ein Volk von 70 Millionen 
leidet, aber es stirbt nicht. 
(Gezeichnet:) Erzberger, 
Oberndorff, 

WlNTERFELDT, 

Vanselow. 



Germany, Additions to Armistice. 



75 



TEXT OF CONDITIONS ADDED TO CLAUSES OF ARMIHTICr. 



11 November, 1918. 

Thp representatives of the Allies 
declare that owing to further oc- 
currences it seems to them neces- 
sary that the following conditions 
should be added to the clauses of 
the Armistice: 

'In case that the German vessels 
should not be surrendered within 
the time indicated the Allies and 
United States Governments will 
have the right to occupy Heligo- 
land in order to ensure their sur- 
Tender.' 

(Signed) R. E. Wemyss, 

Admiral. 
F. Foch. 

The German delegates state that 
they will transmit this declaration 
to the German Chancellor with the 
recommendation that it shall be 
accepted, adding the reasons 
which have given rise to this de- 
mand on the part of the Allies. 
(Signed) Erzberger. 

Winterfeldt. 

Oberndorpp. 

Vanselow. 

Rouleau. 



Le 11 NO\ EMBRE 1918. 

Les Repr^sentants des Alli6s d6- 
clarent qu'en raison des ev ele- 
ments nouveaux il leur parait n6- 
cessaire que la condition suivante 
soit ajoutee aux clauses de l'Ar- 
mistice: 

'Dans le cas ou les bateaux alle- 
mands ne seraient pas livres dans 
les delais indiques, les Gouverne- 
ments des Allies et des Etats-Unis 
auront le droit d'occuper Heligo- 
land pour en assurer la livraison.' 

(Signe) R. E. Wemyss, 

Amiral. 

F. Foch. 

Les Delegues allemands decla- 
rent qu'ils feront parvenir cette 
declaration au Chancelier alle- 
mand avec la recommandation de 
l'accepter, en l'accompagnant des 
raisons qui ont motive cette de- 
mande de la part des Allies. 

(Signe) Erzberger. 

Winterfeldt. 

Oberndorff. 

Vanselow. 



Convention prolonging the Armistice December 13, 1918. 



The undersigned, in virtue of 
the powers with which they were 
endowed for the signing of the 
Armistice of the 11th November, 
1918, have concluded the follow- 
ing additional agreement: 

1. The duration of the Armistice 
signed on the 11th November, 
1918, has been prolonged for a 
month — i. e., till 5 a. m. on the 
17th January, 1919. 

The one month's extension will 
be further extended until the con- 
clusion of Peace preliminaries, 



Les soussignes, munis des pou- 
voirs en vertu desquels ils ont 
signe la convention d' armistice du 
11 novembre 1918, ont conclu la 
convention additionnelle suivante : 

1° La duree de 1' armistice con- 
clu le 11 novembre 1918 est pro- 
longed d'un mois, c'est-a-dire 
jusqu'au 17 Janvier 1919, a 5 
heures (cinq heures). 

Cette prolongation d'un mois 
sera etendue jusqu'a la conclusion 
des preliminaires de paix, sous la 



76 



Germany, Prolongation of Armistice. 



provided this arrangement meets 
with the approbation of the Allied 
Governments. 

2. The clauses of the Convention 
(11th November) which have been 
incompletely fulfilled will be car- 
ried out during the period of ex- 
tension, according to the condi- 
tions' laid down by the Permanent 
International Armistice Commis- 
sion following the orders given by 
the Allied Generalissimo. 

3. The following clause is added 
to the Convention of the 11th 
November, 1918: l 

"From now onwards the Gen- 
eralissimo reserves to himself the 
right of occupying (when he deems 
it advisable), as an additional guar- 
antee, the neutral zone on the right 
bank of the Rhine, north of the 
bridge-head of Cologne, and as far 
as the Dutch frontier. 

"Six days' notice will be given 
by the Generalissimo before the 
occupation comes into effect." 

Treves, 13th December, 1918. 
(Signed) F. Foch, 

Wemyss, Admiral. 

Erzberger, 

A. Oberndorff, 

Winterfeldt, 

Vanselow. 



reserve d'approbation des Gou- 
vernements allies. 

2° L' execution des clauses de 
la convention du 11 novembre in- 
complement realisees sera pour- 
suivie et achevee pendant la pro- 
longation de 1' armistice, dans les 
conditions de detail fixees par la 
Commission internationale per- 
manente d'armistice, d'apres les 
instructions du Haut Commande- 
ment allie. 

3° La clause suivante est ajou- 
tee a la convention du 11 novem- 
bre 1918: 

"Le Haut Commandement allie 
"se reserve, des a present, d'occu- 
'per, quand il le jugera con- 
'venable, a titre de nouvelle 
'garantie, la zone neutre de la 
'rive droite du Rhin, au Nord de 
'la tete de pont de Cologne et 
'jusqu'a la frontiere hollandaise. 
'Cette occupation fera l'objet 
'd'un preavis de 6 (six) jours de 
'la part du Haut Commandements 
'allie." 
Treves, le 13 decembre 1918. 
Signe: F. Foch, 

We ymis s , amir a I . 
Signe: Erzberger, 

A. Oberndorff. 

WlNTERFELDT, 

Vanselow. 



1 This condition was first announced in a note of the Allies, Dec. 12, 1918, in which 
infractions of 12 articles of the armistice by Germany were listed. These included failure 
to deliver war material, aircraft, railroad rolling stock, and naval vessels in the time and 
quantity provided. In connection with the last category the statement read: "Five 
submarines in Spain, one in Norway, and one in Netherlands ought to be delivered," 
and " The refusal of the German Government to deliver the vessels condemned by the 
prize court is considered as contrary to the terms of the armistice." Other infractions 
were stated to be ill treatment of inhabitants of evacuated territory and neglect of lib- 
erated prisoners of war; failure to indicate live mines in evacuated regions; failure to 
open navigation to the Baltic and removal of securities and gold reserves pledged as a 
financial guaranty to the allies- Germany replied on the same day asserting her good 
faith and that such infractions as had occurred were due to physical impossibilities and 
the upset condition of the country. The allies, however, reasserted the new condition, 
taking account particularly "of the ill treatment and cruelty inflicted upon allied pris- 
oners as well as the diminution of financial guaranties given by Germany to the allies." 
(Quoted in Holland News 2:2520 et seq. from Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Dec. 17, 
1918.) 



Germany, Armistice, Financial Conditions. 77 



FINANCIAL STIPULATIONS. 

Treves, December 13, 1918. 

1. Engagement for the German 
Government not to dispose, with- 
out previous consent of the Allies, 
of the bullion of the treasury or of 
the Reichsbank; of securities or 
of credits even in foreign coun- 
tries; as well as of foreign trans- 
ferable securities belonging to the 
Government and to the public 
funds. 

Engagement for the German 
Government not to give, without 
previous consent of the Allies, 
any authorization to dispose of 
the credits or securities above, 
possessed by individuals or socie- 
ties. 

2. Engagement for the German 
Government to take, with the 
accord of the allied governments, 
all measures expedient for decid- 
ing in the briefest delay possible, 
under what conditions will be 
restored to their legitimate owners 
the property lost or stolen in the 
invaded regions. 

3. Obligation for the German 
Government to pay to the inhab- 
itants of Alsace-Lorraine at their 
expiration, and conformably to 
the laws in force, all the debts 
and all the securities matured or 
to mature during the period of the 
armistice and concerning the Ger- 
man public funds, for example: 
Treasury notes, securities, postal 
or other checks, clearing-house cer- 
tificates, acceptances, etc., the 
above enumeration being enuncia- 
tive and not limitative. 

Obligation for the German Gov- 
ernment to offer no special ob- 
stacles to the free disposition by 



stipulations financieres. 

Treves, le 13 decembre 1918. 

I. Engagement pour le Gou- 
vernement allemand de ne pas 
disposer, sans accord prealable 
avec les Allies, de l'encaisse metal- 
lique du Tresor ou de la Reisch- 
bank, des effets ou des avoirs sur 
ou a 1'etranger ainsi que des val- 
eurs mobilieres etrangeres appar- 
tenant au Gouvernement et aux 
Caisses publiques. 

Engagement pour le Gouvern- 
ement allemand de ne donner, 
sans accord prealable avec les 
Allies, aucune autorisation de sortie 
pour les avoirs ou les valeurs ci- 
dessus possedes par des particu- 
liers ou des societes. 

II. Engagement pour le Gouv- 
ernment allemand de prendre, 
d'accord avec les Gouvernements 
allies, toutes' dispositions utiles 
pour decider, dans le plus bref 
delai possible, dans quelles condi- 
tions seront restitues a leurs pro- 
prietaries legitimes les titres per- 
dus ou voles dans les regions 
envahies. 

III. Obligation pour le Gou- 
vernement allemand de payer aux 
Alsaciens-Lorrains a leurs eche- 
ances, et conformement aux lois 
en vigueur, toutes les dettes ou 
tous les effets 6chus ou a £choir 
pendant la duree de l'armistice et 
concernant des Caisses publiques 
allemandes, par exemple: les 
Bons du Tresor, les effets, cheques 
postaux ou autres, les virements, 
acceptations, etc., ladite enume- 
ration etant enonciative et non 
limitative. 

Obligation pour le Gouverne- 
ment allemand de n'apporter 
aucune entrave speciale a la libre 



Prolongation of Armisi 



the inhabitants of Alsace-Lorraine 
of properties, securities, ritles. 
deposits belonging to them and 
situated in Germany. 

4. Engag r the German 

mment to examine, with the 

allied governments, 

a :o take for the restitution 

in the shortest time possible, of 

: to the prejudice 

of al. if : n.irionals. 

For France: 

P. TlRAKJX 

vmany: 
Busts 
Ratskn. 



disposition par or- 

rains des proprietes. valeurs. titres, 
riir appartenan ;;ea. 

en Allemagne. 

IV. Engagement pour le Gou- 
vernement allemand d'examin 

cord avee les Gouvernements 
allies, les m prendre pour 

la restitution, dans le plus bref 
- biena ~. 

nationaux 
allies 

- r -j.e: 

..ice: 
MM. Ch. I 

P. TrKARD. 

Pour P Allemagne: 
MM. Bi 

Ratssn. 



-ntion prolonging the Armistice, January 16, 1919. 



The undersigned Plenipoten- i 
tiai . -liral Browning taking 

the pl^. Admiral WemyaE 

vested with the powers in vii 
of which the Armistice Agreement 
of 11th November, 191 v 

have concluded the fol- 
lowing e v.entary agreement: 

1. The Armistice of the 11th 
November, 1918, which, was pro- ! 
longed until the 17th January. 
191:' Agreement ;: the 
13th December, 191S. shall be j 
acain prolonged for one month, 
that is to say. until the 17th ■ 

ruary. 1919. at 5 a. m. 
This prolongation of one month 
shall be extended until the con- 
clusion of the Peace prelimin- 
aries, subject to the approval 
the Allied Governments. 

2. The execution of those 
clauses of the Agreement of the 
11th November which have not 
been entirely carried out shall be 
proceeded with and completed I 



Plenipotentiaires soussignee, 
1'Amiral Weymiss etant renipl 
par 1'Amiral Browning, munis des 
pouvoirs en vertu deaquelfi 

La Convention d' armistice 
du 11 novembre 19 IS, ont conclu 
la Convention additionnelle sui- 
vante: 

I. L' Armistice du 11 novembre 
1918, prolo: :anvier 
1919 par la Convention du 13 
decembre 191> est - : : loxige* a 
nouveau de un mois, c'est-a-dire 
jusquau 17 fevrier 1919, a 
heures cinq heures . 

Cette prolongation de un mois 
sera etendue jusqu'a la conclusion 

a Prelirmn aires de Paix. sous la 
reserve d' approbation des Gouver- 
nements alii - 

II. L'execution des clauses de 
la Convention du 11 novembre 
incompletement realisees sera pour 

:: aehevee pendant la 
prolongation de l'Arniistiee. dans 



Germany, Prolongation of Armistice. 



79 



during the prolongation of the 
Armistice, in accordance with the 
detailed conditions fixed by the 
Permanent International Armis- 
tice Commission on the instruc- 
tions of the Allied High Com- 
mand. 

3. In substitution of the supple- 
mentary railway material speci- 
fied by tables 1 and 2 of the Spa 
Protocol of 17th December (i. e., 
500 locomotives and 19,000 wagons, 
the German Government shall 
supply the following agricultural 
machinery and instruments)— 

400 two-engined steam plow 
outfits, complete, with suitable 
plows. 

6,500 drills. 

6,500 manure distributors. 

6,500 plows. 

6,500 Brabant plows. 

12,500 harrows. 

6,500 scarifiers, 

2,500 steel rollers, 

2,500 Croskill rollers, 

2,500 mowing machines, 

2,500 hay-making machines, 

3,000 reapers and binders, 
or equivalent implements, accord- 
ing to the scale of interchangeabil- 
ity of various kinds of implements 
considered permissible by the Per- 
manent International Armistice 
Commission. All this material, 
which shall be either new, or in 
very good condition, shall be de- 
livered together with all access- 
ories belonging to each implement, 
and with the spare parts required 
for 18 months' use. 

The German Armistice Commis- 
sion shall, between the present 
date and the 23d January,- supply 
the Allied Armistice Commission 
with a list of the material that can 



les conditions de detail fixees par 
la Commission Internationale Per- 
manente d' Armistice, d'apres les 
instructions du Haut Commande- 
ment allie. 



III. Le Gouvernement alle- 
mand fournira en remplacement 
du materiel de chemins de fer 
supplementaire de 500 locomotives 
et 19,000 wagons fixes en applica- 
tion des tableaux annexes 1 et 2 du 
Protocole de Spa du 17 decembre, 
les machines et instruments agri- 
coles suivants: 

400 groupes de labourage a 
vapeur complets a doubles ma- 
chines avec charrues appropriees, 

6,500 semoirs, 

6,500 distributeurs d'engrais, 

6,500 charrues, 

6,500 charrues Brabant, 

12,500 herses, 

6,500 scarificateurs, 

2,500 rouleaux acier, 

2,500 rouleaux Croskill, 

2,500 faucheuses, 

2,500 faneuses, 

3,000 moissonneuses-lieuses, 
ou les appareils equivalents avec 
interchangeabilite admise entre 
les differentes categories d' appa- 
reils apres examen fait par la Com- 
mission Internationale Perma- 
nente d' Armistice. Ce materiel, 
neuf ou en tres bon etat, doit etre 
muni des accessoires propres a 
chaque instrument et des lots de 
rechanges necessaires a un service 
de dix-huit mois. 

La Commission allemande d'Ar- 
mistice fournira d'ici au 23 Janvier 
a la Commission alliee d' Armistice 
la liste de ce qui peut etre livre" 
jusqu'au l er mars et qui doit §tre, 



80 



Germany, Prolongation of Armistice. 



be delivered by the 1st March, 
which must, in principle, consti- 
tute not less than one-third of the 
total quantity. The International 
Armistice Commission shall- be- 
tween now and the 23d January, 
fix the latest dates of delivery, 
which shall, in principle not ex- 
tend beyond the 1st June. 

4. The officers in Germany dele- 
gated by the Allied and Associated 
Powers to organize the evacuation 
of the prisoners of war belonging 
to the armies of the Entente, to- 
gether with representatives of the 
Relief Association of the United 
States, France, Great Britain and 
Italy, shall form a Commission 
charged with the care of Russian 
prisoners of war in Germany. 

This Commission, the head- 
quarters of which shall be in Ber- 
lin, shall be empowered to deal 
with the German Government 
direct, upon instructions from the 
Allied Governments, regarding all 
questions relating to Russian 
prisoners of war. 

The German Government shall 
accord the Commission all travel- 
ing facilities necessary for the pur- 
pose of investigating the housing 
conditions and food supply of such 
prisoners. 

The Allied Governments re- 
serve the right to arrange for the 
repatriation of Russian prisoners 
of war to any region which they 
may consider most suitable. 

5. Naval clauses.- — Article XXII 
of the Armistice Agreement of the 
11th November, 1918, shall be 
supplemented as follows: 

"In order to insure the execu- 
tion of such clause, the German 
authorities shall be bound to 
carry out the following conditions: 



en principe, egal a^i tiers de 1 
totalite. La Commission Inter- 
nationale d' Armistice fixera d'ici 
au 23 Janvier les delais de livraison 
ulterieurs et qui doivent, en prin- 
cipe, ne pas s'etendre au dela du 
l er juin. 



IV. Les officiers delegues en 
Allemagne par les Puissances 
alliees et associees, pour regler 
P evacuation des prisonniers de 
guerre des Armees de 1' Entente, 
assistes de Representants des Soci- 
etes de Secours des Etats-Unis, de 
la France, de la Grande-Bretagne 
et de l'ltalie, constitueront une 
Commission chargee du controle 
des prisonniers de guerre russes en 
Allemagne. 

Cette Commission, dont le siege 
sera a Berlin, aura qualite pour 
traiter directement avec le Gouver- 
nement allemand, d'apres les in- 
structions des Gouvernements al- 
lies, toutes les questions relatives 
aux prisonniers de guerre russes. 

Elle recevra du Gouvernement 
allemand toutes les f acilites de cir- 
culation necessaires pour contrdler 
les conditions d'existence et d'ali- 
mentation de ces prisonniers. 

Les Gouvernements allies se re- 
servent le droit de regler le rapa- 
triement des prisonniers de guerre 
russes sur telle ou telle region qui 
leur paraitra le plus convenable. 

V. Clauses navales. — L'article 
XXII de la Convention d'armis- 
tice du 11 novembre 1918 est com- 
plete ainsi qu'il suit: 

"Ann d' assurer 1' execution de 
cette clause, ce qui suit devra 6tre 
exige des autorites allemandes: 



Germany, Prolongation of Armistice. 



81 



"All submarines capable of 
putting to sea, or of being towed, 
shall be handed over immedi- 
ately and shall make for Allied 
ports. Such vessels shall include 
submarine cruisers, mine layers, 
relief ships, and submarine docks. 
All submarines which can not be 
surrendered shall be completely 
destroyed or dismantled, under the 
supervision of the Allied Com- 
missioners." 

"The construction of subma- 
rines shall cease immediately and 
submarines actually under con- 
struction shall be destroyed or 
dismantled under the supervi- 
sion of the allied commissioners." 

Article XXIII of the Armistice 
Agreement of the 11th November, 
1918, shall be supplemented as 
follows: 

"In order to insure the execu- 
tion of such clause, the German 
Commission shall furnish the 
Inter-Allied Naval Armistice Com- 
mission with a complete list of all 
surface vessels constructed or in 
course of construction (launched 
or on the stocks), specifying prob- 
able dates of completion." 

Article XXX of the Armistice 
Agreement of 11th November, 
1918, shall be supplemented as 
iollows: 

"In order to insure the execu- 
tion of such clause, the Allied 
High Command informs the Ger- 
man High Command that all 
possible measures must be taken 
immediately for delivery, in 
Allied ports, of all Allied mer- 
chantmen still detained in Ger- 
man ports." 

6. Restitution of Material car- 
ried off from Belgian and French 
116506—19 6 



"Tous les sous-marins qui peu- 
vent prendre la mer ou etre re- 
morqu£s doivent etre livres imm6- 
diatement et faire route pour les 
ports allies. Ces navires doivent 
comprendre les croiseurs sous- 
marins, les mouilleurs de mines, 
les navires de relevage et les docks 
pour sous-marins. Les sous-ma- 
rins qui ne peuvent pas etre livres 
devront etre completement d£- 
truits, ou demontes sous la surveil- 
lance des Commissaires des Allies. 

"La construction des sous- 
marins doit cesser immediatement 
et les sous-marins actuellement en 
construction doivent etre detruits 
ou demontes sous la surveillance 
des Commissaires des Allies." 

L'article XXIII de la Conven- 
tion d'Armistice du 11 novembre 
1918 est complete ainsi qu'il suit: 
"Ann d'assurer l'execution de 
cette clause, la Commission alle- 
mande devra fournir a la Commis- 
sion navale interallied d'Armistice 
une liste complete de tous les na- 
vires de surface, construits et en 
construction (deja lances ou sur 
cale), donnant les dates d'acheve- 
ment prevues." 

L'article XXX de la Convention 
d'Armistice du 11 novembre 1918 
est complete ainsi qu'il suit: 

"Ann d'assurer l'execution de 
cette clause, le Haut Commande- 
ment allie previent le Haut Com- 
mandement allemand qu'il doit 
prendre immediatement toutes les 
dispositions possibles pour livrer 
dans les ports allies les navires de 
commerce allies qui sont encore 
dans les ports allemands." 

VI. Restitution du materiel en- 
eve dans les territoires beige etfran- 



82 



Germany, Prolongation oj Armistice. 



Territories. — As restitution of ma- 
terial carried off from French and 
Belgian territory is indispensable 
for setting factories once more 
into working order, the following 
measures shall be carried out, 
viz: 

(a) All machinery, machinery 
parts, industrial or agricultural 
plant, accessories of all kinds and, 
generally, all industrial or agri- 
cultural articles carried off by 
German military or civilian au- 
thorities or individuals, under any 
pretext whatever, from territories 
formerly occupied by the German 
armies on the Western front shall 
be placed at the disposal of the 
Allies for the purpose of being re- 
turned to their places of origin, 
should the French and Belgian 
Governments so desire. 

These articles shall be returned 
without further alteration and un- 
damaged. 

(6) In view of such restitution, 
the German Government shall im- 
mediately furnish the Armistice 
Commission with all official or 
private accounts, agreements for 
sale or hire, or correspondence re- 
lating to such articles, together 
with all necessary declarations or 
information regarding their exist- 
ence, origin, adaptation, present 
condition and locality. 



(c) The delegates of the French 
or Belgian Government shall 
cause inventories or examina- 
tions of such articles to be made 
on the spot in Germany, should 
they think fit. 

(d) The return of such articles 
shall be effected in accordance 



gais. — 1. La restitution du mate- 
riel enleve dans les territoires fran- 
cais et beige etant indispensable a 
la remise en marche des usines, les 
mesures suivantes seront execu- 
tees: 

2. Les machines, pieces de ma- 
chines, objets d'outillage indus- 
triel ou agricole, accessoires divers 
de toute nature, et, d'une ma- 
niere generale, tout objet indus- 
triel ou agricole, enleves des 
territoires qu'avaient occupes les 
Armees allemandes sur le front 
occidental, sous quelque pretexte 
que ce soit, par autorite militaire 
ou civile allemande, ou par de 
simples particuliers allemands, se- 
ront tenus a la disposition des 
Allies pour etre reexpedies a leurs 
lieux d'origine si les Gouverne- 
ments francais et beige le desirent. 

Ces objets ne subiront aucune 
nouvelle modification, ni aucune 
degradation. 

3. Pour preparer cette restitu- 
ion, le Gouvernement allemand 
fera parvenir d'urgence a la Com- 
mission d'Armistice toutes les 
comptabilites officielles ou parti- 
culieres relatives a ces objets, tous 
contrats de vente, location ou au- 
tres, toutes correspondances s'y 
rapportant, toutes declarations et 
toutes indications utiles sur leur 
existence, l'origine, la transforma- 
tion, l'etat actuel et le lieu de 
depot de ces objets. 

4. Les Delegues des Gouverne- 
ments francais ou beige feront pro- 
ceder en Allemagne aux recon- 
naissances et examens sur place 
des objets signales, si cela leur 
parait utile. 

5. La reexpedition s'effectuera 
suivant les instructions particu- 



Germany, Prolongation oj Armistice. 



83 



with special instructions to be 
given as required by the French 
or Belgian authorities. 

(e) With a view to immediate 
restitution, declarations shall more 
particularly be made of all stocks 
of driving belts, electric motors 
and parts thereof, or plant re- 
moved from France or Belgium 
and existing in depot parks, rail- 
ways, ships, and factories. 

(/) The furnishing of the par- 
ticulars referred to in Articles 3 
and 6 hereof shall commence 
within 8 clear days from the 20th 
January, 1919, and shall be com- 
pleted in principle before the 1st 
April, 1919. 

7. As a further guarantee, the 
Supreme Allied Command re- 
serves to itself the right to occupy, 
whenever it shall consider this de- 
sirable, the sector of the fortress of 
Strassburg formed by the fortifica- 
tions on the right bank of the 
Rhine, with a strip of territory 
extending from 5 to 10 kilometers 
in front of such fortifications, 
within the boundaries defined on 
the map appended hereto. 

The Supreme Allied Command 
shall give 6 days' notice prior to 
such occupation, which shall not 
be preceded by any destructions 
of material or buildings. 

The limits of the neutral zone 
will, therefore, be advanced by 
10 kilometers. 

8. In order to secure the provi- 
sioning of Germany and of the rest 
of Europe, the German Govern- 
ment shall take all necessary steps 
to place the German fleet, for the 
duration of the Armistice, under 
the control and the flags of the 



lieres qui seront donnees par lee 
Autorites francaises ou beiges, sui- 
vant ce qu'elles decideront. 

6. En particulier, seront de- 
clares, en vue d'une restitution im- 
mediate, les depots de toute nature 
sur pares, sur fer, sur bateaux ou 
dans les usines, de courroies de 
transmission, moteurs electriques 
ou pieces de moteurs et objets 
d'appareillage, etc., enleves de 
France et de Belgique. 

7. Les renseignements donnes 
aux paragraph es 3 et 6 devront 
commencer a parvenir dans un 
delai de huit jours francs, a dater 
du 20 Janvier 1919, et devront etre 
entierement fournis, en principe 
avant le l er avril 1919. 

VII. Le Haut Command ement 
allie se reserve des a present d'oc- 
cuper, quand il le jugera convena- 
ble, a titre de nouvelle garantie, le 
secteur de la Place de Strasbourg, 
constitue par les forts de la rive 
droite du Rhin avec une bande de 
terrain de 5 a 10 kilometres en 
avant de ces forts, la lamite d'oc- 
cupation etant indiquee sur la 
carte ci-jointe. 

Cette occupation fera 1'objet 
d'un preavis de six jours de la 
part du Haut Command ement 
allie. Elle ne devra etre precedee 
d'aucune destruction de materiel 
ou locaux. 

Le trace de la zone neutre de 10 
kilometres sera, en consequence, 
reporte en avant. 

VIII. Pour assurer le ravitaille- 
ment en vivres de l'Allemagne et 
du reste de l'Europe, le Gouverne- 
ment allemand prendra toutes les 
mesures necessaires pour mettre 
pendant la duree de l'Armistice 
oute la flotte de commerce alle- 



84 



Germany, Prolongation of Armistice. 



Allied Powers and the United 
States, who shall be assisted by a 
German delegate. 

This arrangement shall in no 
wise affect the final disposal of 
such vessels. The Allies and the 
United States shall, if they con- 
sider this necessary, replace the 
crews either entirely or in part, 
and the officers and crews so re- 
placed shall be repatriated to 
Germany. 

Suitable compensation, to be 
fixed by the Allied Governments, 
shall be made for the use of such 
vessels. 

All questions of details, as also 
any exceptions to be made in the 
case of certain types of vessel, 
shall be settled by a special agree- 
ment to be concluded immedi- 
ately. 

Treves, 16th January, 1919. 
(Signed) 

Foch, 

Browning, 

Erzberger, 

Oberhoff, 

von Winterfeldt, 

Vanselow. 



mende sous le controle et sous pa- 
vilion des Puissances alliees et des 
Etats-Unis assistees d'un Delegue 
allemand. 

Cet accord ne prejuge en rien de 
la disposition finale de ces na vires. 
Les Allies et les Etats-Unis pour- 
ront effectuer, s'ils le jugent neces- 
saire, le remplacement partiel ou 
total des equipages. Les ofliciers 
et equipages qui seront ainsi ren- 
voyes seront rapatries en Alle- 
magne. 

Pour l'utilisation de ces navires, 
il sera attribue une remuneration 
appropriee qui sera fixee par les 
Gouvernements allies. 

Tous les details, ainsi que les 
exceptions a determiner pour les 
di verses categories de navires, se- 
ront regies par une Convention 
speciale qui devra etre conclue 
immediatement . 

Treves, le 16 Janvier 1919. 

Signe: Foch. 

Browning. 
Signe: Erzberger. 
Oberndorff. 
Von Winterfeldt. 
Vanselow. 



Convention prolonging the Armistice, February 16, 1919. 



The undersigned Plenipoten- 
tiaries, possessed of the powers in 
virtue of which the Armistice 
Agreement of 11th November, 
1918, was signed, have concluded 
the following additional agree- 
ment: 

Admiral Wemyss being re- 
placed by Admiral Browning, 
General v. "Winterfeldt by Gen. 
eral v. Hammerstein, and the 
Minister Plenipotentiary Count v. 



Les Plenipotentiaires soussig- 
nes — l'Amiral Weymiss, etant 
remplace par rAmiral Browning; 
le General Major von Winterfeldt, 
etant remplace par le General 
Major von Hammerstein, et le 
Ministre plenipotentiaire Comte 
von Oberndorff par le Ministre 
plenipotentiaire von Haniel — mu- 
nis des pouvoirs en vertu desquels 
a ete signee la Convention d 'arm- 
istice du 11 novembre, 1918, ont 



Germany, Prolongation of Armistice. 



85 



Oberndorff by the Minister Pleni- 
potentiary v. Haniel. 

I. The Germans are to cease all 
hostilities against the Poles at 
once, whether in the district of 
Posen or any other district. With 
this end in view, they are forbid- 
den to allow their troops to cross 
the following line: The old .fron- 
tier between East and West Prus- 
sia and Russia as far as Louisen- 
felde, from thence the line west of 
Louisenfelde, west of Gr. Neudorff , 
south of Brzoza, north of Schubin, 
north of Exin, south of Sanotschin, 
south of Chodziesen, north of 
Czarnikau, west of Miala, west of 
Birnbaum, west of Bensschen., 
west of Wollestein, north of Lissa, 
north of Rawitsch, south of 
Krotoschin, west of Adelnau, 
west of Schildberg, north o^ 
Doruchow, to the Silesian frontier. 



II. The armistice of 11th No 
vember, prolonged by the Agree 
ments of 13th December, 1918, 
and 16th January, 1919, until 17th 
February, 1919, is further pro- 
longed for a short period, the date 
of expiry not being given, the 
Allied Powers and those associ- 
ated with them reserving to them- 
selves the right to terminate the 
period at 3 days' notice. 

III. The carrying out of those 
clauses of the Agreement of 11th 
November, 1918, and of the addi- 
tional Agreements of 13th De- 
cember, 1918, and 16th January, 
1919, the terms of which have 
not yet been fully carried into 
effect, will be continued and com- 
pleted during the prolongation 
of their Armistice, according to 



conclu la Convention addition- 
nelle suivante : 

I. Les Allemands devront renon- 
cer immediatement a toutes oper- 
ations offensives contre les Polo- 
nais dans la region de Posen ou 
dans toute autre region. — Dans ce 
but, il leur est interdit de faire 
franchir par leurs troupes la ligne: 

Ancienne frontiere de la Prusse 
orientale et de la Prusse occi- 
dentale avec la Russie, jusqu'a 
Luisenfelde — puis, a partir de ce 
point, la ligne 0. de Luisenfelde, 
0. de Gr. Neudorff, S. de Brzoze, 
N. de Schubin, N. de Exin, S. 
de Samoczin, S. de Chodziensen, 
N. de Czarnikow, 0. de Mialla, 
0. de Birnbaum, O. de Bentschen, 
0. de Wollstein, N. de Lissa, N. 
de Rawicz, S. de Krotoszyn, 0. 
de Adelnau, 0. de Shildberg, N. 
de Vieruchov, puis la frontiere de 
Silesie. 
(Ligne verte de la carte jointe.) 

II. L'Armistice du 11 novembre 
prolonge par les Conventions des 
13 decembre 1918 et 16 Janvier 
1919, jusqu'au 17 fevrier 1919, 
est prolonge a nouveau pour une 
periode courte, sans date d 'expi- 
ration, a laquelle les Puissances 
alliees et associees se reservent le 
droit de mettre fin sur un preavis 
de trois jours. 

III. L'execution des clauses de 
la Convention du 11 novembre 
1918 et des Conventions addi- 
tionnelles des 13 decembre 1918 
et 16 Janvier 1919, incomplete- 
ment realisees, sera poursuivie et 
achevee pendant la prolongation 
de l'Armistice dans les conditions 
de detail fixees par la Commission 
permanente d'Armistice, d'apree 



86 



Germany, Prolongation of Armistice. 



detailed arrangements made by 
the Permanent Armistice Commis- 
sion, acting on instructions issued 
by the Supreme Allied Command. 
Treves, 16th February, 1919. 
(Signed) Foch, 

Browning, 
Erzberger, 
Freiherr v. Ham- 

merstein, 
VON Haniel, 
Vanselow. 



les instructions du Haut Com- 
mandement allie. 



Treves, le 16 fevrier 1919. 
(Signe) 

Foch. 

Browning. 
(Signe) 

Erzberger. 

Freiherr von Hammerstein. 

Von Haniel. 

Vanselow. 



GREAT BRITAIN. 

WAR MEASURES. 

Proclamation relating to use of radio telegraphy on vessels in territorial 

waters, August 1, 1914. 

[London Gazette, Aug. 2, 1914, pp. 6047, 6068.] 

General Post Office. 

In pursuance of regulation 5 of the Wireless Telegraph (Foreign 
Ships) Regulations, 1908, L I, the right honourable Charles Edward 
Henry Hobhouse, His Majesty's postmaster general, do hereby give 
notice that in the opinion of the right honourable Reginald McKenna, 
one of His Majesty's principal secretaries of state, an emergency has 
arisen in which it is expedient for the public service that His Majesty's 
Government should have control over the transmission of messages by 
wireless telegraphy, and that the use of wireless telegraphy on board 
foreign ships whilst in the territorial waters of the British Isles will be 
subject to such rules 2 as may be made by the Admiralty. 

Dated the first day of August, 1914. 

i Statutory Rules and Orders, 1908, p. 961. 

2 Admiralty, S. W., 3d August, 1914. With reference to the notification published 
by the postmaster general on the 2d instant, the following regulations have been made 
by the lords commissioners of the admiralty prohibiting the use of wireless telegraphy 
by merchant vessels in the territorial waters of the United Kingdom and Channel 
Islands: 

1. The use of wireless telegraphy is prohibited in the harbours and territorial waters 
of the United Kingdom and Channel Islands. 

2. On entering any port or harbor or on directions being given to that effect by any 
naval, military, examination service, customs or police officer, the aerial wire or antenna 
is to be at once lowered, disconnected from its halliards, and from the operating room, 
and is not to be rehoisted while the ship remains in British territorial' waters. 

3. Any breach of these regulations renders the masters of offending ships liable to 
penalties and to the confiscation of the wireless apparatus of their ships. 

Note. — These regulations do not apply to ships owned (not chartered) by the Admi- 
ralty, whether they fly the blue or the red ensign. 
By command of their lordships. 



(London Gazette, Aug. 4, 1914, p. 6071.) 



W. Graham Greene. 



Great Britain, Transfer of Vessels. 87 

An act to restrict the transfer of British ships to persons not qualified to 
own British ships, March 16, 1915. 
[5 Geo. 5, c. 21.] 

Be it enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Lords spiritual and temporal and Com- 
mons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of 
the same, as follows: 

1. A transfer made after the 12th day of February, 1915, of a British 
ship registered in the United Kingdom, or a share therein, to a person 
not qualified to own a British ship, shall not have any effect unless the 
transfer is approved by the board of trade on behalf of His Majesty, 
and any person who makes, or purports to make, such a transfer after 
the commencement of this act without that approval shall, in respect 
of each offense, be guilty of a misdemeanor. 

2. This act shall apply to British ships registered at foreign ports of 
registry 1 and to British ships registered in any British possession other 
than those mentioned in the schedule to this act as it applies to British 
ships registered in the United Kingdom. 

3. (1) This act may be cited as the British ships (transfer restriction) 
act, 1915, and shall be read as one with the merchant shipping acts, 
1894-1914. 

(2) This act shall have effect only during the continuance of the 
present war. 

SCHEDULE. 

British India. 

The Dominion of Canada. 2 

The Commonwealth of Australia (including Papau and Norfolk Island). 

The Dominion of New Zealand. 

The Union of South Africa. 

Newfoundland. 

Notice relating to visit and search, April 22, 1916. 3 

[Shanghai Times, Apr. 24, 1916.] 
Notice to Mariners, No. 618 — China Sea. 

British Government notification concerning the exercise by British 
warships of the right of visit and search of merchant vessels. 

Under instructions from the Chinese Government, the following 
extract from a communication from the British Government to the 

1 Foreign ports of registry are constituted by Order in Council under sec. 88 of the 
merchant shipping act, 1894 (57 and 58 Vict., c. 60). On Apr. 30, 1915, there were three 
such ports, Old Calabar (Nigeria), (Statutory Rules and Order, 1913, No. 897); Shanghai 
(China), (Ibid., 1904, No. 1370); Tulagi (Solomon Islands) (Ibid., 1912, No. 1862. Lar- 
naca (Cyprus), (Ibid., 1913, No. 896) was a foreign port of registry until annexation of 
Cyprus, Nov. 5, 1914 (Manual of Emergency Legislation, Supplement No. 2, p. 76). 

2 An order of the Governor General of Canada in council under the (Federal) war 
measures act, 1914, provides that a transfer made after Mar. 9, 1915, of a British ship 
registered in Canada, or of a share therein, to a person not qualified to own a British 
ship, shall not have any effect unless the transfer is approved by the minister of marine 
and fisheries on behalf of His - Majesty, and imposes a penalty of 35,000 or imprisonment 
not exceeding five years, or both fine and imprisonment on transfers in violation of such 
provision. 

3 See Admiralty Notice to Mariners, No. 319 of 1916, March 23, .1916. 



88 Great Britain, Visit and Search. 

Chinese Government, dealing with the procedure of British warships 
in exercising the right of visit and search of merchant vessels, is made 
public : 

When it is the intention of the commander of a warship to send an officer on board a. 
merchant ship by day the following procedure will be adopted: A large red pennant 
will be hoisted by the warship exercising the right of visit and search. The hoisting of 
this pennant will be accompanied by the firing of a rocket. This will signify that the 
merchant ship is to close the boat lowered by the warship, whether the warship remains 
near the boat or not. The procedure to be followed by night will be the same as that by 
day, except thattwored Verys lights will be the signal for the merchant ship to close the 
boat, which, where possible, will be illuminated by a searchlight. When the weather 
precludes boarding, the ship of war will fire two green Verys lights, which will be the 
signal for the merchant ship to lie-to till daylight. 

The new arrangements will come into force immediately and will 
not be confined to any particular geographical area. Pending the 
lapse of a reasonable time for the new signals to become generally 
known, His Majesty's ships will communicate with merchant ships 
in the usual code in cases where it is found that the meaning of the 
signals is not understood. 

The communication further states that any orders or signals to a 
merchant vessel should, for stated reasons of an urgent character, be 
implicitly and instantly obeyed; and that disregard of such orders will 
necessarily excite suspicion and may lead to the vessel being fired on. 

By order of the inspector general of customs. 

W. Ferd. Tyler, 

Coast Inspector. 
The Maritime Customs, 

Coast Inspector's Office, Shanghai, April 22, 1916. 

An act to amend and extend the British ships (transfer) restriction act t 

1915, August 23, 1916. 
[6 and 7 Geo. 5, c. 42.] 

Be it enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with 
the advice and consent of the Lords spiritual and temporal and Com- 
mons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of 
the same, as follows: 

1. (1) The British ships (transfer restriction) act, 1915 (in this act 
referred to as the principal act), is hereby extended so as to apply to 
mortgages (including transfers of mortgages) of ships made after the 10th 
day of August, 1916, as it applies to transfers of ships, and shall apply to 
mortgages (including transfers of mortgages) and transfers of ships to 
foreign controlled companies made after the 10th day of August, 1916, 
as it applies to transfers of ships to persons not qualified to own a British 
ship. 

(2) The expression "foreign-controlled company" means any cor- 
poration — 

(a) Where the majority of the directors, or persons occupying the 
position of directors by whatever name called, are not British subjects; or 

(b) Where the majority of the voting power is in the hands of persons 
who are not British subjects, or who exercise their voting powers 



Great Britain, Transfer of Vessels. 89 

directly or indirectly on behalf of persons who are not British subjects; 
or 

(c) Where the control is by any other means whatever in the hands 
of persons who are not British subjects; or 

(d) Where the executive is a foreign-controlled company, or where 
the majority of the executive are appointed by a foreign-controlled com- 
pany. 

A corporation shall not be deemed to be a British subject for the pur- 
poses of this section unless it is established in and subject to the laws 
of some part of His Majesty's dominions or of some British protectorate, 
and has its principal place of business therein. 

(3) The board of trade may require any person who is the owner or 
mortgagee of a British ship, or who applies to be registered as the 
owner or mortgagee of a British ship, to furnish to the board such par- 
ticulars as appear necessary to the board for the purpose of ascertaining 
whether or not that person is, or is a trustee for, or otherwise represents, 
a foreign-controlled company, and, in the case of a corporation, may 
also require the secretary, or any other officer of the corporation per- 
forming the duties of secretary to furnish these particulars. 

If any person fails to supply such particulars as it is in his power to 
give when required, or furnishes particulars which are false in any 
material particular, he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. 

2. Where, after the passing of this act, any person who is the owner 
or mortgagee of a British ship ceases to be a British subject, or becomes a 
foreign-controlled company, that ship, or, in the case of a mortgagee of 
a ship, the interest of the mortgagee, shall be subject to forfeiture 
under Part I of the merchant shipping act, 1894. 

3. (1) In this act, unless the context otherwise requires any reference 
to a ship shall include a reference to a share of a ship. 

(2) The principal act and this act shall have effect during the con- 
tinuance of the present war and a period of three years thereafter, and 
subsection (2) of section 3 of the principal act is hereby extended ac- 
cordingly. 

(3) This act may be cited as the British ships (transfer restriction) 
act, 1916, and shall be read as one with the principal act, and the 
principal act and this act may be cited together as the British ships 
(transfer restriction) act, 1915 and 1916. 

Statement of foreign office — Threat of reprisals for destruction of hospital 

ships, January 31, 1917. 

The foreign office has issued the following statement: 

The German Government announce that "they have conclusive proof 

Uiat in several instances enemy hospital ships have often been misused 

for the transport of munitions and troops." 1 

1 These allegations were contained in a note to the British Government through the 
American Embassy, Jan. 28, 1917, which "stated that after a reasonable elapse of time 
all enemy hospital ships found within a certain stated maritime zone would be regarded 
as belligerent." In a note of Oct. 5, 1917, the British Government denied the accusa- 
tions. (British Parliamentary Papers, Miscellaneous No. 16 (1917).) 



90 Great Britain, Destruction of Hospital Ships. 

They also state that they have placed these proofs, through diplo- 
matic channels, before the British and French Governments, and have, 
at the same time, declared that traffic of hospital ships on the military 
routes for the forces fighting in France and Belgium within a line 
drawn between Flamborough Head and Terschelling on the one hand 
and from Ushant to Land's End-on the other, will no longer be tolerated. 

His Majesty's Government have received no such communication 
through diplomatic channels, or otherwise, from the German Govern- 
ment, as is alleged, and they most emphatically deny that British 
hospital ships have been used for the transport of munitions and troops, 
or in any way contrary to The Hague Convention for the adaptation of 
the principles of the Geneva Convention to maritime war. 

Under the convention belligerents have the right to search hospital 
ships, and the German Government have therefore an obvious remedy 
in case of suspicion — a remedy which they have never utilized. 

From the German Government's statement that hospital ships will no 
longer be tolerated within the limits mentioned, only one conclusion 
can be drawn — namely, that it is the intention of the German Govern- 
ment to add yet other and more unspeakable crimes against law and 
humanity to the long list which disgraces their record. 

In these circumstances His Majesty's Government have requested 
the United States Government to inform the German Government that 
His Majesty's Government have decided that if the threat is carried 
out reprisals will immediately be taken by the British authorities 
concerned. 

Statement of Admiralty with reference to destruction of hospital ships, 

April 23, 1917} 
[London Times, Apr. 23, 1917, p. 10, &.] 

The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following announcement: 
On the evening of April 17 the steamships Donegal and Lanfranc, 

while transporting wounded to British ports were torpedoed without 

warning. 

1 Note of International Red Cross Committee, Geneva, Switzerland, to German Gov- 
rnment, April 22, 1917: 

The International Committee, whose right and duty it is to enforce respect for the 
principles of the Red Cross and the Geneva Convention by reporting violations of them, 
draws the very serious attention of the German Government to the responsibility which 
it would assume toward the civilized world by persisting in a resolution which is in 
contradiction to the humanitarian conventions which it has pledged itself solemnly to 
respect. 

In torpedoing hospital ships it is not attacking combatants, but defenseless beings, 
wounded or mutilated in war, and women who are devoting themselves to the work of 
relief and charity. Every hospital ship is provided with the external signs prescribed 
by international convention, the use of which has been regularly notified to belligerents . 
The latter may, according to The Hague Convention, exercise the right of search, but 
have in no case any right to sink a ship and expose to death the hospital staff and 
wounded. 

The Asturias appears to have been torpedoed without any care having been taken to 
ascertain her character or her destination. 

Even if the correctness of the facts were admitted upon which Germany bases justifi- 
cation of her order, the International Committee considers that nothing can excuse, the 
torpedoing of a hospital ship, and expresses the hope that such an order, contrary to 
international conventions, will cease to be carried out. (London Times, Apr. 24, 1917 
p. 6, e.) 



Great Britain, Destruction of Hospital SMjjs. 91 

Owing to the German practice of sinking hospital ships at sight and 
to the fact that distinctive markings and lighting of such vessels render 
them more conspicuous targets for German submarines, it has become 
no longer possible to distinguish our hospital ships in the customary- 
manner. One of these two ships, therefore, though carrying wounded, 
was not in any way outwardly distinguished as a hospital ship. The 
distinctive markings of the other had not yet been removed. Both 
were provided with an escort for protection. 

The Donegal carried slightly wounded cases, all British. Of these 
29 men, as well as 12 of the crew, are missing and are presumed to have 
been drowned. 

The Lanfranc, in addition to 234 wounded British officers and men, 
carried 167 wounded German prisoners, a medical personnel of 52, and 
a crew of 123. 

Of these the following are missing and are presumed to have been 
drowned : 

Two wounded British officers. 

Eleven wounded British, other ranks. 

One Royal Army Medical Corps Staff. 

Five crew. 

Two wounded German officers. 

Thirteen wounded Germans, other ranks. 

One hundred and fifty -two German prisoners were rescued by British 
patrol vessels at the imminent risk of being themselves torpedoed. 

The next of kin are being informed in all cases of loss of life. 

TRADE RESTRICTIONS. 

Official Report on the Administration of the Blockade, 1918. 

[The War Cabinet, Report for the year 1917, p. 21.] 

THE BLOCKADE. 

One of the most important weapons in the hands of the Allies is that 
of the blockade l supplemented by the policy of the Statutory List. 2 
The chief object of the Statutory List is to avoid the anomaly of per- 
mitting trade between British subjects and firms "of enemy nationality 
or association," who were in many instances actively working against 
us by propaganda, supplying enemy vessels, or inciting to sabotage, and 
by withholding British goods and facilities of all kinds from such firms 
to shake their financial position or even force them into liquidation. 

The policy has been amplified in many directions since its inception, 
but principally in two, viz: 

1. The withholding of financial facilities from listed firms has led to 
the development of the financial blockade, which is now administered 
by a distinct section of the Ministry of Blockade. 

i Orders in Council authorizing retaliatory measures against German Trade, Mar. 11 
1915, Jan. 10, 1917, Feb. 16, 1917, Naval War College, International Law Documents, 1917, 
p. 138 et seq. 

2 Trading with the Enemy (Extension of Powers) Act, 1915, 5 and 6, Geo. 5, c. 98, 
N. W. C, 1917, p. 15S. The Blacklist with frequent modifications is printed in the 
London Gazette from time to time. 



92 Great Britain, Black List Policy. 

2. The significance of the term " facilities " has been largely amplified 
and a measure which was originally intended to entail the cutting off 
the listed firms from direct relations with the United Kingdom and the 
Dominions only has been extended into an attempt to impose an 
almost complete embargo on their trade. 

The chief method by which this amplification of the policy has been 
effected has been the conclusion of a series of agreements with neutral 
shipping companies by which the companies have undertaken to 
respect the Statutory List in the same way as British companies. The 
weapon in the background during such negotiations has been the 
British control of bunker facilities and the powers wielded by the 
Inter- Allied Chartering Committee. 

A very considerable amount of success can fairly be claimed for the 
policy. In the Far East, where, owing to our ex-territorial jurisdiction, 
the attack on enemy firms was begun some six months prior to the 
passage of the Extension of Powers Act, 1 the German commercial 
establishments have been almost completely destroyed, and recent 
events will probably make it possible to complete the work. 

In South America, thanks largely to our agreements with American 
shipping companies, the financial stability of enemy firms in South 
America has been very generally shaken, and, in some cases, an enemy 
firm, such as Brauss, Mahn & Co., at one time agents for the German 
Government in the Argentine, have been forced into liquidation. In 
other instances, firms containing certain, but not a predominant, 
enemy interest have been obliged to eliminate this interest. One 
example is that of the Sociedad Exportadora, of Paraguay, which now 
carries on as a genuine neutral firm a large business in hides with the 
Allied Governments. 

In Europe the policy has perforce been so wholly merged in the 
general policy of the blockade that it is more difficult to estimate it s 
results as an independent measure. But in Spain, for which country 
the task of estimating results is easier than for those contiguous to 
Germany, the policy has worked admirably, and it is considered to 
have gone far to counteract the more insidious methods of German 
propaganda. 

In all countries the moral effect of the list has been very pronounced, 
and a definite stigma is attached to the inclusion in the list, an effect 
which has naturally been accentuated with the growing dislike of the 
world in general for German objects and methods. 

Turning to Blockade, by the end of 1916 the system of the Blockade 
had reached a high point of elaboration. It was based upon — 

(a) Vigilant scrutiny of the transactions of all suspect neutral traders 
and the listing of all who habitually assisted enemy trade. 

(6) Rationing schedules showing the normal requirements of all the 
European neutrals in respect of all the more important commodities 
which they obtain from overseas. 

1 Supra, p. 91, footnote 2. 



Great Britain, War Trade Agreements. 93 

(c) Agreements with neutral shipowners, traders, and associations of 
traders under which the contracting neutrals gave certain undertakings 
in consideration for special facilities for their shipments. Many of 
these agreements contain rationing clauses which make it possible for 
His Majesty's Government to detain automatically any excessive ship- 
ments of the articles in question. 

Broadly speaking, it may be said that by December, 1916, all, or 
almost all, the oversea trade of Germany had been stopped. There 
was still a little leakage in respect of the trade from the Dutch colonies, 
which, when we were not in so strong a belligerent position, we had to 
deal with specially, but it only affected a few articles like tobacco, 
cinchona, and, even so, the amounts were relatively small. We could, 
in fact, claim that the German attempt to interpose the border coun- 
tries for the purpose of pursuing the great overseas trade which they 
had previously carried on from German ports was definitely defeated. 

Beyond this the main preoccupation of the Ministry of Blockade 
has been directed to diminishing the trade between the border neutrals 
and Germany. It was impossible to get at this trade directly for 
obvious reasons, nor had we any belligerent right which we could 
enforce in the Prize Court to stop the import into a neutral country of 
goods which might be used to produce other goods which were to be 
sent into Germany. All we could do was, firstly, to use such means 
of economic pressure as we had to induce the neutrals to forego their 
German trade, and, secondly, to buy, as far as -we could, surplus prod- 
ucts which otherwise would have gone to Germany. That this policy 
of economic pressure and purchase was not altogether unsuccessful is 
proved by the following figures: 

(1) Purchases of fish and fish products in Norway by His Majesty's 
Government since January, 1916, 455,805 tons. 

(2) Fresh fish experts from Holland to Germany reduced from 
38,451 tons for the period 1st November, 1915, to 31st July, 1916, to 
5,350 tons for the corresponding period 1916-17. 

(3) Exports of herrings from Holland to Germany reduced from 
100,659 tons in 1915 to 15,898 tons in 1916. 

(4) Agricultural produce exports from Holland to the Central Powers 
reduced from 287,820 tons for the first six months 1916 to 58.114 tons 
for first six months, 1917. 

(5) Cattle exported from Holland to Germany in (a) first months 
1916, 33.332 head; (6) first six months 1917, nil. 

Notwithstanding these encouraging results, we had not the neces- 
sary lever to get at the root of the evil, and foodstuffs especially con- 
tinued to go into Germany in considerable volume. 

With the German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare 
on the 31st January * and the breaking off of relations between Ger- 
many and the United States, 2 a new chapter opened. 

i N. W. C, 1917, p. 110. 2 Ibid., 1917, p. 222. 



94 Great Britain, Blockade Policy. 

In the first place, neutral shipping was largely interfered with, and, 
secondly, a large number of agreements had been made with shipping 
lines and shipowners under which they brought their ships into a 
British port for examination, while such vessels as were not under 
agreement to call were sent in by our naval patrols. This, of course, 
involved their going through what the Germans called the danger zone, 
and there was, therefore, a considerable possibility that neutral ship- 
owners would throw over their agreements and break the blockade. 

Two steps were taken to deal with the situation. In the first place the 
Blockade Order in Council of the 16th February, 1917, 1 was issued, the 
effect of which was to make vessels trading to and from neutral ports in 
Europe liable to the risk of capture and condemnation if they were 
found attempting to evade calling for examination at a British port; and, 
in the second place, it was announced through the public press that neu- 
tral vessels would, on certain conditions, be allowed the privilege of call- 
ing for examination at certain British ports outside the United King- 
dom such as Halifax in Nova Scotia instead of at Kirkwall, and that 
British bunker coal would only be allowed to those neutral vessels which 
undertook to call at an appointed British port and perform certain serv- 
ices in return. Concurrently with these measures insurance on favor- 
able terms was laid open to all vessels engaged in trading in the Allied 
interests, and His Majesty's Government further offered to hire or pur- 
chase large blocks of neutral shipping. 

These expedients have, on the whole, worked exceedingly well. 
There has been no serious attempt to break the blockade; and, on the 
other hand, the power to give or refuse what are called " Halifax facil- 
ities " — that is to say, the privilege of being examined outside the danger 
zone — has furnished us with a powerful inducement to neutral ship- 
owners to comply with the various blockade and shipping requirements 
that we have put forward. As an indication of the success of our policy, 
it is sufficient to mention that there has been an increase of about 50 
per cent in the amount of neutral tonnage employed in Allied trades 
over the figure for the same trades in February, 1917, and this repre- 
sents no less than 1,000,000 tons of additional tonnage. 

The other great blockade event of this year has been the declaration 
of War between the United States and Germany, 2 followed by similar 
declaration from, or rupture of relations by, a considerable number of 
South American States. 3 This has enabled us and our Allies to stop 
imports to the border neutrals at the source. 

This method of stopping the export to Germany of home produce 
from the border neutrals is, strictly speaking, not a blockade measure 
at all, but the exercise of the sovereign rights of the Allied and co- 
belligerent States to impose conditions upon their trade with the border 
neutrals. 4 The process belongs juridically to the category of commercial 



i N. w. C, 1917, p. 142. 

2 Ibid., 1917, p. 225. 

3 Ibid., 1917, pp. 15-17. 

4 Export prohibitions, Great Britain, infra, p. 95, N. W. C, 1915, p. 57; Russia, infra, 
p. 139; United States, infra, p. 195; Neutral European States, N. W. C, 1915, p. 33 et seq. 



Great Britain, Export Embargo. 95 

treaties rather than that of blockade or the like; but in substance the 
effect is the same as that aimed at by the blockade, namely, the cutting 
off of our enemies from all external trade. 

Public attention has been fixed, not unnaturally, more upon the food 
blockade of Germany than anything else, but it is very doubtful 
whether this is its most important aspect. The evidence is strong to 
show that Germany is also suffering gravely from the want of such things 
as wool, leather, cotton, rubber, and so on. 

It is hoped that we may see considerable results in the future from the 
new forms of pressure which the entry of America into the war has en- 
abled us to employ, all the more so since the purchase agreements on 
which we have been compelled to rely, in the absence of a lever such 
as we now possess, have involved us in the expenditure of large sums 
of money in Scandinavia and Holland, which expenditure has become 
more difficult to provide for owing to the exchange position in those 
countries. 

Proclamation prohibiting the export of certain commodities, 
August 3, 1914. 1 
(London Gazette, Aug. 3, 1914, p. 6056.) 
By the King. A Proclamation, prohibiting under section 8 of "The 
customs and Inland Revenue Act, 1879," 2 the exportation from the 
United Kingdom of certain warlike stores. 
George, R. I.: 

Whereas by the 8th section of "The Customs and Inland Revenue 
Act, 1879," it is enacted that We may by Proclamation or Order in 

1 Additions to this list were proclaimed and published in the London Gazette every 
few days, and revised consolidated lists appeared every few months; see London Gazette 
November 10, 1914, p. 9226; February 3, 1915, p. 1165; July 28, 1915, p. 7427 (Published 
by United States State Department, August 28, 1915, N. W. C, 1915, p. 57); May 10 
1915, p. 4533. The last contains four schedules alphabetically arranged, marked respec- 
tively (a), export prohibited to all destinations; (b), export prohibited to all ports and 
destinations abroad other than ports and destinations in British possessions and pro- 
tectorates; (c), export prohibited to all destinations in foreign countries in Europe and 
in the Mediterranean and Black Seas other than France and French Possessions, Russia 
Italy and Italian Possessions, Spain, Portugal, and to all ports in any such foreign 
countries and to all Russian Baltic Ports. Some of the earlier lists had in addition a 
schedule (d), which in the list of February 3, 1915, included Tin plates and tin boxes, 
the export of which was prohibited to ports in Denmark, Netherlands, and Sweden, 
and in the list of July 28, 1915, p. 7427, includes coal only, the export of which was pro- 
hibited to all but British Possessions, and Protectorates and allied countries. For 
other lists prohibiting export to enumerated neutral countries near Germany, infra, p. 97. 

The import of certain goods has been prohibited by the British government in order 
to conserve tonnage for more necessary imports, under authority of section 43 of the 
Customs Consolidation Act, 1876, which provides that the importation of arms, ammu- 
nition, gun powder, or any other goods may be prohibited by Proclamation. By Pro- 
hibition of Imports, No. 5, Proclamation, May 10, 1916, London Gazette, p. 4641, 
Bladders, Sausage skins, Brooms and Brushes, Bulbs, Trees and Shrubs, Canned and 
Dried Vegetables and Pickles, Horns and Hoofs, Ice, Ivory, Moss litter, Salt, Starch, 
Dextrose, Potato Flour, may not be imported except under license of the Board of Trade. 

The administration of these trade restrictions was facilitated by a Board of Trade 
Notice, November 7, 1914, which stated that certificates of origin and ultimate destina- 
tion would be required for certain goods. (London Gazette, November 10, 1914, p. 9127). 

2 42 and 43 Vict., c. 21. 



96 Great Britain, Export Embargo. 

Council prohibit the exportation of arms, ammunition, and gunpowder, 
military and naval stores, and any articles which we shall judge 
capable of being converted into or made useful in increasing the quan- 
tity of military or naval stores, provisions or any sort of victual which 
may be used as food for men: 

And whereas, We, by and "with the advice of our Privy Council, 
deem it expedient and necessary that We should exercise such power 
of prohibition in manner hereinafter appearing: 

Now We, by and with the advice aforesaid, do hereby order and 
direct that from and after the date hereof the following goods, being 
articles which we have judged capable of being converted into or 
made useful in increasing the quantities of military or naval stores, 
that is to say: 

Acetone ; 

Aeroplanes, airships, balloons of all kinds and their component parts; 

Animals, pack, saddle, and draught, suitable for use in war; 

Arms, rifled, of all kinds, and their component parts; 

Benzol; 

Carbons designed for searchlights; 

Chrome and ferro chrome; 

Cloth, hempen; 

Cartridges, charges of all kinds, and their component parts; 

Copper, ore or unwrought, all kinds; 

Cotton suitable for use in the manufacture of explosives; 

Cotton waste; 

Creosote; 

Dimethylamiline ; 

Engines and lorries, internal combustion, capable of carrying a load 
of 25 hundredweight and upwards, whole or in parts; 

Fulminate of mercury; 

Gunpowder; 

Nets, torpedo; 

Nickel and ferro nickel; 

Oil, blast furnace; 

Oil, coal tar; 

Oil, fuel, shale; 

Oil, olive; 

Oil, mineral, lubricating; 

Petroleum, fuel oil ; 

Petroleum, gas oil; 

Petroleum, spirit or motor spirit (including shell spirit) ; 

Projectiles of all kinds and their component parts; 

Sacks, coal; 

Silk, cloth, silk braid, silk thread, suitable for cartridges; 

Silk noils; 

Surgical bandages and dressings; 

Toluol; 

Zinc; 



Great Britain, Export Embargo. 97 

shall be and the same are hereby prohibited to be exported from the 
United Kingdom. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Third day of August, 
in the year of Our Lord, one thousand, nine hundred and fourteen, 
and in the Fifth year of Our reign. 

God Save the King. 

Proclamation prohibiting the export of certain articles to the Scandi- 
navian countries and Netherlands. October 2, 1917. 

[London Gazette, October 2, 1917, p. 10173.] 

By the King. A Proclamation, prohibiting under section 1 of 
"The Exportation of Arms Act, 1900," 1 and section 1 of "The 
Customs (Exportation Restriction) Act, 1914," 2 the exportation 
from the United Kingdom of certain articles to Sweden, Norway, 
Denmark, and the Netherlands. 
George, R. I. 

Whereas by section 1 of "The Exportation of Arms Act, 1900," l 
it is enacted that We may by Proclamation prohibit the exportation 
of all or any of the following articles, namely, arms, ammunition, 
military, and naval stores, and any article which We shall judge 
capable of being converted into or made useful in increasing the 
quantity of arms, ammunition, or military, or naval stores, to any 
country, or place there names, and wherever We shall judge such 
prohibition to be expedient in order to prevent such arms, ammu- 
nition, military or naval stores, being used against Our subjects or 
forces or against any force engaged or which may be engaged in mili- 
tary or naval operations in cooperation with our forces ; 

And whereas by section 1 of ' 'The Customs (Exportation Restric- 
tion) Act, 1914," 2 it is enacted that section 1 of "The Exportation 
of Arms Act, 1900," 1 shall have effect whilst a state of war in which 
We are engaged exists as if, in addition to the articles therein men- 
tioned, there were included all other articles of every description; 

And whereas by virtue of a Proclamation 3 dated the 18th August, 

1916, made in pursuance of the said ' 'Exportation of Arms Act, 1900," 1 
as amended by "The Customs (Exportation Restriction) Act, 1914," 2 
all articles whatever other than those excepted by the said Proclama- 
tion are now prohibited to be extended to the Kingdom of Sweden; 

And whereas by virtue of a Proclamation dated the 10th May, 

1917, made in pursuance of the said Acts, and by subsequent Order 
of Council issued under the authority of the later act, certain goods 
are now prohibited to be exported to inter alia the Kingdoms of Nor- 
way, Denmark, and the Netherlands; 

i 63 and 64 Vict., c. 44. 

2 4 and 5 Geo. 5, c. 64. 

» London Gazette, Augt&t 18, 1916, p. 8122. 

116506—19 -7 



98 Great Britain, Export Embargo. 

And whereas, We have deemed it expedient to revoke the said 
Proclamation dated the 18th August, 1916, and to prohibit the expor- 
tation to Sweden, Norway, Denmark and the Netherlands of all articles- 
whatsoever, other than those hereinafter excepted ; 

Now, therefore, We have thought fit, by and with the advice of 
Our Privy Council, to issue this Our Royal Proclamation, declaring, 
and it is hereby declared, that the above-mentioned Proclamation, 
dated the 18th August, 1916, be, and the same is hereby revoked as 
from the 8th of October, 1917, and that the exportation of the follow- 
ing articles be prohibited in and after that date to all ports and destina- 
tions in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands, viz: 

All articles which are not by virtue of any Proclamation for the time 
being in force, made under section 8 of the Customs and Inland Revenue- 
Act, 1879, l as amended by any act, or under the Exportation of Arms 
Act, 1900, 2 as Amended by any Act, prohibited to be exported to 
Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands, except: 

(1) Printed matter of all descriptions. 

(2) Personal effects accompanied by their owners. 

Given at our Court at Buckingham Palace, this twenty -ninth day 
of September, in the year of Our Lord, on thousand, nine hundred. 
and seventeen, and in the Eighth year of Our Reign. 

God Save the King. 

RECOGNITION OF INTERNATIONAL STATUS. 

Statement of policy with reference to a national home for the Jews r 

December, 1917. 
[The War Cabinet, Report for 1917, p. 14.] 
His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment of a- 
national home for the Jewish people, and will use its best endeavors- 
to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly under- 
stood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and 
religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the 
rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. 

Declaration by Supreme War Council, attended by premiers of Great 
Britain, France, and Italy, with reference to Poles, Czechs, and Jugo- 
slavs, at Versailles June 4, 1918. 

[New York Times, Current History, 8 (pt. 2), 127.] 
The creation of a united, independent Polish State, with free access 
to the sea, constitutes one of the conditions of a solid and just peace and 
the rule of right in Europe. 

The allies have noted with satisfaction the declaration of the Amer- 
ican Secretary of State, 3 to which they adhere, expressing the greatest 
sympathy with the national aspirations of the Czechs and Jugo-Slavs- 
for freedom. 

1 42 and 43 Vict.,c. 21. 
s 63 and 64 Vict., c. 44. 
8 Infra, p. 209. Declaration of Rome, infra, p. 107. 



Honduras, Declaration of War. 99 

Recognition of independence of Czechoslovaks, August 13, 1918} 
[New York Times, Current History, 8 Cpt. 2), 491.] 
Since the beginning of the war the Czecho-Slovak Nation has resieted 
the common enemy by every means in its power. The Czecho-Slovak s 
have constituted a considerable army, fighting on three different bat- 
tle fields, and attempting in Russia and Siberia to arrest the Germanic 
invasion. In consideration of their efforts to achieve independence, 
Great Britain regards the Czecho-Slovaks as an allied nation and 
recognizes the unity of the three Czecho-Slovak armies as an allied 
and belligerent army waging regular warfare against Austria-Hungary 
and Germany. Great Britain also recognizes the right of the Czecho- 
slovak National Council as the supreme organ of Czecho-Slovak na- 
tional interests and as the present trustee of the future Czecho-Slovak 
Government to exercise supreme authority over this allied and bellig- 
erent armv. 

HONDURAS. 

Declaration of war against Germany, July 19, 1918. 
[Official TJ. S. Bulletin, No. 367, p. 2.] 

Francisco Bertrand, drafting constitutional president of the Republie* 
of Honduras, 

Considering that the motives which originated the severing of the 
diplomatic relations of this Republic with the German Empire have 
become accentuated, being characterized every day by greater gravity 
for the international life of all the peoples; 

Considering that continental solidarity imposes upon the States of 
America the duty to contribute according to the measure of its abilities : 
toward the triumph of the cause of civilization and of right which, 
with the allied nations, the United States of America defends, and' 
consequently demands a definite attitude in the present conflict of the • 
world; 

Therefore, in council of ministers, decrees: 

Article 1. It is declared that there exists a state of war between the 
Republic of Honduras and the Government of the German Empire. 

Art. 2. Account shall be rendered to the National Congress at its 
next sessions. 

Given in Tegucigalpa the 19th day of July, 1918. 

(Signatures of the President and of all the members of the cabinet follow.) 

ITALY. 

Royal decree relating to the extent of jurisdictional waters, August 6, 1914.- 

[Offlcial Gazette, Italy, Aug. 10, 1914.] 

Act No. 282— Royal Decree No. 798. 

Vittorio Emanuele III, 

By the grace of God and by the will of the Nation, King of Italy. 

In accordance with articles from 246 to 251 of the code for the mer- 
chant marine, concerning the neutrality of the States with regard to 
belligerent powers; 



Recognition by United States, Sept. 3, 1918 r infra p. 209. 



100 Italy, Jurisdictional Waters. 

In accordance with the provisions of the international convention 
signed at The Hague the 18th of October, 1907, which Italy declares to 
observe as far as existing laws of the Kirjgdom permit, even though 
the same agreements shall not yet have been ratified by the Kingdom 
of Italy; 

In accordance with the declaration of neutrality proclaimed by the 
Government of Italy the 4th of August, 1914; 

The Cabinet having been consulted; 

By recommendation of our minister of marine, acting in concert with 
the ministers of war and of foreign affairs; 

We have decreed and do decree — 

Article I. Concerning articles from 246 to 215 of the code of the 
merchant marine and the international agreements accepted by Italy 
relating to the rights and duties of neutral powers in case of maritime 
war, by territorial waters is understood the zone of water included 
between the coast line and a line 6 nautical miles (11,111 meters) due 
seaward of the said coast line. 

Art. II. In bays, inlets, and gulfs the territorial waters, for the 
purposes stated in the preceding article, are those included within 
the external (seaward) straight-line tangent to the two circumferences 
of 6-mile radius struck with the extreme outer points of the bay, inlet, 
or gulf as centers, provided that the distance between the said. points 
does not exceed 20 nautical miles (37,040 meters). 

If the distance between the extreme outer points of the opening 
exceeds 20 nautical miles, the territorial waters are those included 
within the straight line drawn between the two most seaward points 
of the bay, inlet, or gulf distant from each other at least 20 nautical 
miles. 

We order that the present decree, with the State seal affixed, shall 
be inserted in the official collection of the laws and decrees of the 
Kingdom of Italy, requiring all concerned to observe it and to enforce it. 

Done in Rome this 6th day of August, 1914. 

VlTTORlO EMANUELE, 

Salandra, 

MlLLO,. 

Grandi di San Giuliano. 

Notice to Mariners, mine infested regions of Adriatic, November 20, 1914. 

[Avis aux Navigateurs, publies par, le Service Hydrographique de la Marine, 70 Rcche- 
fort, Etr. Col. 58, 14 d<§cembre 1914.] 

ADRIATIC SEA. PRESCRIPTIONS. 

312, 1914 (Rochefort). The minister of the Italian marine has 
brought to the knowledge of navigators the following prescriptions 
"relative to navigation in the Adriatic Sea. 

1. The service of searching out and destroying mines is connoted to 
special tugs. 



Italy, Mine Field Notice. 101 

2. Vessels ought to regulate their speed in a fashion to assure an 
effective observation and to plan their routes in a manner to pass by 
day the zones crossed by currents. 

3. Up to the present no mines have been observed south of parallel 
44° 20' N. 

4. From Venice to Manfredonia hold so far as possible to the axis of 
the Adriatic and navigate by day. 

5. Landing ought to b.e made perpendicularly to the coast with all 
precautions possible when in a zone where there is no current; recall 
that currents run lengthwise of the land. 

(Instructions No. 832, p. 57.) 

Agreement with Great Britain, France, and Russia with reference to entry 

into war, April 26, 1915. 

[Published by Leon Trotzky, Russian people's commissary for foreign affairs, Nov. 23, 

1917.1] 

The Italian ambassador, Marquis Imperiali, under instructions of 
his Government, has the honor to deliver to the minister of foreign 
affairs, Sir E. Grey, the French ambassador (in London), and the 
Russian ambassador (in London), Count Benckendorf, the following 
memorandum: 

Article I. Between the general staffs of France, Great Britain, 
Russia, and Italy must forthwith be concluded a military agreement. 
This agreement shall define the minimum military forces which Russia 
must move against Austria-Hungary in the event the latter should 
concentrate all her forces against Italy, and Russia against Germany. 
In an equitable fashion the agreement shall regulate the questions of 
armistice in so far as these relate to the commanding staffs of the army. 

Art. II. On her side Italy obligates herself, with all the forces at 
her command, to enter into the campaign in combination with France, 
Russia, and Great Britain against all of the governments at war with 
them. 2 

Art. III. The naval forces of France and Great Britain will actively 
and fully cooperate with Italy until the Austrian fleet is completely 
destroyed or until the conclusion of peace. Between France, Italy, 
and Great Britain shall be signed forthwith a military naval agreement. 

Art. IV. Under the imminent treaty of peace Italy must receive 
the district of Trentino; the entire southern Tyrol to its natural geo- 
graphic boundary, the River Brenner; the city and suburbs of Trieste, 
Goritzia, and Gradisca, all of Istria to Quarnero, including Volosca, 
and the Istrian Islands of Cherso and Lussino, and also the smaller 
islands of Plavnik, Unia, Canidole, Palazzuolo, San Pietro dei Nembi, 
Azinello, Grutzo, together with the neighboring islands. 

1 Other agreements relating to territorial arrangements in Greece, Turkey, Arabia, 
Egypt, etc., were published at the same time. 

2 Italy declared war against Austria May 24, 1915; Turkey, Aug. 21, 1915; Bulgaria, 
Oct. 19, 1915; Germany, A<ig. 28, 1916. Naval War College, International Law Docu- 
ments, 1917, pp. 163 et seq. 



102 Italy, Agreement with Allies. 

Art. V. In the same manner Italy is to receive the Province of 
Dalmatia in its present form, with the inclusion within its limits on 
the north of Lissariki and Trebino, and on the south of all lands to a 
line drawn at Cape Planca to the east along the watershed in such a 
manner that in the Italian domains shall be included all the valleys 
along the rivers flowing into Sebiniko, such as Chicollo, Kerka, and 
Butisnitza, with all their tributaries. In the same way Italy is to 
Teceive all the islands located to the north and west of the shores of 
Dalmatia, beginning with the islands of Premua, Selva, Ulbo, Skerd, 
Maori, Pago, and Puntadura, and farther to the north, and to Meled 
on the south, with inclusion therein of the islands of St. Andrew, 
Buzzi, Lissa, Lessino, Tercola, Curzola, Kaisa, and Lagosta, with all 
the islands and bluffs belonging to them, as well as Palagozza, but 
without the islands of "great and little Zirona, Bua, Satti, Brazza. 

Art. VI. Italy shall receive in full right Vallon, the Islands of 
Sasseno, and a territory sufficiently extensive to safeguard them in a 
military way, approximately between the River Voyuss on the north 
and the east, and to the boundaries of the. Schimar district to the south. 

Art. VII. On receiving Trentino and Istria in accordance with 
Article IV, of Dalmatia and the Adriatic Islands in accordance with 
Article V, and the Bay of Vallon, Italy is obligated in the event of the 
formation in Albania of a small autonomous neutralized state, not to 
oppose the possible desire of France, Great Britain, and Russia to a redis- 
tribution among Montenegro, Serbia, and Greece of the northern and 
southern districts of Albania. The southern shore of Albania from the 
boundary of the Italian district of Vallona to the Cape of Stilos is sub- 
ject to neutralization. 

Italy shall have the right to conduct the foreign relations of "Al- 
bania." In any event Italy obligates herself to leave certain territory 
sufficiently extensive for Albania, in order that the boundaries of the 
latter may be contiguous on the west from Lake Ochrida to the bound- 
aries of Greece and Serbia. 

Art. VIII. Italy is to receive in full right all the islands now oc- 
cupied by her at Dodekanese. 

Art. IX. France, Great Britain, and Russia in principle recognize 
the interests of Italy in preserving the political balance in the Medi- 
terranean Sea and her right to receive on the division of Turkey an 
equal share with them in the basin of the Mediterranean, and more 
specifically in that part of it contiguous to the province of Adalia, where 
Italy had already obtained special rights and has developed certain 
interests vouchsafed to her by the Italo-British agreement. The zone 
subject to transfer to the sovereignty of Italy will be more specifically 
defined in due time, and in correspondence with the vital interests of 
France and Great Britain. Likewise the interests of Italy must be 
taken into consideration, even in the event the territorial inviolability 
of Asiatic Turkey shall be sustained by the Powers for a further period 
oi time, and if only redistribution of spheres of influence is to take place . 



Italy, Agreement with Allies. 103 

"Should France, Great Britain, and Russia, in the course of the present 
war, occupy certain districts of Asiatic Turkey, the entire district 
adjacent to Adalia, and herewith more specifically defined, shall remain 
with Italy, which reserves for itself the right to occupy the same. 

Art. X. In Libya all the rights and privileges which prior to this 
•date have been acquired by the Sultan on the basis of the treaty of 
Lausanne are recognized as belonging to Italy. 

Art. XI. Italy shall receive such share of the military contribution 
as shall correspond to the measure of sacrifice and effort made by her. 

Art. XII. Italy joins in a declaration made by France, England, 
and Russia as to leaving Arabia and sacred Mohammedan places in con- 
trol of an independent Mohammedan power. 

Art. XIII. In the event of expansion of French and English colonial 
domains in Africa at the expense of Germany, France and Great 
Britain recognize in principle the Italian right to demand for herself 
certain compensations in the sense of expansions of her lands in Eri- 
tria, Somaliland, in Libya, and colonial districts lying on the bound- 
ary, with the colonies of France and England. 

Art. XIV. England obligates herself to assist Italy immediately to 
negotiate on the London market on advantageous terms of a loan in a 
sum not less than £50,000,000. 

Art. XV. France, England, and Russia obligate themselves to sup- 
port Italy in her desire for nonadmittance of the Holy See to any kind 
of diplomatic steps for the purpose of the conclusion of peace or the 
regulation of questions arising from the present war. 

Art. XVI. This treaty must be kept secret. As to Italy joining in 
the declaration of September 5, 1914, l only said declaration shall be 
made public immediately after the declaration of the war by or against 
Italy. 

Taking into consideration the present memorandum, the representa- 
tives of France, Great Britain, and Russia, having been duly em- 
powered for this purpose, agreed with the representative of Italy, who 
in his turn was duly empowered by his Government, in the premises 
as follows: France, Great Britain, and Russia expressed their complete 
agreement with the present memorandum presented to them by the 
Italian Government. With regard to Articles I, II, and III of this 
memorandum relating to the cooperation of the military and naval 
operations of all four Powers, Italy declares that she will enter actively 
at the very earliest opportunity, and at all events not later than one 
month after the signing of the present document by the contracting 
parties. The undersigned have set their hands and seals at London in 
four copies, the 26th day of April, 1915. 

Sir Edward Grey. 

Cambon. 

Marquis Imperiali. 

Count Benckendorf. 

' Naval War College, International Law Documents, 1917, p. 89. 



104 Italy, Requisition of Vessels. 

Decree No. 1605, relating to the requisition of merchant vessels, November 

11, 1915. 

[London Gazette, Dec. 7, 1915, p. 12190.] 

Thomas of Savoy, Duke of Genoa, lieutenant general of His Majesty,. 
King Victor Emanuel III, King of Italy, by the grace of God and the 
will of the Nation. 

In virtue of the authority delegated to us; 

In view of the law of May 22, 1915, No. 671, which confers extraordi- 
nary powers on the Royal Government; 

In view of the royal decree dated January 21, 1915, No. 29, which is 
to become law, and its subsequent modifications and additions; 

In view of the lieutenant's decree of June 17, 1915, No. 957, 1 concern- 
ing the use of confiscated or requisitioned enemy merchant ships; 

In view of the advisability of regulating by special measures the 
requisitioning of merchant ships of foreign nationality; 

After consultation with the council of ministers; 

On the proposal of the minister of marine, in concert with the minis- 
ters of foreign affairs, of the exchequer and agriculture, and of industry 
and commerce; 

We have decreed and decree — 

Article I. The rules laid down in the lieutenant's decree No. 957 of 
June 17, 1915, * are extended to the requisitioning of merchant ships and 
yachts flying a foreign flag, and boats and floating craft of foreign owner- 
ship, lying in the harbors and territorial waters of the Kingdom and its 
colonies, subject to the conditions laid down in the following articles. 

Art. II. Payment in compensation for requisitioning (to be calcu- 
lated in accordance with Article V of the above mentioned decree) will 
be made in monthly instalments, not paid in advance, to the interested 
persons or their legal representatives. The Government has power, 
however, to suspend paymeit if special circumstances arise rendering 
such a course advisable. 

Art. III. The requisitioned vessels which come under the terms of 
the present decree will be temporarily inscribed in a special register at 
the marine department of Genoa, and will be authorized to fly the 
Italian flag in virtue of a special temporary permit. 

We order that the present decree, sealed with the seal of the State, 
shall be inserted among the laws and decrees of the Kingdom of Italy, 
commanding all concerned to obey it and cause it to be obeyed. 

Given at Rome, this 11th day of November, 1915. 

Thomas op Savoy. 

Decree relating to the requisition of foreign merchant vessels, February 3, 

1916. 
The provisions contained in the regent's decrees of June 17, 1915, 1 and 
November 11, 1915, 2 remaining unchanged, should the foreign merchant 

i Naval War College, International Law Topics, 1915, p. 29. 2 Supra. 



Italy, Transfer of Vessels. 105 

ships and also those belonging to the enemy as well as other craft be- 
longing to foreigners be sequestered and required, they should be given 
for use to navigation companies or to private shipowners, the conditions 
relating to the use of the said ships and craft shall be regulated through 
special agreements which shall be entered into by and between the 
navy's administration and the user; such agreements shall fix also the 
standards in order to ascertain'and to liquidate the profit coming from 
said use. 

The navigation companies, as well as the private shipowners, shall be 
obliged, in any case, to furnish the amount of compensation due to the 
owner of the ship or of the craft, according to the existing provisions on 
the point in question. Said amount shall be deducted when there will 
be calculated the net profit resulting from the operation thereof, and 
said net profit shall be divided at the rate of three quarters for the treas- 
ury and one quarter to the company or the shipowner. 

Decree restricting transfer of national vessels, February 5, 1916. 

[United States Commerce Reports, 1916, p. 60.] 

Prohibition of transfer of Italian ships. 

La Finanza Italiana, in the edition of February 5, 1916, published a 
decree establishing the method by which transfer of Italian vessels 
to foreign flags may be prohibited. The text is: 

Article 1. The minister of marine has the power of prohibiting or of suspending for 
the time in which the Kingdom will remain in the present condition of war the trans- 
scription upon the registers of the offices of any harbor master or officer at ports of the 
Kingdom or of consular authorities accredited to foreign countries of binding contracts 
or of maritime changes which bind in any manner the property of mercantile vessels 
frying*the Italian flag. No opposition, appeal, or recourse is admitted against the deci- 
sion of the minister of marine. 

Art. 2. In the case in which the minister of marine intends to avail himself of the 
power accorded him by the preceding article, he will inform the authorities, both mari- 
time and consular, apprising, in the meantime, the owner of the ship. The maritime 
or consular authorities to which the title of transcription be presented for binding con- 
tracts, maritime changes, or others which may in any manner bind the property of 
Italian mercantile vessels must, however, take charge of them, making note of the date 
and hour of such presentation in a special register, save the transcription of such when 
so authorized by the minister of marine. According to the last paragraph of article 67io 
of the Code of Commerce, in the competition of several credits, preference is determined 
according to priority of the presentation of petition of transcription. 

Art. 3. The minister of marine will provide by special instruction for the execution 
of the present decree. 

Art. 4. The present decree will go into force on the day of its publication in the Official 
Gazette of the Kingdom. 

Royal decree concerning the sale, transfer, and chartering of merchantmen 

by Italy, April 19, 1916. 

The Gazetta Ufficiale makes known the regent's decree which forbids 
the sale of merchant ships, and which regulated the working of the 
national mercantile navigation. The new regulations are as follows: 

1. Until new provisions are made, the juridical power, be it in the 
Kingdom of Italy or in its colonies, concerning the sale and the transfer 



106 Italy, Transfer of Vessels. 

as well as any other change in ownership rights of national ships and 
concerning also the agreements about warranty and maritime exchange, 
wherever they be fulfilled, is subordinate to the preventive approval 
of the minister for the navy. Deeds which are not stipulated according 
to the provisions are null and void, and they must not be accepted 
by the maritime or the consular offices to which they may be presented 
for transcription. 

Said provisions apply also to boats, barks, and craft of every kind 
that are not provided with a certificate of nationality, and they apply 
also to motor boats used for every purpose. 

2. Until new provisions be made, charterings and trips of national 
steamers having a tonnage either equal or superior to 250 tons, and of 
national sailing craft having a tonnage not inferior to 300 tons, are pro- 
hibited when they have for an object or effect — 

(1) The use of the ship in foreign waters for transport service, towing, 

depositing, etc. 

(2) The transportation, be it for one trip only, of men or things be- 
tween foreign harbors. 

(3) The plying of the ship without cargo between foreign seaports. 

The minister of the navy can grant special chartering and plying be- 
tween foreign seaports permits, in derogation to the aforesaid prohibi- 
tion upon application being made by the navigation companies or by 
the national shipowners that have an interest in it. 

The secretary of the navy can forbid, through provisions for each 
•case, the chartering or the trips, in cases foreseen in the preceding regu- 
lation, of whatever national ship not subject to the prohibition which 
is expressed in the regulation itself, and also of any boat, bark, or 
craft not provided with a certificate of nationality 

(4) The trips of national steamers of every tonnage and those of 
national sailing ships having a clear tonnage of 500 tons and over, be- 
tween seaports of the kingdom and of its colonies, must be preventively 
authorized by the minister of the navy. 

The following are free from such obligation: 

(1) The steamers which are required, chartered, or managed 
by the State's administration or those which belong to it. 

(2) The passenger steamers belonging to subsidized lines or to 
regular trans- Atlantic lines for trips that are fixed in itineraries 
approved by the minister of marine. 

(5) The carrying of cargoes not destined in the last place to an Italian 
seaport is prohibited in the trips of national steamers of every tonnage 
and in those of national sailing ships having a clear tonnage of 500 tons 
and over, bound from foreign seaports to harbors of the kingdom and 
of its colonies. The consular officials should look over the cargo mani- 
fests of the home steamers sailing from harbors belonging to their juris- 
diction, and they shall intimate to the captain not to take on board 
goods that would not be shipped to seaports of the kingdom and of its 
colonies. 



Italy, Mine Fields. 107 

The minister of marine can, however, grant special permits in deroga- 
tion to the prohibition informing, then, the proper consulate thereof. 

(6) In case of noncompliance with the regulations contained in pro- 
visions 2, 3, 4, and 5, as well as of the prohibitions laid down in the 
third regulation the ships to which such nonobservance may refer, 
shall be required, and the owners or the brokers shall be entitled to no 
compensation other than the ordinary managing expenses which they 
will have incurred. 

The naval and consular officials can refuse to let the shipments be 
made, and can also prevent, by any means, the sailing of negligent 
ships even before the requisition, without any compensation being 
ordered. 

(7) The juridical powers of the actually existing deeds not yet 
registered at the date of publication of the present decree itself, are 
suspended until the secretary of the navy may have given his approval 
to such deeds. 

The naval consular officials shall not proceed to the transcription of 
such deeds until they have ascertained that the aforesaid approval 
does not exist, the provisions contained in decree of January 2, 1916, 
and concerning warranty and maritime exchange agreements remain- 
ing unchanged. 

Notice of mine fields in Tyrrhenian Sea, February 27, 1917. 

.[Paragraph of telegram received by the Secretary of State from the American ambas- 
sador at Rome.] 

February 27, 3917. 
In a communication dated February 27 foreign office requests Secre- 
tary of State be immediately notified of decision of minister of marine 
on account of blockade of Italy by central empire to take urgent and 
special measures to protect commerce of Italy by extensive barriers 
of mines along the Tyrrhenian seacoast from the 1st of March. Some 
barriers will be variable, others permanent, and others temporary 
anchored mines. Neutral ships arriving and departing at Italian 
ports will, through special service organized therefor, be informed 
routes to follow, as a protection against all danger. Details, geographic 
position, and danger regions can not be given owing to military exi- 
gencies. 

Declaration of Rome by Congress for the liberation of the oppressed nation- 
alities of Austria- Hungary, April 10, 1918. * 

[Official United States Bulletin, No. 323, p. 2.] 

The representatives of the nationalities wholly or partly subject to 
the domination of Austria-Hungary — Italians, Poles, Roumanians, 

1 Approved by United States May 31, 1918, infra, p. 209, and by Allied Supreme War 
'Council, June 4, 1918, supra, p. 98. 



108 Declaration of Rome. 

Czechs, Jugo-Slavs— have united in affirming as follows the principles 
by which their common action shall be guided : 

1. Each of these peoples proclaims its right to establish its own na- 
tionality and State unity, to complete this unity, and to attain full 
political and economic independence. 1 

2. Each of these peoples recognizes in the Austro-Hungarian mon- 
archy the instrument of Germanic domination and the fundamental 
obstacle to the realization of its aspirations and its rights. 

3. iThe assembly, consequently, recognizes the necessity for a com- 
mon struggle against the common oppressors, in order that each people 
may attain its complete liberation and complete national unity as a 
single free State. 

The representatives of the Italian people and the Jugo-Slav people 
are agreed in particular as follows: 

1. As regards the relations between the Italian nation and the 
nation of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes — known also under the name of 
the Jugo-Slav nation — the representatives of the two peoples recognize 
that the unity and independence of the Jugo-Slav nation is a vital 
interest of Italy, just as the completion of Italian nationality is a vital 
interest of the Jugo-Slav nation. And therefore the representatives of, 
the two peoples pledge themselves to use their utmost effort to the end 
that during the war and at the moment of peace these aims of the two 
peoples may be fully attained in their entirety. 

2. They affirm that the liberation of the Adriatic Sea and its defense 
against every actual and eventual enemy is a vital interest of the two 
peoples. 

3. They ple.dge themselves to resolve amicably, in the interest of 
future good and sincere relations between the two peoples, the various 
territorial controversies on the basis of nationality, and the rights of 
peoples to decide their own fate and in such a manner as not to injure 
the vital interests of the two nations, to be defined at the moment of 
peace. 

4. The nuclei of one people which may have to be included within 
the frontiers of the other shall be guaranteed the right to have their own 
language, culture, and moral and economic interests respected. 

1 Czechoslovak deputies declared for home rule in the Austrian Parliament, May 30, 
1917. At meetings at Prague, Jan. 6, 1918, and May 16, 1918, independence was de- 
manded. (New York Times, Current History, 8 (pt. 2): 115.) A provisional govern- 
ment in Paris issued a declaration of independence, Oct. 18, 1918 (Ibid. 9 (pt. 1): 492; 
Official United States Bulletin, No. 441, p. 3), and in combination with the representa- 
tives of other central European peoples a declaration of independence was proclaimed 
at Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Oct. 26, 1918. Delegates frcm Prague and Paris 
met at Geneva, Switzerland, Nov. 2, 1918, drafted a constitution and elected Prof. 
Thomas G. Masaryk, president of theCzecho-Slovak Republic, which had been formally 
proclaimed at Prague Oct. 29, 1918. 

Representatives of various Jugo-Slav nationalities met at Corfu July 27, 1917, and 
concluded an agreement for the establishment of a new State under the rule of the King 
of Serbia. At a meeting at Wagram, Mar. 2, 1918, Jugo-Slavs, including Slovenes, Croats, 
and Serbs, demanded independence. (New York Times, Current History,8 (pt. 2): 118.) 



Japan, Defensive Sea Areas. 109 

Statement by Italian Premier Orlando of attitude toward Czechoslovaks, 

October 3, 1918} 

[New York Times, Current History 9 (pt. 1): 496.] 

As early as April 21, 1918, the Italian Government concluded an 
agreement with the Czecho-Slovak National Council for the creation 
of a legion to right on our front, a step which implied the recognition 
of a de facto government. Since then our relations with this heroic 
people have been uniformly friendly, and the fraternal bonds between 
us have been strengthened and hallowed by the blood which its gen- 
erous sons have shed in the Alps for the defense of Italy as well as of 
their own land. I believe I am a faithful interpreter of the soul of the 
whole Italian nation when I say that the union between these two 
people will continue sincere and indissoluble and will be prolonged 
through fruitful, economic, and intellectual relations after the war. 

JAPAN. 

Notification of Sasebo defensive sea area, August 23, 1914- 

Navy Department Notification No. 5, August 23, 1914. 

From August 23, 1914, the following place will be the Sasebo defense 

sea area: 

Rofuro Yashiro, 
Minister of the Navy . ' 
The sea area within the line connecting Sai-no-hana, south extremity 
•of Imoto-jima, Otate-jima, Shishiki-zaki, and Kanzake-hana. How- 
ever, Omura Bay is not included in the area. 

Regulations for Sasebo defensive sea area, August 23, 1914. 

The commander in chief of the Sasebo naval station has promulgated 
the following rules for the control of the Sasebo defense sea area and of 
vessels navigating therein: 

RULES RELATING TO THE SASEBO DEFENSE SEA AREA AND VESSELS 

NAVIGATING THEREIN. 

Article 1. The general control over the water within the naval port 
is in charge of the harbor master of Sasebo and that over the entrance to 
the port and the waters outside of the entrance is in charge of the com- 
mander of defense of the entrance of Port Sasebo. 

Art. 2. Any vessel other than those belonging to the army or the 
navy, which desires to enter or leave the port or to pass it, must obtain 
the permission of the commander in chief of the Sasebo naval station 
beforehand. However, vessels less than 20 tons, gross, or vessels less 
than 200 "koku", capacity, or boats or any other vessels. wholly or 
principally driven by oars, shall, in spite of these rules, stop near the 

1 Italy recognized the Czecho-Slovak National' Council by 'a concluding convention, 
"June 30, 191 8; giving them exterritorial rights in Italy* : -• ■ ' - ' 



110 Japan, Defensive Sea Areas. 

entrance of the port and receive directions from the commander of de- 
fense of port entrance. 

Art. 5. Vessels which desire to enter, leave, or pass the defense sea 
area or to anchor therein, must first stop at a stopping place and receive,, 
directions from the watch vessel specially stationed there or from a. 
pilot vessel with regard to their movements, beacons, signals, etc. 
Art. 4. The stopping places of vessels are as follows: 
When entering: 

About 1 mile west of Kanzaki-hana. 
About 1 mile west of Mitoko-hana. 
About 1 mile south of Shishiki-zaki. 
Southern part of Terajima-suido. 
When leaving: 

South of Iwo-zaki within the naval port. 
Art. 5. A specially stationed watch vessel or a pilot vessel will 
always be near the stopping places. 

Art. 6. The pilot vessels which shall guide vessels which enter,, 
leave, or pass, the defense sea area, hoist the following signal: 

Daytime, pilot flag (square flag, upper part white, lower part 

red.) 
Night, two white lights. 
Art. 7. Vessels navigating the defense sea area shall not steam at a. 
speed higher than 8 knots. 

Art. 8. With regard to vessels belonging to persons living on the 
coast of the defense sea area, in daytime the prohibition of article 4 
shall not be enforced and article 2 shall not be applied. 

Art. 9. Fishing, taking seaweeds, swimming, etc., are prohibited 
within the defense sea area, unless with permission of the commander 
in chief of the naval station. 

Notification of Bako defensive sea area, August 23, 1914. 
Navy Department Notification No. 6, August 23, 1914. 

From August 23, 1914, the following place will be the Bako defense- 
sea area. 

Rokuro Yashiro, 
Minister of the Navy. 
The sea area within the line connecting Litsitah Point, south extrem- 
ity of Kosei-cho and Ko-kaku. 

Regulations for Bako defensive sea area, August 23, 1914. 

The commander of the Bako secondary naval station has promul- 
gated the following rules for the control of the Bako defense sea area 
and of vessels navigating therein: 

RULES RELATING TO THE BAKO DEFENSE SEA AREA AND VESSELS .NAVI- 
GATING THEREIN. 

Article 1. These rules are applicable to vessels other than those- 
belonging to the army or the navy which desire to enter, leave, or pass- 
the defense sea area when Bako has been designated as such. 



Japan, Defensive Sea Areas. Ill 

Art. 2. No vessels other than those belonging to the army or the- 
navy shall be permitted to enter or leave the defense sea area without 
permission of the commander of the station. 

Art. 3. Vessels which desire to obtain the permission of the pre- 
ceding article shall apply for it beforehand and receive permit for 
passage to and from the defense sea area. This permit shall not be 
loaned or transferred to another. 

Art. 4. Vessels which desire to enter or leave the defense sea area 
(including vessels of the preceding article which are required to obtain 
permission) shall stop at one of the following places, and shall wait for 
a pilot, showing the signals prescribed in article 5: 

1. When entering: 

A place not less than 1^ miles from the Kitsushibi (Litsitah) 
Lighthouse of Gyoo-to between the lines drawn southwest and 
southwest by south from the same lighthouse. 

2. When leaving: 

Within the line drawn between Fukibi-kaku and Kaikan-gan.. 

Art. 5. Vessels which have stopped at the above places shall display 
their signal letters and also the following signals: 

In steamers, flag asking for a pilot, and steam whistle shall be sounded. 
repeatedly. 

In sailing vessels, flag asking for a pilot, and horn shall be blown. 

Art. 6. When the pilot vessel has recognized vessels of the preceding- 
article, it shall hoist in answer the answering pennant of the inter- 
national code, and shall guide the vessels. However, with regard to 
vessels which ask for the permission of article 2, instruction from the- 
station must be waited for. 

When the pilot vessel permits free movements to the vessels, the- 
answering pennant of the preceding article shall be hauled down. 

Art. 7. The pilot vessel shall display in daytime the pilot flag 
(upper part white, lower part red) of the special signals to be used for 
British vessels of the international code, and at night two white lights 
abreast from the foremast. 

Art. 8. Vessels navigating the defense sea area are liable to inspec- 
tion by the watch or pilot vessel and must give clear answers to inqui- 
ries from them. 

Art. 9. Steamers in entering or leaving port shall steam at a speed 
not more than 5 knots. 

Art. 10. In following sea areas and channels, arrival or passage of 
all vessels is forbidden except with special permission of the com- 
mander of the station: The sea areas 3 miles around Boko Island, 
Kosei-cho, Gyoo-to, Hakusa-to, Kitsubai-cho, and Mokuto-cho. 

Art. 11. When passage of vessels is totally prohibited within the- 
defense sea area, the N flag of the international code shall be displayed 
at the signal station at Litsitah Point. 

Art. 12. From sunset to sunrise the passage to and from the defense- 
sea area of vessels, except those specially permitted, is prohibited. 



112 Japan, Days of Grace. 

Art. 13. With regard to oar-driven vessels belonging to residents 
of the defense sea area, the prohibition of article 4 shall not be enforced 
in daytime. 

Art. 14. Fishing and taking seaweeds are prohibited within the 
defense sea area unless with permission of the commander of the 
station. 

Art. 15. Vessels less than 20 tons gross, or those less than 200 " koku," 
or those driven principally or wholly with oars may pass the defense 
sea area in spite of the rules of articles 1, 2, and 3. However, passage 
of such vessels may temporarily be restricted or prohibited. 

Art. 16. In case any vessel coming under the preceding article 
passes at night the defense sea area, in violation of article 3 of regula- 
tions governing defense sea area, it may be fired at from the patrol or 
watch vessels. 

Declaration relating to treatment of German merchant vessels in or bound 
for Japanese ports at the beginning of hostilities, August 24, 1914. 1 

We sanction regulations relating to exemption of vessels of the German 
Empire from capture and cause them to be promulgated. 
. . [Imperial signature. Imperial seal.] 

This 23d day of August, 1914. 

Count Sigenobu Okuma, 

Minister President of State. 
Kokuro Yashiro, 

Minister of the Navy. 

Imperial Ordinance No. 163, of August 23, 1914. 

Article 1. A vessel of the German Empire which is, at the time of 
the enforcement of this ordinance, staying at a port of anchorage within 
the Japanese Empire or within districts governed by Japan, may, 
by September 5, 1914, land her cargo at the port or anchorage, and may 
finish business which was negotiated with good faith before the opening 
of the war and is being actually transacted, and requesting the Japanese 
authorities for a passport and obtaining it, may sail direct for the port 
of her destination or the port designated in the passport. 

Art. 2. A German vessel which has left the last port of call before 
August 23, 1914, and arrived at a port or anchorage within Japan or 
districts governed by Japan, not knowing the fact of the opening of 
war, may immediately land her cargo at the port or anchorage and may 
take in goods which are not contraband of war, and may finish her 
transactions, and requesting the Japanese authorities for passport and 
obtaining it, may sail direct to the port of her destination or the port 
designated in the passport. In this case the vessel must sail within 
two weeks from her arrival at the port or anchorage at a date to be 
designated by the Japanese authorities. 

Art. 3. A German vessel which has left a port or an anchorage in 
Japan or in districts governed by Japan in accordance with the pro- 

1 For documents relating to treatment of enemy vessels at outbreak of war by other 
countries, see Naval War College, International Law Documents, 1915, pp. 19 et seq., 
1917, pp. 200, 246. 



. Japan, Days of Grace. 113 

visions of the preceding two articles, shall not be captured while she 
is en route to the port of her destination or the port designated in the 
passport. However this rule does not apply to a vessel which has 
touched at another port or anchorage of Japan or of districts governed 
by Japan, or a port or an anchorage of the country to which the vessel 
belongs, or of districts governed by that country. 

Art. 4. A German vessel which, on account of force that can not 
be resisted, has not been able to leave a port or an anchorage of Japan 
or of districts governed by Japan within the period provided in article 1 
or 2, or a German vessel which was not permitted to leave, may be 
detained under the obligation that it shall be returned after the war 
without paying any damages, or may be requisitioned under the obli- 
gation that damages shall be paid. 

Art. 5. A German vessel which has left the last port of call before 
the opening of war and which does not know the fact of the opening 
of war when she encounters Japanese men-of-war, shall not be captured. 

A vessel coming under the preceding paragraph may be detained 
under the obligation that she shall be returned after the war without 
paying damages, or may be requisitioned or destroyed under the 
obligation that damages shall be paid, safety of persons on board 
guaranteed, and ship's papers preserved. 

A vessel coming under paragraph 1 shall be treated according to 
rules and customs of maritime warfare after she has touched at a port 
of her own country or a port of a neutral country. 

Art. 6. The, enemy goods on board a vessel coming under article 1, 
article 2, article 4 or the preceding article, may be detained under the 
obligation that they shall be returned after the war without paying 
damages, or may be requisitioned together with, or separate from, the 
vessel under the obligation to pay damages. 

Art. 7. This ordinance is not applicable to a German vessel of which 
it is very clear from its construction that it can be converted into a 
man-of-war. 

Art. 8. In case Germany gives to Japanese vessels and goods ^treat- 
ments different from those prescribed in this ordinance, the whole or 
part of this ordinance may not be enforced. 

SUPPLEMENTARY CLAUSE. 

This ordinance takes effect from the date of promulgation. 

Instructions of the minister of the navy, issued April 28, 1916, respecting 
the procedure for boarding merchant ships. 

During the continuance of the present war, His Imperial Majesty's 
ships shall, in visiting and searching merchant ships, follow the special 
procedure mentioned hereunder: 
1. By day: 

The warship will hoist a large-sized pennant at a conspicuous 
position and fire two rockets. 1 This is to signify that the mer- 
chant ship is to close the boat lowered by the warship, whether 
the warship remains near the boat or not. 

i See footnote, p. 114. 
116506—19 8 



114 Japan, Visit and Search. 

2. By night: l 

The warship will fire two port fires at a conspicuous position. 
This is to signify that the merchant ship is to close the boat 
lowered by the warship: The warship shall, where possible, 
illuminate the boat by a searchlight. 

When the weather precludes the lowering of a boat, the war- 
ship will likewise fire two port fires which will be the signal for 
the merchant ship to lie-to till daylight. 

3. In the event of the merchant ship disregarding the orders given 
under the preceding two clauses, it may be fired on by the warship. 

4. For the time being, if it is found that the meaning of the signals 
above mentioned is not understood, His Imperial Majesty's ships will 
communicate with merchant ships in the international code of signals. 
The procedure hitherto followed in other respects, remains unchanged. 

Imperial Ordinance No. 171, relating to transfer of national vessels, Sep- 
tember 29, 1917. 

Article 1. No Japanese vessels shall, except with permission of the 
minister of communications, be sold, chartered, tendered as security, 
or transferred to any person who is not entitled to own a Japanese 
vessel. This rule is also applicable to vessels building. 

Art. 2. No vessel shall be, except in the case where there is per- 
mission of the minister of communications, built to order of a person 
who is not entitled to own a Japanese vessel. 

Art. 3. Japanese vessels may not, except where there are orders of 
the Government or permission of the minister of communications,, 
engage in traffic between foreign ports only. 

Art. 4. The minister of communications may forbid or restrict a 
Japanese vessel in the transport of passengers or cargo from one foreign 
port to another foreign port. 

Art. 5. The minister of communications may order a Japanese 
vessel to make voyages on certain routes or to transport specially des- 
ignated passengers or cargo. 

Art. 6. The minister of communications may restrict transporta- 
tion fares with regard to Japanese vessels. 

Art. 7. The minister of communications may appropriate or use r 
designating a suitable remuneration, any Japanese vessel, shipbuild- 
ing yard or material, tools and machinery required for shipbuilding. 
This rule is applicable also to vessels building. 

In the f ase of the preceding clause, the minister of communications 
may requisition the crew or workmen together with the vessel or the 
yard. 

1 Instructions of the minister of the navy, issued on the 17th May, 1916, respecting: 
the boarding of merchant ships: 

The following alterations in the instructions issued on the 28th April, 1916, respecting 
the boarding of merchant ships will come into effect from the 20th May, 1916: 

1. In the clause respecting the signals by day for ordering the merchant ship to close 
the boat lowered by the warship, the words "two rockets" to be altered to "a rocket." 

2. The entire clause respecting signals by night to be struck out. 



Jajyan, Transfer of Vessels. 115 

The provisions of clauses 3 and 4, article 11, of the ocean traffic sub- 
sidy law will be applicable with regard to those who are not satisfied 
with the remuneration mentioned in clause 1 . 

Art. 8. The minister of communications may frame special rules 
with regard to the qualifications of vessels to be used on routes sub- 
sidized under the ocean traffic subsidy law 

Art 9. The minister of communications may give orders to Jap- 
anese vessels with regard to matters he considers necessary for the pro- 
tection of their crews or with regard to their equipments. 

Art. 10. A person who has infringed article 1, 2, or 3, or disobeyed 
the orders issued under article 5, or refused the appropriation or use 
(of material) or furnishing (of personnel) under article 7 shall be pun- 
ished with penal servitude not exceeding two years. 

Art. 11. A person who has infringed the prohibition or restriction 
under article 4 or the orders issued under article 9, shall be punished 
with penal servitude not exceeding one year or a fine not exceeding 
5,000 yen. 

In the case of the preceding clause, the part charged beyond the 
limit shall be forfeited. In case it is impossible to forfeit the whole 
or part thereof, value thereof shall be collected. 

Art. 13. The authority of the minister of communications under 
this ordinance shall be exercised in Korea, Formosa, and Kwantung, 
by the governor general of Korea, governor general of Formosa, and 
governor of Kwantung, respectively, under the supervision of the 
minister of communications. 

SUPPLEMENTARY CLAUSES. 

This ordinance shall be enforced from October 1, 1917. 

With regard to Japanese vessels being chartered, or tendered as 
security, to persons not entitled to own Japanese vessels, or engaged in 
traffic between foreign ports only, the permission of the minister of 
communications shall be requested without delay upon the enforcement 
of this ordinance. The same is the case with vessels building which 
are to be tendered as securities to persons who are not entitled to own 
Japanese vessels, or with vessels to be built to orders of such persons. 

This ordinance will cease to be in force after one year from the date 
of the signing of a treaty of peace. 

MOROCCO. 

Neutrality regulations, July 18, 1917. 

Adjoined to the royal order circular No. 607. Dahir dictating regulations con- 
cerning the treatment to be accorded to belligerent and neutral submarines in 
waters under the jurisdiction of the zone of Spanish influence in Morocco, and 
corresponding decree, July 18, 1917. 

Praise to the only God. 

Only His Empire is eternal. 

Place of sea. 

Let it be known by this document that we by the grace of God, His 
force and power, taking into account the necessity of fixing concrete 
rules to which the authorities and functionaries of this zone must adjust 



116 Morocco, Sojourn of Submarines. 

their conduct in so far it is connected with the exercise of the rights and 
fulfillment of duties consequent on the neutrality which we have been 
observing since the beginning of the war, and since the precepts in 
force in Spain are suitable to be applied in the zone of Spanish influ- 
ence in Morocco we have decided to declare the following: 

Article l.-For the purposes of the neutrality which the Spanish 
zone of Morocco is observing in connection with the present war and 
only in so far as the rights and duties, which neutrality imposes on the 
Jalifian Najzen during naval warfare, are concerned, by neutral waters of 
the Spanish zone will be understood those included between the shore 
line along the coast and an imaginary line parallel to the said shore line 
and at a distance of 3 miles to seaward. In the roadsteads, bays, or 
gulfs, the openings of which, measured between the most prominent 
points of land are less than 12 miles in width, the line to which the 
preceding paragraph refers will be the tangent common to two arcs of a 
circumference described with a radius of 3 miles, from those points as 
centers, seaward. 

Art. 2. Navigation in waters under the jurisdiction of the Spanish 
zone of Morocco and the entrance to the ports of that protectorate is 
prohibited to submarine vessels of any class whatsoever. 

Art. 3. All submarine vessels included in the previous article which 
penetrate the Spanish zone of Morocco for any reason whatever will be 
interned until the end of the war. 

Art. 4. Neutral submarines which penetrate the waters of the 
Spanish zone of Morocco must do so on the surface and with the flag 
of their country well displayed. 

Art. 5. As far as not modified by the preceding articles all the author- 
ities and functionaries of any class whatsoever in the Spanish zone of 
Morocco will adjust their conduct and orders according to the regula- 
tions contained in the thirteenth convention of The Hague, October 
18, 1907, relative to the rights and obligations of the neutral powers in 
case of naval warfare, a convention which obtains in Spain and the 
application of which in this zone of influence is accepted provisionally 
until the reestablishment of peace. 

We therefore command our authorities and all others to whom our 
power is delegated to read this document and carry out its meaning 
without extra limitation. 

This order was drawn up, glorified by God, on the 28th of Ramadan, 
1335 (July 18, 1917). 

Having seen the bahir given on this date by His Imperial Highness 
Prince Muley El Mahdi Ben Ismail Ben Mohamed setting forth the 
regulations concerning the treatment which must be accorded belliger- 
ent and neutral submarines in the jurisdictional waters of the zone of 
Spanish influence in Morocco, I hereby promulgate the said bahir. 

Given in Tetuan, July 18, 1917. 

(Signed) F. G. Jordana. 



Norway, Military Ports. 117 

NORWAY. 

Note giving regulations for sojourn in military ports, December 7, 1914. 

Legation of Norway, 

Washington, D. C, December 7, 1914- 
Mr. Secretary op State: 

By order of my Government, I have the honor to communicate the 
following to your excellency: 

In order to insure the supervision of vessels touching at the military 
port of Christiansand, Bergen, and Trondhjem, Norway, it is ordered 
by decree of the minister of defense of Norway dated November 18, 
1914, that all vessels, except those that are running on a regular service 
and have previously obtained the permission of the chief of defense 
(commandant) of the place, are forbidden access to the military ports 
of Christiansand,* Bergen, and Trondhjem during the night and dark 
hours of the day (during which the lighthouses enumerated in the list 
of lighthouses are under orders to be lighted). 

On the outward guard line of the fortresses the chief of defense (com- 
mandant) of every place shall designate determined spots where the 
vessels on regular service already holding permission to enter at night 
shall stop of their own accord and, if necessary, hail the guardship by 
means of a prearranged signal. 

The guard vessels will immediately announce the entry of the vessels 
allowed to cross the guard line. . 

No vessel is allowed to cross that line until formal permission is given 
from the guardship. 

The said decree went into effect on November 25, 1914, at noon. 

Be pleased to accept, Mr. Secretary of State, the assurances of my 

highest consideration. 

H. Bryn. 
His Excellency Mr. W. J. Bryan, 

Secretary of State, etc., etc., etc. 

Note relating to limits of military port of Vardoe, December 29, 1917 . 

Legation op Norway. 

The minister of Norway presents his compliments to His Excellency 
the Secretary of State of the United States, and in compliance with 
the instructions just received from his Government has the honor to 
communicate the following: 

In the course of the present war armed vessels belonging to the 
belligerent powers have occasionally run in the military port of Vardoe, 
The area of the military port of Vardoe is, under the law of January 30. 
1904, exactly that of the commercial port of Vardoe. 

The military port of Vardoe is bounded as follows: 

To the east and north by a line drawn from Hasselines to Kvalvik- 
haugen on the west point of Renen Island and thence to the north 
point of Skagodden, to the west by a straight line drawn from Skagod- 
den, through the most easterly point of Tyveholmen Islet and as far 
as the monument on Svartnes Point, to the south by a line drawn from. 



118 Norway, Jurisdictional Waters. 

the aforesaid monument and running south 75° east until it inter- 
sects a line drawn from the easterly point of Vaargerbet straight south. 
The boundaries above stated are given along the geographic south- 
north direction. 
Washington, December 29, 1917. 

Regulations defining territorial waters and treatment of belligerent sub- 
marines, June 18, 1918. 

1. The Norwegian Government, who have in the past claimed that 
the territorial waters of Norway extend to 4 miles from the shore, 
have recognized the difficulty of upholding this claim during the war, 
since it is not recognized by either the British or the German Govern- 
ments. 

2. The Norwegian Government accordingly intimated to His British 
Majesty's Government, on May 3, 1918, that Norwegian naval officers 
have now received instructions that they are to confime their efforts 
to maintaining the neutrality of the waters within the 3-mile limit, 
and are not to fire on belligerent ships operating outside that limit. 

3. The following are the Norwegian regulations now in force for 
submarines in Norwegian territorial waters, supplementing the Nor- 
wegian Rules of Neutrality: 1 

(a) Submarines equipped for use in warfare, and belonging to a 
belligerent power, must not traverse or stay in Norwegian territorial 
waters. Breach of this prohibition will expose them to armed attack 
without previous warning. This prohibition does not prevent a sub- 
marine from entering Norwegian territorial waters on account of dam- 
age, or by reason of stress of weather, or in order to save human life. 
When in Norwegian waters the vessel must remain on the surface and 
must have her national flag hoisted and also the international signal 
to explain her presence. The vessel must quit territorial waters as 
soon as the cause justifying her entrance no longer remains. 

(6) Submarines equipped for use in warfare, and belonging to a 
foreign nonbelligerent power, are also forbidden to enter or traverse 
Norwegian territorial waters unless such entrance or passage takes 
place by daylight in clear weather and on the surface and with the 
national flag of the vessel hoisted. 

ROUMANIA. 

Notice of mine field in the Danube, November 30, 1915. 
[Telegram received.] 

Bucharest, November 30, 1915. 
Received December 1, 12.30 p. m. 

Secretary of State, Washington: 

192, November 30. Have received notification from foreign office 
Roumanian ministry of war have decided to mine the Danube between 
Turk Smil on Bulgarian frontier and the kilometer 430 also between 
Galatzi and mouth of Pluth. 



1 See decree Jan. 30, 1917, Naval War College, International Law Documents, 1917, 
p. 195. 



Roumania, Mine Fields. 119 

Notice of mine fields near Cernavoda, June 17/30, 1916. 

Bucharest, 17/30 June, l r >i<;. 
Ministry for Foreign Affairs. 
Ministere des Affaires Et.rangeres, No. 16938. 
Annexes: une. 

NOTE VERB ALE. 

In conformity with article 4, convention concluded at The Hague 
relative to the laying of mines under the sea, the department of foreign 
affairs has the honor to inform the legation of the United States, with 
the request kindly to inform its Government thereof urgently, that 
the royal authorities have judged necessary the placing of a mine field 
below and above the port of Cernavoda. Navigators must therefore 
stop at kilometers 302 and 299 and await there the arrival of the pilots 
of the royal marine whose duty it is to conduct them across the mine 
field. 

There is attached a French translation of the text of the notice to 
the navigators published on this subject by the competent royal 
authorities. 

To the Legation of the United States of America. 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 

(Ministerul Afacerilor Straine) 

NOTICE TO NAVIGATORS. 

From the date of the present publication, the zone included between 
kilometers 302 above and 299 below the port of Cernavoda having been 
mined, the passage of the boats under the bridge at Cernavoda will be 
effected in the following manner: 

The boats mounting the river will wait under pressure below kilo- 
meter 299 for the arrival of the Roumanian military pilot; in accord- 
ance with the existing regulations tugs will not be able to have more 
than two lighters at a maximum for each towing. 

Boats coming down the river will perform their turning operations 
above kilometer 302 and moor near the island of Hinogu. 

The passage will take place only between the rising and setting of 
the sun; during the night all navigation within the said zone is for- 
mally interdicted. 

It is forbidden to boats to cruise in the channel. 

A boat arriving in the channel will give a signal by whistle, one 
long and one short blast. The speed of the boat shall be 4 kilometers 
an hour minimum. 

Navigation without tug in the direction of the current, dragging at 
anchor or chain, is forbidden. 

The mined zone is marked on the shores by two buoys of triangular 
shape, the upper points being painted red-white, a buoy being placed 
-on both banks at kilometers 299 and 302. 



120 Roumania, Navigation Regulations. 

The navigable channel is marked by six buoys, red and black, placed 
as follows: 

One red buoy above kilometer 301 and one black buoy above the 
first mentioned at a distance of 400 meters. 

One red buoy and a black one under the bridge between the second 
and third tiers (the grand opening), with a space of 100 meters between 
them. 

One red and one black buoy at kilometer 299. 

The entrance and the exit of the boats at the port of Oernavoda 
shall be effected by going around the black buoy situated at kilo- 
meter 299. 

The red-green signal lights of the bridge piles will be extinguished. 

The point of mooring of the boats coming up or down to wait for 
passage will be below kilometer 299, left bank, and above kilometer 
302, near the island of Hinogu. 

The military service pilot will examine the rudder, the engines, 
the mooring apparatus, and the staff of the boats. 

The passage of steamboats and lighters, sailing ships, or other large 
craft is forbidden under the bridge of Fetesti both by day and night. 

Passage will be permitted of small craft (fishing boats) by a certain 
route, and will be effected under the control of the chief of the marine 
detachment of Fetesti. 

It is absolutely forbidden for fishing craft to approach either by 
day or by night the Ezer Lake Bridge. 

Boats belonging to the royal military marine will execute the sur- 
veillance ■service. 

RUSSIA. 

SOJOURN. 

Regulations governing visits by foreign warships to Russian ports and 
territorial waters, issued by the Imperial Russian Government, December 
23, 19131 January 5, 1914. 

Article 1. As regards visits by foreign warships, Russian ports and 
waters are divided into three classes, to wit: 1, open; 2, conditionally 
open; 3, closed. 

Art. 2. By open ports and waters shall be understood all Russian 
ports and waters with the exception of those mentioned under article 
3 and those which have been closed by special order. 

Art. 3. The conditionally open ports and waters are: 

(a) In the Baltic, Port Kaiser Alexander III, Riga, Libau, Duna- 
munde, Reval, Helsingfors, Sweagorg, Kronstadt, and St. Petersburg; 
the waters of (1) Mohnsund from Worms to Werder, including the 
passages of Nuko- Worms and Solasund; (2) along the coast of the Gulf 
of Finland from Hango to Stirs-udde, and (3) the Abo-Aland Skaren. 

(6) In the Black Sea: Sebastopol, Ialta, Kertch, Batu, the Dniestre 
River, the Dnieper Bay Channel, the Djarilagatch Bay, the stretch 
of water from Cape Lukul to Cape Aja, the Straits of Kertch, and the 
Sea of Azof. 



Russia, Sojourn of Vessels. 121 

(c) In the Pacific: Vladivostok and the waters of Peter the Great 
Bay, Posiette Bay, and the Bays of America, Nilolaievsk on the Amur 
and de Castri. 

Art. 4. Any port or waters can, by special order of the minister of 
marine, which order shall be made publicly known, be declared closed 
as far as visits by foreign warships are concerned. 

Art. 5. No special permission is required for visits by foreign war- 
ships to the open ports and waters of Russia. The imperial Govern- 
ment must, however, be duly informed through diplomatic channels 
of the arrival of such ships. 

Art. 6. Foreign warships desiring to visit the conditionally open 
ports and waters mentioned under article 3 must first obtain permission 
from the Russian Government through diplomatic channels. Request 
for such permission must distinctly specify the ports or waters that it 
is desired to visit and mention the ships together with the time and 
duration of their proposed visit. 

Art. 7. Entrance of foreign warships into conditionally open porta 
and waters will be permitted only when duly authorized by the im- 
perial Government and between sunrise and sunset. 

Art. 8. The above regulations (articles 5, 6, and 7) do not apply to — 

(a) Ships having on board crowned heads, members of reigning 
houses, presidents of republics or their suites, or duly accredited 
ambassadors and envoys to the court of His Majesty the Emperor, and 

(b) Ships forced to seek refuge in Russian ports' on account of disaster 
or damage. 

Art. 9. Foreign warships admitted to Russian ports and waters must 
anchor at the place indicated by the local authorities and must observe 
the regulations regarding health, order, safety, the use of radio teleg- 
raphy, and any other local ordinances. 

Art. 10. Foreign warships sojourning in open or conditionally open 
Russian ports and waters are unconditionally bound to put to sea 
within 10 hours after the receipt of a request to this effect from the 
minister of marine. 

Art. 11. The privileges accorded in the foregoing regulations may 
be restricted and modified in the case of warships belonging to nations 
which subject Russian warships to less favorable conditions. 

PRIZE REGULATIONS. 

Supplement to Rules of Naval War, September 9/22, 1914. 

EXPLANATION REGARDING ADAPTATION OF THE NAVAL PRIZE RULES/ 
WITH THE "RULES OF NAVAL WAR." 

The imperial ukase dated 1st September, 1914, : prescribes that the 
Rules of Naval War, established by the London conference, with certain 
amendments and supplements (mentioned in the ukase), will be pro- 

i United States, Diplomatic Correspondence with Belligerent Governments, European 
War, No. 1, p. 23. 



122 Russia, Prize Regulations. 

visionally applied in the operations of the present war. Consequently , 
in regard to naval prizes, besides the Naval Prize Rules l (annex to 
p . 353 of Book X of the Code of Naval Regulations) the above-mentioned 
rules, amending and supplementing said navy regulations, must be 
applied. However, in practice, the application of such varying and 
not coordinated rules may create difficulties and misunderstandings. 
In order to avoid such cases, on some points it will be sufficient to 
call the attention of officers as to which special sections of the Naval 
Prize Rules amend or supplement sections of the Rules of Naval War, 
and by which of the latter they are so modified. In this regard it is to 
be noted that: 

(1) Section 6 of the Naval Prize Rules, prescribing the manner of 
searching neutral ships, under escort of war vessels, is amended and 
supplemented by sections 61 and 62 of the Rules of Naval War; 

(2) Section 7 of the Naval Prize Rules, concerning the determination 
and transfer of nationality of a ship, by paragraphs 55 to 57 of the Rules 
of Naval War; 

(3) The note to paragraph 10 of the Naval Prize Rules, concerning 
the property found on board of an enemy ship, by paragraphs 58 to 60 

•of the Rules of Naval War; and 

(4) Paragraph 14 of the Naval Prize Rules, concerning the seizure 
of military contraband without seizing the vessel on which the same is 
transported, by paragraphs 44 and 54 of the Rules of Naval War. 

But the principal difficulties and misunderstandings may arise on 
most important and constantly raised questions as to what ships and 
cargoes are subject to seizure and confiscation. Regarding this point, 
section 9, Naval Prize Rules, remains in force and directs that all ships 
and cargoes which are liable to be confiscated as prizes are subject to 
seizure. Then, after paragraph 10 (also remaining in force), establish- 
ing instances of confiscation of the enemy ships with their cargo, 
-followed paragraph 11, foreseeing all cases of confiscation of neutral 
ships, and paragraph 12, foreseeing all cases of confiscation of cargoes 
of neutral ships. Corresponding to that and to the "Instructions" 2 of 
the admiralty council, on the order of stopping, paragraph 26 of the 
appendix to Naval Prize Rules, in searching and seizing ships and 
cargoes, paragraph 37, was concentrated all cases of seizure or confisca- 
tion of neutral ships, and also in paragraph 38, all cases of seizing or 
confiscating of cargoes shipped on neutral ships. Besides, the two 
sections of the Naval Prize Rules, 9 and 12, and the two paragraphs of 
the " Instruction," 37 and 38, corresponding to them, are amended 
and supplemented by several sentences of the Naval Prize Rules in 
various places of the text, and now in their turn amended and sup- 
plemented by special orders contained in the newly given imperial 
ukase. Besides, the contraband itself is now divided into absolute and 
conditional, with establishment of different reasons for the seizing and 
confiscation of articles under either heading. In order to facilitate the 



i United States, Foreign Relations, 1904, p. 736. 2 I bid., p. 747. 



Russia, Prize Regulations. 123 

practical application of these various rules, scattered about without 
system, contradicting and modifying one the other in most important 
questions, the various cases are grouped under the following general 
headings: (I) all cases of confiscation of neutral ships, (II) all cases 
of confiscation of cargoes of neutral ships, and (III) the chief prin- 
ciples on which are based the seizure and confiscation of articles of 
absolute and conditional contraband, with notes under each point of 
these three sections of such rules of the Naval Prize Rules, of the Rules 
-of Naval War, and of the imperial ukase, which must be taken for 
guidance. 

Merchant ships of neutral nationality are subject to confiscation as 
prizes in the following cases: 

(1) When they are caught in the act of transporting military contra- 
band subject to seizure (Section III), if the same exceeds by volume, 
or by weight, or by value, or by amount of freight charges, the half of 
the whole cargo; provided it is not proved that the beginning of hos- 
tilities, or that the notification of articles declared contraband — to 
which the cargo or a part of the cargo may belong — was unknown to 
the ship; or that the captain, having learned of the beginning of mili- 
tary operations, or of the contraband declaration, had not yet had time 
to remove the contraband from his ship. — Naval Prize Rules, Article 
II, paragraph 1, sections a and 6; Rules of Naval War, sections 40 and 
43; and, bearing on them, sections 30-39. 

Note.— A neutral ship, which, having carried contraband to the 
enemy under cover of false documents, is subject to seizure and con- 
fiscation for the transport of such contraband if she be met before the 
•end of her return voyage. — Imperial ukase, paragraph 2, Rules of Naval 
War, section 38. 

(2) When they are caught in the act of violating blockade and it may 
not be proved that the establishment of the blockade was unknown to 
the ship. — Naval Prize Rules, paragraph 11, page 2; Rules of Naval 
War, paragraphs 21, 14-20. 

(3) When they have resisted by force stopping, search, or seizure. — 
Naval Prize Rules, paragraph 11, page 3; Rules of Naval War, par- 
agraph 63. 

(4) When they have taken an active part in the enemy's military 
operations. — Naval Prize Rules, paragraph 11, page 4; Rules of Naval 
War, paragraph 46, page 1. 

(5) When they are found under the command or control of an agent, 
placed on board of the ship by the enemy government. — Rules of 
Naval War, paragraph 46, page 2. 

(6) When they are freighted wholly by the enemy government. — 
Rules of Naval War, paragraph 46, page 3. 

(7) When they are, at the given moment and exclusively, occupied 
either in transporting enemy troops, or transmitting information in the 
-enemy interests. — Rules of Naval War, paragraph 46, page 4. 



124 Russia, Prize Regulations. 

(8) When they have been caught in a voyage undertaken especially 
for the transport of individual passengers, belonging to any army unit 
of the enemy, or in transmitting information. in the enemy's interests, 
as well when as they have been caught in the act of transporting— 
with the knowledge of the ship's owner, or of the person having wholly 
freighted the vessel, or of the captain — a detachment of the enemy's 
troops, or one, or several persons who, during the voyage, have directly 
contributed to the war operations of the enemy, of in such cases it may 
not be proved that the beginning of hostilities was unknown to the 
ship or that the captain, having learned of the outbreak of the war, had 
not yet had time to land such persons from his ship. — Naval Prize 
Rules, paragraph 11, page 1, letter c; Rules of Naval War, paragraph 45. 

II. 

The cargo of neutral merchant ships is subject to confiscation as prizes: 

(1) When it consists in goods subject to confiscation as military con- 
traband, if not proved that the beginning of hostilities, or the declara- 
tion of contraband including goods of the kind to which the whole, or 
part, of the ship's cargo belongs, was unknown to the ship; or that the 
captain having learned of the beginning of war operations, or of the 
declaration of contraband, had not as yet been able to discharge the 
contraband goods. — Naval Prize Rules, paragraph 12, page 1; Rules of 
Naval War, paragraphs 39, 30-37. 

(2) When it belongs to the owner of contraband goods and is on board 
of the same ship. — Rules of Naval War, paragraph 42 __ 

(3) When it is shipped on board of a vessel subject to confiscation on 
ground of page 2, section 1, or not proved that, at the time of shipping 
cargo, the person so shipping it did not, and could not, know of the 
ship's intention to violate the blockade. — Naval Prize Rules, paragraph 
12, page 2; Rules of Naval War, paragraph 21. 

(4) When it is shipped on board of a vessel subject to confiscation on 
ground of, pages 3-7, section 1, exception being however made for 
goods exempted from confiscation on board of enemy ships by para- 
graph 10 of the Naval Prize Rules, but with the appropriate applica- 
tion of the note to that same section and of the paragraphs 58-60 of the 
Rules of Naval War, and with the extension of the confiscation to goods 
belonging to the captain or to the owner of the ship. — Naval Prize 
Rules, paragraph 12, page 2; Rules paragraphs 46 and 63, 58-60. 

(5) When it is shipped on a vessel, subject to confiscation on ground 
of page 8 of section 1, and consists of goods belonging to the shipowner. — 
Rules of Naval War, paragraph 45. 

III. 

Articles forming contraband, both absolute and conditional, are pre- 
cisely enumerated in paragraph 1 of the ukaze of 1st September, 1914 
(see paragraph 13 of Naval Prize Rules, and also paragraphs 22 and 24 
of Rules of Naval War, which were thereby amended); the principa- 



Russia, Prize Regulations. 125 

'reasons for the seizure and confiscation of objects of both categories of 
contraband are as follows: 

(1) Goods forming absolute contraband are subject to seizure and 
confiscation if it be established that their destination is the enemy 
territory, or a territory occupied by him, or by his armed forces. It is 
immaterial if the forwarding of such goods be made either by direct 
transit, by trans-shipment, or in combination with further conveyance 
by land. — Rules of Naval War, paragraphs 30 and 39. 

(2) The destination forseen in paragraph 1 is considered to be finally 
proved in the following cases: (1) When the cargo, according to docu- 
ments, is destined to be unloaded in an enemy's port, or for his armed 
forces; (2) when the ship must enter only enemy's ports, or when she 
must enter an enemy's port, or meet his armed forces before entering 
a neutral port to which the bills of lading are made out. — Rules of 
Naval War, paragraphs 31 and 32. 

(3) Articles of conditional contraband are subject to seizure and 
•confiscation if it be established that they are destined for the armed 
forces or for the Government of the enemy, except if in this latter 
-case, circumstances prove that in reality the given goods can not be 
used in the existing war; this stipulation can not be applied to goods 
mentioned in page 4 of section 2 of paragraph 1 of the ukaze of the 1st 
September, 1914. 1 — Rules of Naval War, paragraphs 33 and 39; ukaze, 
paragraph 1. 

(4) The ship's destination, as (anticipated) contemplated in para- 
graph 3, is presumed to be proved in the case of the cargo being 
addressed to enemy's officials, or to a merchant residing in the enemy's 
country and of whom it is known that he is the purveyor to the enemy 
of goods and materials of that kind; also if the goods are directed to 
the agent of the enemy, or for him, or to a merchant, or to any other 
person, in the service of the enemy, or for such merchant or such 
person. 2 

The same rule will be applied also in the case of the cargo's destina- 
tion being a fortified place of the enemy, or any other locality serving 
as base for the enemy's armed forces; however this presumption is not 
appliable to the merchant ship herself, proceeding toward any such 
locality, in regard to which the character of the cargo is adjudged as 
-contraband. 

In the absence of such presumptions, the ship's destination will be 
presumed innocent. — Rules of Naval War, paragraph 34; ukaze, para- 
graph 3. 

(5) Conditional contraband, if its destination as mentioned in para- 
graph 3 be proved, is subject to seizure and confiscation, without 
regard to what port the ship may be bound and independently of the 
port to which her cargo may be addressed. — Ukaze, paragraph 5; Rules 
-of Naval War, paragraph 35. 

1 This refers to gold, silver, and money. 

2 Even though all these persons be residing in a neutral country. 



126 Russia, Prize Regulations. 

Independently of what is stated above, it is necessary to pay special' 
attention to the important modification of existing regulations, limit- 
ing the right to destroy neutral ships (with their cargo) on an order of ' 
naval commanders. 

This amendment makes the distinction that, together with several '. 
cases contemplated by paragraph 21 of the Naval Prize Rules, para- 
graph 49 of the Rules of Naval War permits the destruction of a seized 
neutral ship exclusively when her conveyance to a proper port entails 
danger for the warship executing the seizure or for the success of the - 
operations in which she may be at the time engaged; and instead of the 
compensation for destroyed property, established by paragraph 29 of 
the Naval Prize Rules; which is paid only when the vessel is judged 
to be entitled to liberation, sections 5L-53 of the Rules of Naval War - 
prescribed that compensation for losses in case of the destruction of a 
neutral ship (and her cargo) is due also when the destruction was not 
justified by an urgency foreseen by paragraph 49, although the vessel 
may have been subject to confiscation. Besides, in conformance 
with paragraph 54, the same rules are extended to the destruction of 
articles taken off such ship, which afterwards has been allowed to - 
continue her route (comp. par. 44). 1 

At the same time paragraphs 51-54 of the Rules of Naval War direct 
that the captor who has destroyed a neutral ship (with cargo, or portions 
of it) must, before any examination as to the lawfulness of the seizure, 
prove that he has acted so only in view of exceptional emergency, as ■ 
contemplated by paragraph 49. Therefore, naval chiefs who have 
ordered the destruction of a neutral ship, with cargo or portions of it, 
must establish at the time proofs that they have acted so only under 
force of emergency (par. 353 of Naval Statute); and prize courts, before 
examining questions as to whether the property is subject to confisca- 
tion, or liberation, and as to refusal, or payment to owners of compen- 
sation for losses, must decide especially as to whether such destruction 
was proper, or not, and only after that will proceed to decide other 
pending questions. 2 

Appeal on such prior decisions will be allowed only after the judg- 
ment on the case as a whole, together with the appeal on this judgment, . 
but not apart from it; this results as much as a consequence of the 
general rules of prize jurisdiction (in order to avoid delay in the pro- 
ceedings, complaints on part decisions, without joining in the appeal, 

1 In relation to enemy ships and cargoes the paragraphs 21 and 29 of Regulations on • 
Naval Prizes remain in force fully. 

2 It must be mentioned that the inclusion in paragraph 74 of the Naval Prize Rules, 
of rules on the judgment by the courts "ex-officio" independently of requests by per- 
sons interested (par. 87, Naval Prize Rules), in questions of confiscation or liberation < 
not only in cases of safekeeping of seized property, but also of its destruction by order of 
a naval chief, has its origin in the right of the crew to a part of the prize (apart from 
compensation to owners for losses); now this necessity does not exist any more, since by 
naval department order No. 239 and 257 (1914) the crew is no longer entitled to a part 
in the prize. 



Russia, Appraisal of Prize. 127 

are allowed only in certain cases specially mentioned in the law), as 
of motives, forming the basis of paragraph 51 of the Rules of Naval War. 
In regard to the last mention, it should be added, that the real sense 
of the rules, established by the London conference of 1908-1909 and 
accepted by the delegates of the powers in the form of "Declaration 
on the right of naval war," is clearly exposed in the report, submitted 
to the conference by the editing committee, which must therefore be 
taken into consideration by the prize courts in all doubtful cases, 
which may arise as to the exact understanding of one or other of these 
rules (see ed. of Min. For. An\, 1910, pp. 38-183). 

(Signed) Vice Admiral Russin, 

Chief of Naval General Staff, and Privy counsellor. 
T. Steblin-Kamansky, 
Acting Prosecutor of the High Prize Court, legal adviser (jurisconsulto) 
the Minister of the Navy. 

Regulations for the appraisal of prizes, September 9/22, 1914. 

Annex to paragraph 33 (note) to the Russian Regulations of Naval Prize, 1895, 1 
in force with modifications September 9/22, 1914. 

RULES ON THE APPRAISAL AND SALE OF PRIZES. 

1. The appraisal of war vessels of the enemy's navy is made in ac- 
cordance with special formulas. 

All questions regarding status of the vessel as to whether it is a war 
vessel or not, are decided by the Admiralty council. 

2. The appraisal mentioned in the preceding article includes the 
value of all articles forming the armament and outfit of vessels taken 
from the enemy, with exception of precious stones, gold, silver, paper 
money, and other valuables, which may form part of the cargo. 

All such objects of value are appraised and may be sold separately 
from the ship, under general provisions. (Par. 4 and following.) 

3. For the appraisal of ships according to the rules given in paragraph 
1, the commander in chief, or the commandant of naval station, will 
appoint a board composed of naval officers, naval constructors, and 
engineers of the navy. 

4. The appraisal of other vessels and cargo confiscated as prizes, 
besides those mentioned in paragraphs 1 and 2 of these rules, and of 
recaptured vessels and cargoes of our navy (pars. 34 and 92 of Regula- 
tions on Naval Prizes), as well as of seized property liberated but un- 
claimed (par. 82, Regulations on Naval Prizes) will be made by order of 
the chief commander in chief or of the commandant of naval stations, 
under supervision of a deputy appointed by him, by sworn appraisers 
and in case there be no such, by experts, at least two in number. The 
appraisal must be made in the presence of an official of the customs 
service. 

i United States, Foreign Relations, 1904, p. 739. 



128 Russia, Appraisal of Prize. 

The appraisal of goods confiscated as prize when they have been 
seized by trading ships (par. 15 and 43, Regulations on Naval Prizes) 
will be made on an order of a prize court, under supervision of a deputy 
appointed by the court. 

5. The appraisal made according to above rules, with the opinion of 
the deputy and of the customs official annexed to it in such cases when 
it may be necessary (par. 4) will be submitted to the naval officials, or 
to the prize courts, who may have issued the order to execute it. 

6. The sale of goods confiscated as prizes, if the naval department 
does not want to keep them (par. 33, Regulations on Naval Prizes), as 
well as of such property which was liberated from seizure but not 
claimed in time (par. 82, Regulations on Naval Prizes), will take place 
in accordance with rules established for the sale of goods confiscated 
for violation of custom service regulations (Code of laws, Bk. VI, Cus- 
tom Service Statute, ed. 1910, pp. 1113, 1173, 1215, and 1263), with 
such modifications and supplements as may be further mentioned. 

7. The sale will be allowed and confirmed by the authorities men- 
tioned in paragraph 5 or by prize courts, and will take place under the 
supervision of deputies (as for appraisal) ; it can take place also, else- 
where than the customhouse precincts, but invariably in the presence 
of a customs official. 

8. The sale of goods, subject to rapid deterioration, can be allowed 
with the formality of confirming the appraisal and with other excep- 
tions from rules, if it be necessary. 

9. The appraisal and sale of property seized, made before a decision 
^,s to its confiscation, and the appraisal and sale of private property 
recaptured, in cases foreseen by paragraphs 23, 24, 67, 71, and 92 of 
Regulations on Naval Prizes, will take place according to these rules, 
but only on an order and under approval of the authorities mentioned 
in said paragraphs or of the prize court and under the supervision of a 
deputy appointed by the court or by those authorities as may be 
appropriate. 

10. During the course of all proceedings of appraisal and sale the 
persons mentioned in paragraph 23 of the Regulations on Naval Prizes 
may be present and submit their statements and explanations. 

Decree relating to treatment oj enemy cargoes in national and allied vessels, 

August 10/23, 1915. 

Amendment and supplement of the naval prize rules, confirmed by Imperial order 

on 27 March, 1895.1 

His Imperial Highness' decree to the governing senate: 
Recognizing it as desirable that the naval war rights ordain condi- 
tions, and rules in connection with confiscation of the enemy's cargoes 
transported under Russian or allied flags and to make an amendment 
in the imperial decree of 27th March, 1895, prescribing the regulations 
of naval prize, the following rules are established: 

i United States, Foreign Relations, 1901, p. 736. See also, Naval War College, Inter- 
.national Law Documents, 1917, p. 145. 



Russia, Prize Regulations. 129 

Paragraph 1. The enemy's cargoes found on Russian vessels, as 
well as on vessels belonging to the allies or overtaken during time of 
war in Russian ports or on coasts or when entering a port during war 
are subject to confiscation by nearest prize court. 

Par. 2. In fulfilling the duties mentioned in paragraph 1, the car- 
goes have a corresponding application according to the naval prize 
rules. 

Par. 3. The confiscated cargoes according to paragraph 1 are at dis- 
position of the Government. The value of confiscated cargoes found 
transported under a flag of one of the allies, with the exception of the 
necessary expenses, according to instructions of the minister of foreign 
affairs and arrangements with competent ministers, may be turned 
over to the allied power, according to the agreement or understanding 
between the allies. 

Par. 4. When fulfilling the rules mentioned in paragraphs 1-3, it 
must be ascertained first of all when war was declared against the power 
to which the confiscated cargoes belong. 

The governing senate will give instructions for the fulfillment of this 

order. 

With the Imperial Signature, 

Nicolas. 
10-23 August, 1915, Tzarshoe Selo. 

Imperial Order, 237, Supplement to Article 57 of Declaration of London 
of 1909, relating to enemy character of vessels, February 17/ March 1, 
1916} 

To the Governing Senate: 

In accordance with the agreement with the allied French and British 
Governments and in modification of the imperial ukase, to the Govern- 
ing Senate on September 14, 1914 (Code of Statutes, st. 2352), concern- 
ing rules of war on sea, as worked out by the London naval conference, 
1908-9, we order: 

To supplement the first part of statute 57 of above mentioned rules 
with fallowing mentioned regulations: 

If due to general combination of circumstances it appears that in a 
ve3sel sailing under the enemy's flag are actually interested subjects 
of neutral or allied powers, or that, on other hand, if in a vessel sailing 
under neutral or allied flag there are actually interested subjects of an 
enemy power or persons living in an enemy State, then such a vessel 
may in consequence be considered as neutral, allied, or enemy. 

The Governing Senate will not fail to make suitable dispositions for 
fulfillment. 

Original signed. 

£3 ' Nicolai. 

Imperial Headquarters, 17th February, 1916. 

Countersigned, President of Cabinet Council, 

Boris Stuermer. 



i, For similar British anrl Frenoh regulations, Oct, 20, 1915, Naval War College, Inter- 
national Law Documents, 1915, p. 112. 

116506— 19 9 



130 Russia, Declaration of Xondon. 

Declaration in regard to seizure and confiscation of neutral vessels, abol- 
ishing decrees applying Declaration of London, November 8/21, 1916} 

To the Governing Senate: 

In accordance with agreement with the allied French and British 
Governments, we consider it necessary to abolish the rules of war on 
sea, as worked out by the London naval conference, 1908-9, which 
with some modifications and supplements were put into force as a 
temporary measure by imperial ukaz of September 14, 1914 2 (Collec- 
tion of Statutes, art. 2352), and also to abolish the modifications and 
supplements, made by imperial ukazes on December 21, 1914, 3 and 
February 17, 1916 4 (Collection of Statutes, art. 3310 and art. 237). 

Approving the decision of council of ministers concerning this matter 
we order : 

In modification of the above mentioned ukazes to apply during the 
present war all other orders and regulations concerning the war on sea — 
which are effective at the present time, together with generally 
acknowledged principles of international right — with the following 
changes and supplements: 

Paragraph 1. Merchant vessels of neutral nationality which trans- 
port war contraband, are confiscated, in case the latter either by value, 
weight, or volume or freight, amounts to more than a half of the whole 
cargo. 

Par. 2. Merchant vessels of neutral nationality may, according to 
circumstances, be not only detained but also confiscated, in the case 
of the following forbidden actions: 

TranspDrtation of enemy armed forces, enemy news and corre- 
spondence; 

When on a voyage especially intended for transportation of indi- 
viduals who form part of the enemy armed forces, or to carry news in 
the interests of the enemy power; 

Cruising under command or control of an agent who has been placed 
on board by the enemy Government, and also if the latter has wholly 
chartered the neutral vessel. 

Par. 3. Any one forming part of the armed forces of the enemy and 
found on a neutral vessel (merchant) may be taken war prisoner, even 
if there is no reason for seizing the vessel. 

Par. 4. If under the general circumstances of the case it appears 
that in a vessel sailing under the enemy's flag are actually interested 
subjects of neutral or allied powers, or that, on the other hand, in a 
vessel sailing under neutral or allied flag there are actually interested 
subjects of an enemy power or persons living in an enemy State — then 

i For British and French orders, of July 7, 1916, see United States, Diplomatic Corre- 
spondence, European War, No. 4, pp. 69, 72. 

2 Ibid., European War, No. 1, p. 23. 

3 Ibid., European War, No. 1, p. 25. 
< Supra, p. 129. 



Russia, Navigation Regulations. 131 

such a vessel may in consequence be considered as neutral, allied, or 
enemy. 

The Governing Senate will not fail to make suitable dispositions for 
fulfillment. 

Original signed. 

NlCOLAI. 

Imperial Headquarters, 8/21 November, 1916. 

MINE FIELDS AND NAVIGATION REGULATIONS. 

Regulations for navigation in Gulf of Finland, August 11, 1914. 

On July 31, 1914, the Gulf of Finland was closed to navigation. Since 
then the following orders have been issued. 

Circular of the Principal Hydrographic Board of August 11, 1914, No. 420, Sup- 
plement to Nos. 410 and 417 of 1914. 

TEMPORARY RULES CONCERNING NAVIGATION OF MERCHANT SHIPS 
IN THE GULP OF FINLAND, APPROVED BY THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF 
OF BALTIC FLEET. 

(1) The Finnish Gulf is closed for exterior commerce during the 
period of war operations. 

(2) All sea marks removed and lights extinguished westward of the 
meridian of lighthouse Kokskaer. 

(3) In the Finnish Gulf all late ships, not informed of the beginning 
of the war or going on their own venture with cargoes will be embargoed 
by war vessels by day and by night and forwarded to places according 
to instructions received by them. 

(4) Navigators are warned that ships which may enter the gulf un- 
perceived, risk destruction on the mines, or of being fired on in thick 
weather. 

(5) Until modification only the fairway from Raumo is reserved for 
communication between Finland and Sweden. 

(6) Ships detained on declaration of war must obtain permission to 
leave port from the commander of the fleet and must follow the route 
indicated by him. 

(7) Eastward of the line between Colcovik Gulf and Soederskaer 
lighthouse navigation between the ports of the eastern part of Finnish 
Gulf is permitted. 

(8) The ships may enter Cronstadt, Viborg, and in case of special 
permission Reval and Helsingfors only in clear weather. 

(9) In case that any vessels have obtained permission to leave the 
eastern part of Finnish Gulf, they must enter the bay Paponvik and 
then take the route indicated by the guard ship under charge of a 
designated pilot. 

(10) It is absolutely prohibited to navigate amongst the low rocky 
islands near Utelight, from Baresund to the entrance near Utelight 



132 Russia, Mine Fields. 

house. During clear weather small row and canvas boats may sail 
amongst islands outside fairways. 

(11) Entering and leaving amongst skerries (low rocky islands) 
between Soedersund and Baresund is prohibited (special permission 
for Helsingfors). 

(12) Within the district from Baresund to Helsingfors traffic in in- 
terior shallow water is permitted vessels serving as communications 
between the local skaer inhabitants, but only by day and according 
to instructions of the director of sailing and lighthouse department in 
Finland and chief of skaer district. 

(13) In skerries eastward of Helsingfors the longitudinal traffic is only 
permitted vessels serving as local communication between skerry 
inhabitants, and only in clear weather. 

(14) Traffic from eastward to indicated meridian, Colcovik-Soeder- 
suud and vice versa is permitted in the gulf, but not among the skerries. 

(Signed) Lt. General Zhdanko. 

Lt. Colonel Glasoff. 

Regulations relating to floating mines in Black Sea, February 9, 1915. 

Circular of the Principal Hydrographic Boards of February 9, 1915, Nos. 6, 2. 

Circular No. 62 is published for information of navigators by the staff 
of Black Sea fleet commander on January 30, 1915. 

CONCERNING MINES ADRIFT, 

By order of the commander of Black Sea fleet; the staff gives notice 
or general information, that to avoid accidents on meeting with floating 
mines, mines adrift and stranded on the shore or near the shore, globe 
shaped or otherwise, whether our own or of the enemy, the following 
precautions must be observed: 

1. It is prohibited to touch floating or stranded mines to avoid an 
explosion ; 

2. To inform the nearest Naval Service Post or the cordon of coast 
guard of every mine found ; 

3. If possible to establish observation on the mine; 

4. To inform immediately the head office of Black Sea fleet at 
Sevastopol; 

5. According to law the inhabitants of coast districts will be rewarded 
by the navy department for each mine found. 

(Signed) Lt. General Zhdanko. 

Lt. Colonel Glasoff. 

Notice of mine laying by Sweden, July 5, 1915. 

Circular of the Prin J-al Hydrographic Board of July 5, 1915, Nos. 74, 19. 

Navigators are notified of the laying of mines by the Swedish Gov- 
ernment in the Aoland Sea and in the Southern Kvarken. 

To avoid mines in the Southern Kvarken, Aoland Sea, and in the 
offing of Stockholm skerries, navigators are recommended to go through 



Russia, Navigation Regulations. 133 

internal skerry fairway and the internal skerry fairway between 
Arholm and Landsort. 

For information concerning mining along the Swedish coast, and 
rules for entrance of these ports, and information on lights, see "Infor- 
mation for Navigators." 

(Signed) Lt. General Ztioanko. 

Lt. Colonel Glasoff. 

Notice of floating mines in the While Sea, July 10, 191$. 

Circular of July 10, 1915, Nos. 81, 2. 

FLOATING MINES. 

It is made known for information of navigators that in the Gorla 
(strait in the Whits S?a) and in the basin of White Sea have been 
obssrved floating mines. The local naval authorities give instructions 
concerning observation, information, and measures of precaution on 
meeting with mines. 

(Signed) Lt. General Zhdanko. 

Lt. Colonel Glasoff. 

Keyulatwns relating to 'prohibited area in White Sea and frozen ocean, 

April 10, 1916. 

Circular of Principal Hydrographic Board, April 10, 1916. 

RUI Lrf CONCERNING NAVIGATION — WARNING OF MINES. 

In view of the dangerous navigation in White Sea and frozen ocean 
near the Russian coast caused by mine fields established by the enemy 
following notice is published: 

(1) In the White Sea and in its entrance southward of the line 
Kanin Noss and Lighthouse Kharloff (Seven Islands, latitude 68° 
49' N., longitude 37° 2V east from meridian Greenwich) and also in 
all waters of the frozen ocean within the custom zone (12 miles from 
the coast and the outlying coast islands, and exposed rocks), navi- 
gation is forbidden of all merchant trading and other vessels of all 
kinds under any flag, with exception of such vessels as may have ob- 
tained sp?cial permission. Vessels entering without permission into 
prohibited zone risked cstruction on the mines and may be detained 
by guard ships for searching and further disposition. 

(2) Vessels which have obtained permission to enter the prohibited 
zone must observe all rules which are established for navigation in 
named waters. 

(3) Rules mentioned in point 2, and also the order for obtaining 
permission for entering the prohibited waters are prescribed by the 
commander in chief of Archangel and White Sea district. 

Charts Nos. 1060, 1518, 1655. 

(Signed) Lt. General Zhdanko. 

Lt. Colonel Glasoff. 



134 Russia, Mine Fields. 

Notice of mine laying by Sweden and Denmark, 1916. 

NOTICE TO MARINERS — CIRCULAR OF PRINCIPAL HYDROGRAPHIC BOARD. 

In addition to previous published information on mines and obsta- 
cles No. 783/770 (R-51, 1916), notice is given that at the following 
places in Swedish waters anchorage is prohibited. 

(A) Within the district on the north limited by a line from the east- 
ward of Cape Engholm, near northeast end of Biorkoe, to Soedra Roed- 
skaer, and therefrom southeast to the coast. On the south from Turn- 
men westward to Bioerkoe. 

.(B) On the north within the district limited by a line from Hiuvik 
to the southward of Cape Lilla Varholm, therefrom to the northward 
of Cape Groetoe and to Heden on Hoenoe. On the south from the 
southward of Cape Porsholm to Svatskaer and therefrom to the south- 
ward of Cape Hoenoe. 

(C) On the north within a district limited by a line from the eastward 
of Cape Asperoe to Johnshomar, and therefrom eastward to the coast. 
On the south by a line from the northward of Cape Koepstadsoe to 
Roedskaer, and therefrom to the island about 300 yards to northeast 
from Lyngskaer; also in all waters between Koepstadsoe and Braennoe, 
and between Kaensoe and Vargoe. 

(D) On the north from Siludden near the north end of Donsoe, to 
Oestra Foeroe and therefrom to Haengsten. On the south from Lilla 
Donsoe to Knalteskaer, and therefrom to Klockskaer. 

The districts are marked by signs with warnings. 
Further is given notice that there are mine fields in the southern 
entrance of Sund. 

(I) Mine Fields Southeast from the Lightship "Drogden." 

(a) mines. 

Warning: There are mines across the fairway southeast from the 
lightship Drogen within a district limited by — 

Latitude 55° 33' 00" N, longitude 12° 45' 00" E. 
Latitude 55° 31 / 30" N, longitude 12° W 30" E. 
Latitude 55° 29' 12" N, longitude 12° 46' 54" E. 
Latitude 55° 29' 12" N, longitude 12° 44' 36" E. 
Latitude 55° 32' 00" N, longitude 12° 41' 48" E. 

(b) MINES IN KJOEGE BUGT (DENMARK). 

Warning: There are mines in Kjoege bugt southwest from the light- 
ship Drogen westward to the meridian 12° 40' 30" between the 3 miles 
frontier of Danish territorial waters and the parallel 55° 29' 30" N. 

Between these obstacles and mine beacons southeast from the light- 
ship Drogen, mentioned in Pargraph I, navigation is allowed, the 
entrance being marked by two lightships. 



Russia , Mine Fields. 135 

(II) Mines Near Skanoer. 

Warning: Mines are laid near the Swedish coast outside territorial 
waters between the parallels 55° 18' north and 55° 26 / north and me- 
ridians 12° 42' and 13° 00'. Vessels must take the course within 3 
miles from the coast or outermost skerries not submerged during low 
water. 

(Ill) Mines in Cadet Channel and near Giedser Reef. 

Warning: There are mines in the channel southeast from lightship 
Giedser Reef (latitude 54° 27' 54" N., longitude 12° 09 / 42" E). 
There is a free fairway between the frontier of Danish territorial waters 
and the German coast, the way being along the German coast. 

(IV) Mines Southeast prom Rixhoept. 

Warning: There are laid mines southeast from Rixhoeft (latitude 
54° 47' 54" N, longitude 18° 39 / 06" E.) a green barrel-shaped buoy is 
placed 100 yards north from the field. 

Notice of mine fields in the Baltic Sea, August 18, 1916. 

Naval Ministry. — Circular of the Chief Hydrographic Department, No. 100, 50 

Aug. 18, 1916. 

notice to mariners about the laying of mines. 

It is announced for the information of mariners that with a view of 
securing free traffic for commercial ships in the Gulf of Bothnia, the 
Imperial Government considered itself obliged to lay mines and other 
obstacles on the night of August 30 to 31, in the Baltic Sea, in a dis- 
trict limited to the west by the 3-mile boundary limit of Swedish ter- 
ritorial waters: on the north, by parallel 59° 52' N., and on the 
south by parallel 59° 40' N. 

The Imperial Government is without responsibility for accident, 
that may occur to any ship entering the above prohibited water areas 

(Signed) General Jdanko. 

Colonel Glasoff. 

Notice of mine fields near Swedish coast, September 1, 1916. 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 

Second Department, 

October 20, 1916. 
No. 13757/D 11. 

The imperial ministry of foreign affairs has the honor to inform the 
embassies and legations accredited to .the impsrial court that the Im-r 
perial Government has judged it necessary, on account of military 
reasons, to place mines in the zone following in an easterly direction 
the Swedish coast at a distance of 3 maritime miles extending from 
59° to 52' north and 59° to 40' north. 



136 Russia, Anchorage Regulations. 

The imperial ministry would also add that the Imperial Government 
declines all responsibility for accidents which might occur in connec- 
tion with vessels entering the zone thus indicated, entrance to which 
was declared forbidden since 18/31, last. 

Petrograd, August 19 (September 1, 1916. 

Notice of mine fields in Gulf of Bothnia, October 11/24, 191b. 

Marine Ministry. — Circular of the Principal Hydrographic Board, Oct. 11/24, 1916, 

No. 126, 63. 

NOTICE TO MARINERS ON MINE LAYING. 

Mariners are notified that in order to secure the naAdgation of mer- 
chant ships in the Gulf of Bothnia the Imperial Government was com- 
pelled to lay mines and other obstacles in the Gulf of Bothnia within 
the district limited to the northward by the parallel 63° 35 / northern 
latitude, to eastward by the meridian 21° east longitude from Green- 
wich, to the southward by the parallel 63° 15' north latitude, and to 
the westward by the meridian 20° east longitude and then by the 
limiting line of Swedish territorial waters (at a distance of 3 miles 
from Skerries Suedostbroten and all coast skerries not continually 
under water) until the intersection of this line with the parallel 63° 35 / 
of north latitude. 

■Anchorage prohibitions, Eastern Ocean and mouth of Amur River, 

January 10/23, 1917. 

Naval Ministry. — Circular of the Principal Hydrographic Board. 

DETAILS CONCERNING THE DISTRICT WHERE ANCHORAGE IS PROHIBITED. 

Below are given the range marks, defining the district where anchor- 
age is prohibited. 

I. Upper marks (on the river). 

(1) Two range marks at the promontory of Meo in the approximate 
latitude 53° 06', 2 N, longitude 140° 49', 9 E from Greenwich. 

(2) Two range marks on the left bank of Amur River in the approxi- 
mate latitude 53° 08', L N, longitude 140° 49', 9 E from Greenwich. 

II. Lower marks (on the river). 

(1) Two range marks at the promontory Nalle, in the approximate 
latitude 52° 54' 7 N, longitude 141° 09', E from Greenwich. 

(2) Two range marks on the left bank of the Amur River in the 
approximate latitude 52° 59', 9 N, longitude 141° 09', E from Green- 
wich. 

Approximate direction of range marks (1) Upper — 51£°-231£°; 
(2) Lower— 36°-216°. 

Signed General Zhdanko. 

Colonel Glasov. 
Note. — Sketch accompanying. 



Russia, Navigation Regulations . 137 

Regulations for navigation in Gulfs of Baltic Sea, May 13, 1918. 

Principal Hydrographic Board. — Circular of May 13, 1915, No. 42, 8. 

Published as information for navigators "Rules concerning naviga- 
tion of merchant ships in Gulfs of Baltic Sea in 1915, approved by 
Commander of Baltic Fleet." 

A. Finnish Gulf. 

1. According to Government notice of 1914, the Finnish Gulf is 
closed for exterior navigation during the period of the war, and sail- 
ing of merchant ships westward the route Helsingfors-Reval is prohib- 
ited with exception for coasting and fishing vessels as follows: 

2. Eastward of the line Soederskaer-Unamunde beacons are in their 
places, lights are kept burning (but may be extinguished without 
special warning), and navigation is permitted between ports of the 
gulf either day or night for all vessels of Russian commercial fleet. 

3. Vessels on the way to Reval, Helsingfors, or places between these 
ports and line Soederskaer-Unamunde, must observe the following 
conditions: Near the southern coast to enter bay of Monvik, and near 
the northern coast to enter the skerries near lighthouse Soederskae 1 * 
and roadstead Tzarevna. 

After delivery of documents (ship papers) to the guard ship and 
after revision, these ships will be forwarded in clear weather to des- 
ignated ports or may sail alone, according to orders of the guard ship. 

Vessels after having been visited by the guard ship in Monvik and 
taking route toward Reval, must, for the second time, pass the guard 
ship near island Wulf for delivery of permission of the previous men- 
tioned guard ship and then continue their route, according to orders 
of this guard ship. 

4. Vessels sailing between Reval and Helsingfors (only permitted 
by day and in clear weather) may go from Helsingfors to Reval by the 
following route: At the time fixed by the interior guard ship they go 
under pilots by the skerries through Soederskaer Channel and approach 
the guard ship near island Wulf (in clear weather) to show their papers. 
From Reval, after receipt of permission of the guard ship, they pass 
Soederskaer and approach the roadstead Tzarevna, and they will be 
forwarded to Helsingfors. 

5. Within district of Helsingfors, exterior roadstead, the sailing of 
private small vessels, motor boats, and yachts is prohibited; in internal 
roadstead only in clear weather, according to order of the port guard. 

6. Within skerry district of Helsingfors (from harbor Sundvik to 
town Ekness), continued sailing of vessels serving as communication 
between skerry inhabitants is permitted only by day and they must 
follow the shallow-water route, according to directions and permis- 
sions of the sail and lighthouse directions at Finland (Helsingfors). 

7. Similar directions and permissions for sailing in interior waters 
of Aobo and Aoland skerries must be obtained from naval authorities 
at Aobo. 



138 Russia, Navigation Regulations. 

8. Within the western district of Finland and Aobo skerries, the 
sailing of amateur yachts and motor boats is permitted only by day — 
the issue to the sea is prohibited at places where foreigners are per- 
mitted to live. (r. circular of the commander of fleet of April 7, 1915.) 

9. Navigation of vessels of any kind in main channel along shore 
and in all approaches from Helsingfors to Aolandshaff is prohibited. 

10. Entrance and departure from the skerries in the eastern part of 
the gulf is permitted in fairways forming approaches to Bjoerk-Oe, 
Pitkopas, Asp-Oe, Oeregrund. and Soedersaker. 

11. Sailing within skerry district is permitted in all fairways from 
Bjoerk-Oe to roadstead Tzarevna, although near Bjoerk-Oe (island) 
and within district of Viborg, fortress, only in clear weather, according 
to rules, published by the commandant of Viborg Fortress. 

Note. — Small vessels, serving as communications between the 
rocky islands eastward of Helsingfors, may by day pass the channel 
Oestnen, and approaching on the route to Helsingfors the guard ship 
of the roadstead Tzarevna. 

12. Vessels going to Kronstadt must approach the guard ship located 
1\ miles west from lighthouse Tolbuchin, therefrom they will be for- 
warded by a pilot to Kronstadt roadstead only during clear weather. 
In leaving Kronstadt they must observe requirements established by 
local patrol of these water districts. For entry at Bjoerk-Oe they pass 
the guard ship in clear weather and then continue their route accord- 
ing to orders. 

B. Gulp of Bothnia. 

13. Some harbors of the Gulf of Bothnia will be open for vessels of 
neutral powers. Directions concerning these ports and rules for en- 
trance and leaving of them may be obtained from pilot and light- 
house stations in Finland and from commandants of landing places of 
these ports. 

14. Movements through the approaches in the skerries in the eastern 
part of the Gulf of Bothnia for small vessels serving for needs of local 
inhabitants is permitted by day, but at their own risk, because beacons 
will not be in place. 

15. Within western-northern and northern -eastern districts of Aoland 
Islands to castle Lek-oe all navigation along shore is prohibited. 

C. Gulp op Riga and Moonsund. 

16. The Gulf of Riga is closed for exterior navigation. 

17. Within the gulf the navigation is permitted on own risk by day; 
beacons withdrawn. Permission may be obtained from the office- of 
commandant of port Emperor Peter the Great and Dunamunde. 

18. Navigation from the parallel lighthouse Worms to parallel of 
lighthouse Laidunen is permitted in clear weather. Permission may 
be obtained from the office of commandant of port Emperor Peter the 
Great (Reval). 



Russia, Navigation Regulations. 139 

0. General Notes. 

20. On all places closed for navigation in general the inhabitants of 
islands are not prohibited from communication between themselves 
and the nearest landing places; exclusively on small row and canvas 
boats and during clear weather. 

21. Eastward of meridian 25° 30 / (line of Soederskaer-Unamunde) 
fishery is permitted by day and night under usual conditions. 

Within districts of Kronstadt and Viborg fortresses on basis of instruc- 
tions of commandants of these fortresses. 

Westward of the indicated meridian along the southern coast, accord- 
ing to regulations concerning fisherers by the commandant of port 
Emperor Peter the Great. 

Westward of this line along the northern coast fishery is only per- 
mitted within skerry district, not entering the gulf and only in clear 
weather. Within district of Sveaborg and Dunamunde fortresses ac- 
cording to orders of their proper commanders. 

Along the remaining coast of Baltic Sea only by day, not exceeding 
2 miles from the coast. 

22. Depending on circumstances, the navigation and fishering in the 
permitted districts may be temporarily stopped on order of proper 
authorities. 

23. For information and explanations concerning these rules, apply 
either to the office of commander of port Emperor Peter the Great 
(Reval) or to pilot and lighthouse stations in Finland (to whom it may 
concern). 

24. Vessels having a special permission for sailing or when sailing 
without it must absolutely observe all requirements of naval authorities 
or commanders of guard ships according to these rules. 

(Signed) Lt. General Zhdanko. 

Lt. Colonel Glasofp. 

TRADE RESTRICTIONS. 

Rules for making applications to export embargoed goods from Russia, 

May 4117, 1915} 

Section 1. Owing to war conditions the export of goods abroad as 
per lists herewith is prohibited (I— III). Goods mentioned in List I 
are forbidden to be exported over any of the frontiers of the Empire, 
and those in the remaining lists are not allowed to be exported over 
the frontiers mentioned in said lists. 

(Note. — The export of goods in general is altogether prohibited via 
ports on the Baltic Sea, situated in the confines of the Governments 
(Provinces) of Petrograd, Estland, Lifland and Curland.) 



1 A protocol of agreement for the exportation of embargoed goods was concluded with 
the United States Sept. 23, 1915, U.S. Treaty Series, No. 618. For embargo regulations 
of other belligerent States, see Naval War College, International Law Topics, 1915, p. 57. 



140 Russia, Export Regulations. 

Sec. 2. The export of goods to Finland, such as mentioned in the 
lists, attached to section 1, is permitted. The export of goods from 
Finland to foreign countries is effected according to the special regu- 
lations in force in the Grand Duchy of Finland. 

Sec 3. Goods the export of which owing to war conditions (sec. 
1) is not allowed, may, however, be exported by permission of the 
minister of finance to allied or neutral countries. 

Sec 4. Persons desiring to obtain permission for the export of goods 
abroad of any of such goods as are prohibited from export (sec. 1), 
must hand in a petition to the department of customs; in this petition 
must be stated: 

(a) Calling (profession), Christian name, father's name and surname, 
as well as country of which the applicant is a subject or citizen, his 
permanent place of residence, as well as address to which the depart- 
ment is to send him the reply to his petition. 

(b) The kind of goods for which the permission is desired, as well as 
quantity, also to which country the permission for export is wanted, 
to which point and for whom the goods are required. 

(c) The place where the applicant expects to buy the goods or where 
(mention point, railway station, river pier or port) the goods, if already 
bought, are situated. 

(d) Through which customhouse the applicant expects to ship the 
goods, and if he intends exporting them by sea, to which port the 
goods will be sent, also by which steamer and under which flag (should 
the applicant be in possession of this information). 

(e) Will the goods be exported direct to that country to which they 
are addressed? And if transshipment is expected to take place, then 
should be stated via which countries and frontier points in such 
countries the goods in question are expected to be dispatched. 

(Note. — Applicants with petitions as mentioned in section 4 con- 
cerning the export of prohibited goods abroad may refer to the depart- 
nient of customs only in connection with the export of such goods as 
are mentioned in the lists per section 1 and such additional lists as 
may be issued by the ministry of finance. But if at the points via 
which goods are to be dispatched abroad there are in force regulations 
or orders issued by the local military authorities concerning the pro- 
hibition of export of any or certain articles or goods, not mentioned in 
the lists referred to above and possible additional lists, then permission 
for their export must be obtained by applicants from the respective 
military authorities.) 

Sec 5. Persons acting on behalf of persons whose authority they 
have to do so, must hand in with the petition original notarial power 
of attorney from persons on whose behalf they are acting, or notarial 
copies of such powers of attorney. 

Sec 6. The quantity of goods, for the export of which permission 
is required, must be shown in the petition (sec. 4 h } by weights, num- 
bers, or other measures, corresponding to the kind of goods. The 



Russia, Export Regulations. 141 

indication of goods in measures or quantities not fully definite (bags, 
bales, barrels, wagons, etc.) is not permitted. 

Sec. 7. In the event of the ministry of finance finding it possible, 
after examining the information given by the applicant (sec. 4), to 
permit the export from the Empire of the goods which it is desired 
to export, the applicant on being so informed by the department of 
customs must take steps to obtain a diplomatic guaranty to the effect 
that the goods in question whilst on the way to the country of desti- 
nation will not be deviated en route and will not be forwarded to a 
hostile market either from the country of destination or from such 
neutral countries through which said goods may go or be transshipped. 
For the obtaining of such guaranty the applicant must refer direct to 
the corresponding embassy or mission. The submission of such neces- 
sary guaranty from an embassy or mission must be effected to reach 
the ministry of finance through the ministry of foreign affairs. 

Sec 8. On receipt of the guaranty (sec. 7), the ministry of finance 
gives its final decision in connection with the petition, and in the 
event of the petition being affirmatively granted the applicant receives 
a special certificate to that effect from the department of customs; 
said certificate may not be transferred to another person and may 
be made use of only during two months from the day of its issue. 

(Note. — For goods the export of which has been granted by the 
minister of finance previous to the present rules coming into force, 
the department of customs will give a certificate, as per section 7, on 
the respective persons interested taking the necessary steps, after 
preliminary examination as to what quantity of goods according to 
the permission granted have actually not yet been shipped abroad; 
without such certificate, on the expiry of two weeks from the day of 
receipt by the customs of the present rules, the export of goods will 
not be permitted. The certificate will be given by the department 
in such cases where steps have been taken for the issue thereof not 
later than two months from the day of the confirmation and coming 
into force of the present rules, but at the expiration of this period a 
certificate will only be granted after receipt of new permission ob- 
tained in the manner indicated in the present rules.) 

Sec 9. For goods the export of which is permitted on the basis of 
the present rules, must be given the fixed export and transport infor- 
mation (Law of 1914, No. 157, St. 1788), together with the certificate 
mentioned in section 8. 

Sec 10. In the event of the whole lot mentioned in the certificate 
being exported, the certificate submitted, together with the transport 
information, is taken away and immediately handed by the customs, 
to the department of customs, with an indication as to the time and 
date when the goods were dispatched, and, if shipped by sea, then 
with indication of the vessel and the flag under which same is. 

Sec 11. In cases where the goods are exported in lots, a remark 
is made by the customs on the certificate handed in with the trans- 



142 Russia, Export Regulations. 

port information as to the amount and quantity of goods exported and 
the date of export, and the department is informed as to this export; 
on the export of the last portion the certificate is taken away and 
handed to the department in accordance with section 10. 

Sec. 12. For goods permitted to be exported abroad through Fin- 
land the owners thereof must submit to the customs through which 
the goods are going before they are sent into Finland, in addition to 
the respective certificates and transport information, also railway 
waybills for such goods or duplicates thereof, indicating the transito 
route of the goods through Finland to that country to which the per- 
mission for export has been given. If the waybill (or copy thereof) cor- 
responds in every way to the permission granted for export, then the 
customs put a stamp on said document of a special description, with the 
seal of the customs and signature of the manager or his representative, 
stating that permission is given for the goods mentioned on the railway 
documents to be exported abroad. If on the waybill or copy there 
is no indication as transito forwarding of the goods abroad via Finland, 
then the goods will be considered as forwarded to Finland and no 
stamp will be placed on the waybill or copy thereof by the customs. 

(Note. — For goods forwarded from station Petrograd-Novyport all 
documents concerning their outgoing must be submitted to the Petro- 
grad port customs, for goods forwarded from station Petrograd-Fin- 
landsky (or Kulikovo Pole) to the Petrograd customs house attached 
to the Finland Railway, and for goods forwarded from a station in the 
interior of Russia to the White Island customs house.) 

Sec 13. The export to England of game, dead birds, eggs, and pigs' 
bacon is permitted by obtaining special permission on each separate 
occasion and without the certificate demanded according to section 
8 if the goods are sent to that country by direct Scandinavian sea 
connections. 

Sec 14. On the direct waybills for transport to England of the goods 
mentioned in section 13 a stamp such as mentioned in section 12 is put 
on by the Petrograd customs house attached to the Finland Railway, 
if in connection with the proposed transport the following rules for 
the Scandinavian direct sea connection to England are observed: 
If on the waybills is indicated that the goods are destined for an English 
port (London, Hull, Newcastle, Granton, or Grangemouth) for such and 
such a receiver in England and if in other respects the waybill cor- 
responds to the regulations pertaining to the particular goods in ques- 
tion. (Tariff of Russian Railways, 1914, No. 236, St. 20651.) 

Sec 15. During the navigation season of 1915 the export is per- 
mitted without prohibition to north Norway on sailing vessels and 
steamers belonging to Russians on the Archangel sea coast, of timber, 
certain articles of food, and articles connected with the deer (reindeer) 
industry according to the list attached hereto, on the condition that 
the skipper of the vessel on his return from Norway submits a certificate 
from the Russian consular authorities, and if there are no such authori- 



Russia, Export Regulations. 143 

ties at the place where the goods have been unloaded, then a certifi- 
cate from the local Norwegian authorities that the goods have actually 
arrived in Norway. 

Sec. 1G. The customs house through which the goods mentioned in 
sections 13-15 are exported will inform the department of each ship- 
ment of goods, indicating the quantity of the goods exported and the 
country of destination. 

Sec. 17. The. export is permitted, without special permission being 
obtained in each instance and without the issue of the certificate 
required according to section 18, direct to allied countries on Russian 
vessels or vessels under an allied flag, of the goods mentioned in the list 
attached hereto. The customs house will inform the department in all 
instances of the export abroad and permission to proceed abroad of 
vessels on the basis of this paragraph, indicating the name of the 
vessel, the flag under which same sails, the kind and quantity of goods, 
and port of destination. 

Sec. 18. The fact of a steamer carrying coal in her bunkers necessary 
for steaming purposes is not to be considered as an objection to a steamer 
proceeding to leave a port and go to sea; the question as to what quan- 
tity of coal is necessary for the steamer will be decided by the local 
port authorities, and in such places where there are no port authorities, 
by the local customs authorities. The steamer has the right to take 
with her the coal which she brought with her to a Russian port, and 
vessels are not bound to unload that quantity which might be consid- 
ered as suplus over and above what is required for navigation. 

Sec. 19. On the export abroad by sea of goods, the export of which 
is not allowed according to general rules, but which has been permitted 
on the basis of the conditions mentioned above, the port customs 
authorities must furnish skippers with certificates regarding the goods 
being exported on the respective vessels, indicating the date and port 
of loading, quantity and description of goods, and port of destination. 

(Signed) Director S. Shatelen, 

Chief of the Department, S. Antonov. 

Confirmed 4/17 May, 1915, by the minister of finances. 

P. Bark. 

LIST OF GOODS THE EXPORT OP WHICH ABROAD IS PROHIBITED OWING 
TO CIRCUMSTANCES ARISING PROM THE WAR. 

I. The following goods are not allowed to be exported abroad by 
any whatever of the frontiers of the Empire: 

[A list of goods three pages long follows.] 

II. The export is forbidden over the Persian Afghanistan frontiers 
of camels. 

III. The export abroad of every description of goods is prohibited 
from the ports situated in the confines of the governments of Petro- 
grad, Estland, Lifland, and Curland. 

(Signed) Director S. Shatelen, 

Chief of Department, S. Antonov. 



144 Russia, Abdication of Tsar. 

Addition to sec. 15. --List of goods, the export of which is allowed to 
north Norway by sea vessels during the 1915 season of navigation: 

All kinds of timber and wood, tea, cream butter, salmon, venison 
(deer meat), tongues, deer wool, deerskins. 

(Note. — The quantity of cream butter permitted in each separate 
instance for export to northern Norway is decided by the governor of 
Archangel.) 

Addition to sec. 17. — List of goods permitted to be exported direct 
to allied countries on Russian vessels or on vessels under allied flags: 

Maize, bran, all kinds of oil cakes and residues, pigs' bacon, cream 
butter, dead game and poultry, live poultry, eggs, entrails, fish, tobacco 
of superior quality (the question of quality to be decided by the excise 
authorities), all kinds of timber, oil seeds, seeds of clover and other 
grass foods, all kinds of furs, except lambskins, sheepskins, and goat- 
skins. 

CHANGE OF GOVERNMENT. 

Proclamation of abdication issued by Tsar Nicholas, March 15, 1917. 
[The Annual Register, 1917, p. 243.] 

By the Grace of God, We, Nicholas II, Emperor of all the Russias, 
Tsar of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland, etc., to our faithful subjects 
be it known : 

In the days of a great struggle against a foreign enemy, who has been 
endeavoring for three years to enslave our country, it pleased God to 
send Russia a further painful trial. Internal troubles threatened to 
have a fatal effect on the further progress of this obstinate war. The 
destinies of Russia, the honor of her heroic army, the happiness of the 
people, and the whole future of our beloved country demand that the 
war should be conducted at all costs to a victorious end. The cruel 
enemy is making his last efforts, and the moment is near when our 
valiant army, in concert with our glorious allies, will finally overthrow 
the foe. 

In these decisive days in the life of Russia we have thought that we 
owed to our people the close union and organization of all its forces for 
the realization of rapid victory, for which reason, in agreement with 
the Imperial Duma, we have recognized that it is for the good of the 
country that we should abdicate the crown of the Russian State and 
lay down the supreme power. Not wishing to separate ourself from 
our beloved son, we bequeath our heritage to our brother, the Grand 
Duke Michael Alexandrovitch, with our blessing for the future of the 
throne of the Russian State. We bequeath it to our brother to govern 
in full union with the National Representatives sitting in the legisla- 
tive institutions and to take his inviolable oath to them in the name 
of our well-beloved country. 

We call upon all faithful sons of our native land to fulfill their sacred 
and patriotic duty in obeying the Tsar at the painful moment of na- 



Russia, Armistice. 145 

tional trials and to aid him, together with the representatives of the 
nation, to conduct the Russian Empire in the way of prosperity and 
glory. 

May God help Russia. 

Pskov, March 15, 1917. 

ARMISTICE. 

Terms of armistice with Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and. Bul- 
garia, signed at Brest-Litovsh December 15, 1917 } 

[London Times, Jan. 5, 1918.] 

Preamble. 

The following is the text of the agreement concluded for an armistice 
between the plenipotentiary representatives of the chief army com- 
mands of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, of the 
one part, and of Russia, of the other part, for bringing about a lasting 
and honorable peace for all the parties: 

Text. 

Article I. The armistice takes effect from December 17, 1917, at 
noon (Dec. 4, 1917, at 2 p. m., Russian time), and is to remain in force 
until January 14, 1918, at noon (Jan. 1, 1918, at 2 p. m., Russian time.) 
The contracting parties have the right on the 21st day of the armistice 
to give seven days' notice to terminate it, and if this be not done, then 
the armistice will automatically remain in force until one of the con- 
tracting parties gives such seven days' notice. 

Art. II. The conditions of the armistice shall apply to all the land 
and air fighting forces of the said powers, on the land front comprised 
between the Black Sea and the Baltic, and they shall likewise apply 
to the Russo -Turkish theaters of war in Asia. 

The contracting parties undertake, for the period that the armistice 
is in force, not to reinforce the troops on the said fronts or on the islands 
in the Moon Sound, and this als3 refers and applies to their formation 
into military units. No regrouping in preparation for an offensive is 
permitted. 

Further, the contracting parties undertake that until January 14, 
1918, they will not put into operation any transfer of troops from the 
front between the Black Sea and the Baltic; that is to say, such transfers 
as had not been begun before the time when the armistice agreement 
was signed. 

Finally, the contracting parties undertake not to assemble troops in 
the Baltic ports east of 15° longitude east of Greenwich and in the 

1 A treaty of paace was signed at Brest-Litovsk, Mar. 3, 1918. (New York Times, 
Current History, 8 (pt. 1), 54.) 

116500— 19 10 



146 Russia, Armistice. 

ports of the Black Sea during the period in which the armistice remains 
in force. 

Art. III. On the European front the most advanced entanglements 
on each side of the positions of each of the contracting parties shall 
be considered as the lines of demarkation. At such places where no 
closed-in positions exist the lines of demarkation on both sides shall 
be considered as existing midway between the most advanced occupied 
points on each side, and the intervening zone shall be considered as 
neutral. Moreover, navigable rivers which separate opposing positions 
shall be considered as neutral, and they shall not be navigated, except 
for previously agreed traffic of a mercantile nature. In sectors where 
positions are separated from each other by a great distance lines of 
demarkation shall be agreed upon by armistice commissions without 
delay, and they shall be made distinguishable. 

In the Russo-Turkish theaters of war in Asia the lines of demarkation, 
as well as traffic over them, shall be regulated by agreement between 
the high commands on both sides. 

Art. IV. For the development and strengthening of friendly rela- 
tions between the nations of the contracting parties organized inter- 
course between troops shall be permitted under the following con- 
ditions: 

1. Intercourse is permissible for pourparlers and for members of 
armistice commissions and their representatives. Each one of them 
having this object in view must be in possession of an order made out 
by a corps commander or a corps committee at least. 

2. On every sector of a Russian division organized intercourse may 
take place at from two to three points. For this purpose centers for 
intercourse on divisional fronts are to be established between the lines 
of demarkation and are to be distinguished by white flags. Intercourse 
there is only to be allowed by day between sunrise and sunset. At 
the intercourse centers there must not be present at any one time more 
than 25 unarmed persons from each side. The exchange of news and 
newspapers is to be permitted. Open letters may be handed in for 
dispatch. The sale and exchange of wares of everyday use is to be 
permitted at the intercourse centers. 

3. The interment of the dead in the neutral zone is permissible. 
More precise details are to be arranged in each case by the divisional 
commanders on both sides or by the higher service field posts. 

4. As regards the return of men who have been discharged from 
military service in one country and who have their homes beyond the 
lines of demarkation of the other country, this question can only be 
the subject of discussion at the negotiations for peace. This also 
applies to men belonging to Polish detachments. 

5. All persons, who, contrary to the conditions contained in clauses 
1 to 4, shall cross the line of demarkation of the opposite side will be 
placed under arrest and will be delivered up again only at the con- 
clusion of peace or at the end of the period of armistice. 



Russia, Armistice. 147 

6. The contracting parties undertake to bring to the notice of their 
respective troops by strict orders and detailed explanation the neces- 
sity for the observance of the conditions of intercourse and the con- 
Sequences resulting from their contravention. 

Naval Provisions. 

Art. V. With regard to naval operations, the following conditions 
were agreed to: 

1. The armistice extends to the whole Black Sea and the Baltic Sea 
to the east of the meridian 15° east of Greenwich, namely, to all sea 
and air forces belonging to the contracting parties within these regions. 

With regard to the extension of the armistice to the White Sea and 
to Russian coastal waters in the northern Arctic Ocean, a special 
agreement will be established after consultations between the naval 
staffs of the contracting parties. 

All attacks upon mercantile and naval vessels belonging to the 
contracting parties in the above-named seas shall cease at once as far 
as possible. In this agreement shall be included a special condition 
concerning the prohibition of naval attacks upon each other by the 
contracting parties in other seas. 

2. Attacks by sea and by air upon ports and coasts belonging to the 
contracting parties in all naval war zones shall be prohifcit3d. Simi- 
larly ships of one of the contracting parties are prohibited from entering 
the ports and from approaching the coasts occupied by another con- 
tracting party. 

3. Flights are prohibited over the ports or oVer the coasts of both 
contracting parties in all the naval war zones. Flights over the line 
of demarkation are also prohibited. 

4. The line of demarkation is established as follows: 

In the Black Sea, the line — Olinka Lighthouse, mouth of St. Georges 
Channel of the Danube, Cape Geros. 

In the Baltic Sea, Rogeul, on the western coast of the Island of 
Worms, Bogsher Island, Wenika, Hegarne. 

A detailed line of demarkation in the region between the islands of 
Worms and Bogsher must be established by the special commission 
for the armistice in the Baltic Sea. 

Russian warships have the right of free navigation to the Aaland 
Islands in all weathers and under all ice conditions. 

Russian warships may not pass the indicated demarcation line to 
the south, and the warships of the four central powers may not pass 
it to the north. 

The Russian Government gives a guaranty that all the allied war- 
ships which are in or will enter the indicated region will be submitted 
to the conditions of this agreement. 

5. Commercial navigation is permitted in the region indicated in 
clause 1. The establishment of safe navigation for merchant ships in 



148 Russia, Armistice. 

this region is to be left to the special commission for the armistice in 
the Baltic and Black Seas. 

6. The contracting parties- undertake during the armistice in the 
Baltic and the Black Seas not to prepare active naval operations 
directed against each other. 

Special Stipulations. 

Art. VI. In order to avoid accidents and misunderstandings on the 
front infantry firing practice is prohibited nearer than 5,000 yards 
from the demarcation line. The use of land mine3 shall be stopped. 
The air forces and observation balloons shall be kept 10,000 y rds 
distant from the demarcation line. Work on positions behind the 
ront line entanglements is to be allowed, with the exception, however, 
of such work as might serve as preparation for an attack. 

Art. VII. In order to give effect to their agreement and for the 
correct observance of the same from the moment of its application 
special commissions are established in the following places: 

(1) At Riga for the Baltic. 

(2) At Dvinsk for the front from the Baltic to the Dvina. 

(3) At Brest-Litovsk for the front from the Dvina to the Pripet. 

(4) At Berditcheff for the front from the Pripet to the Dniester. 

(5) At Koloczvar, and (6) at Focsani, for the front from the. Dniester 
to the Black Sea. 

(The boundaries in the regions of the front between sections 5 and 6 
are fixed by mutual agreement.) 

(7) At Odessa for the Black Sea. 

The right of unimpeded and uncontrolled communication by tele- 
graph is reserved to the commissions. Both contracting parties will 
construct cables to the middle of the neutral zone between the lines 
of demarcation. 

In the Russo-Turkish theater of war such commissions will also be 
established after an agreement by the commanders in chief on both 
sides. 

Art. VIII. The agreement for the cessation of hostilities dated 
December 5, 1917, and all other agreements concluded up to the 
present on separate sectors of the front, with regard to an armistice 
or a cessation of hostilities, are considered as annulled from the moment 
that the present agreement becomes effective. 

Art. IX. The contracting parties immediately after the signature 
of the present armistice agreement will begin peace negotiations. 

Art. X. Taking their stand upon the freedom and independence 
and territorial inviolability of the neutral portion of the Persian Em- 
pire, the Turkish and Russian high commands are both prepared to 
withdraw their troops from Persia. They will immediately enter into 
communication with the Persian Government in order to arrange 
details for their evacuation and also for the guaranteeing of the above- 
mentioned principle and for the establishment of other necessary 
measures. 



Russia, Supplement to Armistice. 149 

Supplement. 

Supplementary to, and in extension of, the armistice agreement, the 
contracting parties have agreed on the most speedy settlement for the 
immediate exchange of civilian prisoners and of prisoners of war who 
are unfit for further military service. The first question to be con- 
sidered is the sending back to their homes of women, and of children 
under 14 years of age. The contracting parties will at once institute 
practical means for the amelioration of the condition of prisoners of 
war on both sides. This must be one of the most agreeable tasks in 
which the Governments will engage. 

In order to promote the negotiations for peace, and in order to heal 
the grievous wounds inflicted upon civilization by the war, measures 
will be devised for the reestablishment of cultural and economic rela- 
tions between the contracting parties. To this end the following will 
contribute: The reestablishment of postal and commercial intercourse, 
the sending of books and newspapers and the like within the limits 
allowed by the armistice. 

For the settlement of the details, a mixed commission consisting of 
representatives of all the contracting parties shall shortly meet in 
Petrograd. 

Brest-Litovsk, December 15, 1917. 

Accepted in principle, under reserve of final formulation. 

(Signed) &c, &c, &c. 

SWEDEN. 

Royal proclamation relating to hospital ships, June 16, 19 ll. 1 

His Majesty's gracious proclamation regarding protection of certain marks which 
denote that the ship is intended for the help of the wounded and sick during the 
war. Given at Royal Palace at Stockholm, June 16, 1911. 

We Gustav, by the grace of God, King of Sweden, etc., etc., make 
known: That after and in accordance with an international convention 
concluded on October 18, 1907, and acceded to by Sweden, an agree- 
ment has been made whereby military hospital ships shall be dis- 
tinguished by being painted on the outside white with a horizontal 
green border about half a meter wide, and also that ships commissioned 
by private or certain officially acknowledged societies for medical 
attendance dining war, shall be painted on the outside white with a 
horizontal red border of the same width. 

We have in application of paragraph 5 in the law for the protection of 
certain international designations of medical attendance of June 2, 
instant, found for good and herewith graciously command that what 
in said law is stipulated in regard to the mark of "Red Cross" shall also 
be in force in regard to the use on board ships designated as stated 
above. 

This proclamation is put into operation on January 1, 1912. 

Gustav. 



i A law of June 2, 1911, related to the protection of the Red Cross and other hospital and 
sanitary corps designations. A Roumanian law of similar effect was passed May 17/30, 
1913. 



150 Sweden, Neutrality Regulations. 

Royal order, neutrality regulations, December 20, 1912} 

[Collection of Swedish fundamental laws, 1912, No. 346.] 

No. 346 of December 30, 1912. 

ROYAL ORDER CONCERNING THE NEUTRALITY OP SWEDEN IN CASE OF 
WAR BETWEEN FOREIGN POWERS. GIVEN AT THE ROYAL PALACE 
IN STOCKHOLM, DECEMBER 20, 1912. 

We, Gustavus, King of Sweden, the Goths and Wends King, make 
known that it has pleased us to replace the order of April 30, 1 904, con- 
cerning the neutrality of Sweden in case of war between foreign powers 
by the following: 

Chapter 1. 

War vessels of belligerent powers may enter Swedish harbors or road- 
steads as well as other Swedish territorial waters with exceptions and 
restrictions, and on special conditions given below. In this order are 
considered as roadsteads, the open roadsteads in connection with the 
harbors of Varberg, Falkenberg, Halmstad, Ystad, Simrisham, Visby, 
and Ratan, as well as anchoring places in gulfs and the waters between 
the inside islands or skerries not continually submerged. 

1. (a) It is forbidden belligerent war vessels to enter the ports and 
roadsteads of war, which have been proclaimed as such. 

(b) It is also forbidden such vessels to enter inner territorial waters 
whose entrances are closed by submarine mines or other means of 
defense. 

(c) The King reserves the right to forbid under the same conditions 
to the two belligerent parties, access to other Swedish ports or road- 
steads and other denned parts of the interior Swedish waters, when 
special circumstances demand and for safeguarding the sovereign 
rights of the kingdom and to maintain its neutrality. 

By inner territorial waters mentioned in this and in the foregoing 
point and also in point a, section 6, is meant as well harbors, entrances 
to harbors, roadsteads, and bays as waters between and inside islands 
and skerries not continually submerged with the exception of Oeresund 
where only the harbors and entrances to harbors are to be regarded as 
territorial waters. 

(d) The King also reserves the right to forbid access to ports and 
roadsteads of the kingdom to belligerent war vessels which have 
neglected to conform to rules and prescriptions promulgated by the 
competent authorities of the kingdom and which have violated its 
neutrality. 

2. (a) Belligerent war vessels are bound to respect the sovereign 
rights of the kingdom and to abstain from all acts which would be 
contrary to its neutrality. 

1 Similar to Danish decree, Naval War College, International Law Documents, 1916, 
p. 50, and Norwegian decree, ibid, 1917, p. 184. See also Joint Declaration by Scandi- 
navian Countries, ibid, 1917, p. 183. 



Sweden, Neutrality Regulations. 151 

(6) All acts of hostility, including capture and the right of visit in 
reference to neutral vessels as well as vessels under the enemy flag, 
are strictly forbidden in the territorial waters of the kingdom. If it 
happ?ns that a vessel has been captured in the territorial waters of the 
kingdom the prize should be released with its officers, crew, and cargo. 

3. The simple passage of war vessels and of the prizes taken by 
belligerents through the territorial waters of the kingdom is permitted 
only to the ext nt to which access to these waters is accorded to them. 
(See section 1 above.) 

4. (a) It is forbidden belligerent war vessels to remain more than 24 
hours in ports, roadsteads or other territorial waters of the kingdom, 
except in case of damage, rough weather, or in consequence of rules 
(c) and (d) below. In these cases the vessels must leave as soon as 
circumstances permit. The rule in reference to the limitation of sojourn 
does not apply to war vessels exclusively intended for religious, scien- 
tific, or philanthropic purposes nor to military hospital ships. 

(6) The maximum number of war vessels belonging to one belligerent 
party which may be at the same time in a port or roadstead of the king- 
dom is three. 

(c) If war vessels of both belligerent parties are at the same time in a 
port or roadstead of the kingdom, there must elapse at least 24 hours 
between the departure of the war vessels belonging to one of the belliger- 
ent parties and those of the other, the order of departure being deter- 
mined by the order of arrival, unless the vessel which arrived first 
is in the position where the prolongation of the duration of its sojourn 
is permitted. 

(d) It is forbidden a belligerent war vessel to leave a port or roadstead 
of the kingdom less than 24 hours after the departure of a merchant 
vessel flying the enemy flag. It is the duty of the authorities concerned 
to arrange the departure of the merchant vessel so that the war vessel 
is not unnecessarily detained. 

5. (a) In the ports or roadsteads of the kingdom, belligerent war 
vessels can repair their damages only to the extent necessary for the 
security of navigation, and they can not increase their military force 
in any manner whatsoever. The authorities of the kingdom will 
indicate the nature of the repairs to be made. The repairs should be 
completed as rapidly as possible. 

(b) It is forbidden belligerent war vessels to employ the ports, 
roadsteads, and territorial waters of the kingdom in order to renew or 
increase their military equipment or armament or to complete their 
crews. 

(c) Belligerent war vessels can revictual in the ports or roadsteads 
of the kingdom only sufficiently to complete their normal supplies 
in time of peace. 

(d) In the ports and roadsteads of the kingdom, belligerent war 
vessels are permitted to take on fuel only in quantities necessary to 
fill the real coal bunkers, including fuel tanks. Having taken on 



152 Sweden, Neutrality Regulations. 

fuel in a port or roadstead of the kingdom they can not renew their 
fuel supplies in its ports or roadsteads until after three months. 

6. (a) When navigating in the inner Swedish waters, war vessels 
belonging to belligerent powers have to make use of the examined 
Swedish State pilots according to the rules which in this respect are 
enforced upon war vessels during time of peace. Otherwise they are 
not allowed to make use of these pilots except in case of need to escape 
a threatening sea disaster. 

(6) Sanitary, pilotage, customs, port and police regulations of the 
kingdom must be observed and respected by the belligerent war 
vessels. 

Chapter II. 

Privateers will be admitted neither in the ports and roadsteads nor 
in the territorial waters of the kingdom. 

Chapter III. 

1. It is forbidden to take prizes into ports or roadsteads of the king- 
dom except in the event of unseaworthiness, rough weather, or lack 
of fuel or provisions. A prize which has been brought into a port or 
roadstead of the kingdom for one of these causes must leave as soon 
as circumstances allow it. 

2. No prize court can be established by a belligerent either on the 
territory or on board a vessel in the territorial waters of the kingdom. 
It is also forbidden to sell prizes in any of the ports or roadsteads of 
the kingdom. 

Chapter IV. 

1. It is forbidden belligerent powers to use ports or waters of the 
kingdom as bases for naval operations against their enemies. 

It is especially forbidden to establish on the territory or in the terri- 
torial waters of the kingdom radio stations or any apparatus designed 
to serve as a means of communication with the belligerent forces 
whether on land or sea. 

2. It is forbidden belligerents to organize fuel depots on either the 
territory of the kingdom or on vessels stationed in its territorial waters. 

3. It is forbidden, within the jurisdiction of the kingdom, to equip 
or arm any vessel intended to cruise or to assist in belligerent opera- 
tions against a power at peace with the kingdom. Equally forbidden 
is the departure from its jurisdiction of every vessel intended to cruise 
or to assist in belligerent operations and which have been adapted in 
whole or in part for war use within the said jurisdiction. 

This order is brought into force immediately after publication. 

Signed by our own hand and confirmed by our seal. 

Royal palace at Stockholm, December 20, 1912. 

[l. s.] Gustavus. 

(Foreign Office.) Countersign: 

Albert Ehrensvaerd. 



Sweden, Jurisdictional Waters. 153 

Note relating to extent of jurisdictional waters, March r } . 1915. 

March 5, L915. 
Legation of Sweden. 

Washington, I). C. 
Sir: Following directions from my Government I have the honor 
to invite your excellency's attention to the fact that according to a 
long tradition, the territorial waters of Sweden extend 4 nautical 
mile3 (4 minutes or 7,420 meters) from the coast or from the furthest 
outlying islets or skerries, which are not continually washed over 
by the sea. 1 

"With renewed assurances of my highest consideration, I have the 
honor to remain your excellency's most obedient servant. 

W. A. F. Ekengren, 
His excellency the honorable W. J. Bryan, 
Secretary of State, e'c, e'c, etc. 

Law relating to convoy, October 29, 1915. 

[Issue from the press Nov. 2, 1915. (Title and date to be announced from the pulpit ).] 

Swedish Statutes, No. 411. 

1915. No. 411. 

his majesty's gracious proclamation concerning the convoying 
of swedish merchant ships during war between foreign 
powers. given at stockholm palace, oct. 29, 1915. 

We, Gustaf, by the grace of God, King of Sweden, and of the Goths 
and Wends, make proclamation that we, revoking the ordinance 
dated 10th June, 1912, regarding merchant ships under convoy of men- 
of-war, have found it good, after deliberating with the competent 
authorities, to decree as follows: 

1. The purpose of convoying during war between foreign powers 
is, with due observance of what is decreed in this proclamation, to 
afford Swedish merchant ships protection against search and detention 
by warships of foreign powers. 

2. A convoy is arranged when the King or that naval authority to 
whom the decision of the matter has been intrusted, considers that 
the circumstances necessitate such convoy. 

A requisition for the arrangement of a convoy is to be made in writ- 
ing, or by telegraph, to the King in the naval defense department, or to 
that naval authority to which the decision in the matter has been con- 
fided, and shall contain particulars as to the owners, or as regards the 
shipping company, the names of the principal owners, and also that 
of the captain, the name of the ship, its place of registration and num- 
ber in the register of ships, the description and destination of the cargo, 
the shipper and consignee, the port of departure and destination of the 
ship, also the expected time of sailing. 

1 Similar claim made by Norway, waived May, 1918, see p. 118. 



154 Sweden, Convoy Regulations. 

3. Application for the inclusion of a ship in the convoy shall, even 
if the ship has been mentioned in the requisition which has occasioned 
the arranging of the convoy, be made to the commander of the convoy 
and be accompanied by particulars as provided in the second part of 
section 2, and the commander of the convoy shall decide, with due 
reference to what is enacted in section 4, as to whether the application 
may be granted. 

The application must be accompanied by a written undertaking to 
contribute such sum toward the expense of the convoy as the King 
may decide. Such undertaking shall be immediately sent in to the 
naval defense department. 

4. Merchant ships which carry contraband of war, or which may 
reasonably be suspected of intending to render assistance contrary to 
the laws of neutrality to a neutral power, may not under any circum- 
stances be included in the convoy. 

5. In order to prevent merchant ships referred to in section 4 being 
included in the convoy, such measures of control as are considered 
suitable may be taken with regard to ships for which convoying has 
been applied. 

It shall be obligatory for the captain of a ship for which convoying 
has been granted, both before sailing of the convoy to hand over the 
original ship's papers to the commander of the convoy and also, on 
requirement by the commander of the convoy, to give him a written 
assurance that the documents handed over are complete and in 
accordance with the actual conditions. 

The ship's papers shall be returned to the captain at such time as 
the commander of the convoy considers desirable. 

6. In order to prevent contraband being put on board it shall be 
the duty of the customs authorities, on request of the commander of 
the convoy and to the extent he may consider necessary, to set a watch 
over the ship for which a convoy has been requested, both while load- 
ing and after up to the sailing of the convoy, and also to assist in any 
examination of the cargo which may be undertaken by the commander 
of the convoy. 

A report shall be drawn up by the authorized customs authorities 
with regard to the measures which they have taken, of which a certified 
copy shall be handed to the commander of the convoy before it sails. 
Where it can conveniently be done, the report may be replaced by 
a certificate issued by the customs authorities regarding the watch kept 
over the ship. 

The shipowner shall defray the expense incurred by the customs 
authorities according to the certified scale of charges. 

7. The commander of the convoy shall issue a certificate to the cap- 
tains of those merchant ships who have obtained permission to be 
included in the convoy, and this certificate with the necessary in- 
structions and a copy of this proclamation shall be handed to the 
captain of the merchant ship before the sailing of the convoy. 



Sweden, Internment of Vessels. 155 

8. The captain of a merchant ship which is included in the convoy 
shall, together with his crew, be under obligation to obey the orders 
and directions which are given by the commander of the convoy, or 
by his authorized representative on his behalf, under pain of the ship 
otherwise being excluded from the convoy. 

This proclamation shall come into force immediately upon being 
issued. 

These ordinances are to be observed by all concerned. 

And hereunto have we set our hand and seal. 

Stockholm Palace, October 29, 1915. 

(L. S.) Gustaf. 

Naval Defense Department. 

Dan Brostrom. 

Decree relating to internment of belligerent war vessels, July 7, 191.5. 

Commando-Expedition of the Royal Naval Department. 

No. 891. 
To the Chief of the Naval Staff: 

His Majesty has graciously ordered that the following rules are to 
be observed as to dismantling of a war vessel belonging to a belligerent 
power and location of its crew, in case that the vessel has entered 
Swedish territorial waters and been detained there: 

Section 1. If a war vessel belonging to a foreign power has entered 
Swedish territorial waters and according to existing rules has to be 
detained and dismantled, the commander of the naval forces in the 
district where the vessel is to be found indicates the place where the 
vessel must be dismantled. In case of absence of the commander, the 
proper military authorities (on Gotland the military governor) takes 
charge of the vessel. 

Sec. 2. (1) Regarding dismantling, etc., the commander mentioned 
in section 1 must take the following measures: 

The propeller machinery must be made temporarily incapable of 
use by taking away one or several parts or reserve parts if such are 
found. The gun equipment, torpedoes, mines, and small arms are 
either to be dealt with in the same way or have to be brought on land. 
All gunner and small arms ammunition as well as torpedo and mine 
loads on board are to be brought on land, if the circumstances allow it. 

A radiotelegraph station, eventually erected on the vessel, must 
be made unworkable. 

(2) If the vessel has been dismantled in a war port or corresponding 
district, the measures mentioned in section 1 may by special permis- 
sion of the King be confined in proportion to the possibility of securing 
the aims of dismantling by other means. ContrarHy, if the circum- 
stances demand it, the measures mentioned in section 1 have to be 
extended. 

(3) The military authorities concerned (on Gotland the military 
governor) are charged with the location of officers and crew of a de- 
tained vessel either on their own vessel or on another vessel or on land. 



156 Sweden, Navigation Regulations. 

If not located on board of the detained vessel, necessary personnel 
must remain for maintenance and safekeeping of vessel and its material. 

Sec. 3. (1) A supervision of the vessel must be established, and if 
this can not be promptly executed from land a guard must be placed 
on board. 

Where officers and crew are located, supervision must be arranged, 
so as to lessen the possibility of escaping. 

For the located personnel special boundaries are designated; it is 
prohibited to leave these without special permission, on penalty of 
further restrictions. Officers may by special permission of the King 
be given liberty on their word of honor not to leave designated districts. 

(2) The maintenance of the personnel is intrusted to the military 
authorities mentioned in section 1. 

(3) The commander concerned takes charge of the vessel's cash*. It 
is not allowed to use this money for expenditures caused by mainte- 
nance of the crew, without special permission of the King. 

(4) The military authorities submit directly to the King a report on 
the achieved dismantling and on the location of the crew. The report 
must indicate the vessel's name, number of the crew, quantity of 
war material, and amount of the cash. 

These contents hereby brought to your knowledge. 

Stockholm, July 7, 1915. 

Dan Brostroem. 
Countersigned: 

G. H. Lidbeck 

Regulations for navigation of Kogrund Passage, 1 July 29, 1916. 

Circular of the Chief Hydrographic Department, Russia, No. 102, 52, August 20, 1916. 

MINING OP THE KOGRUND FAIRWAY— SAILING RULES. 

The following rules have been announced by the Swedish Govern- 
ment: 

No. 1. Care of mines will be maintained by the fleet in the Kogrund 
Fairway between 55° 26' and 55° 28/ north latitude, and between 12° 
47' 8" and 12° 50' 6" east longitude. 

No. 2. Commercial ships and steamers are not to enter in the zone 
mentioned in No. 1 without proper permission or must otherwise run 
the risk of being blown up or stopped in their course by force, and 
must comply with stipulations regarding navigation, and with such 
instructions as they may be given by commander of any Swedish 
warship or by pilots. The Swedish warship that will be dispatched 
to advise ships about the aboye-stated rules will make, at the request 
to stop, the following signals: 

The signal M N according to the international code, or in the night, 
according to Mors 3 's system, the signal . . with a lantern, search- 
light, whistle, siren, or with one or several gun or rifle blank shots 
(in case of necessity, two or more of the above-stated signals are made 
at the same time). 

i See decree July 14, 1916, International Law Documents, 1917, p. 215. 



Sweden, Navigation Regulations. 157 

No. 3. The Kogrund Fairway may be used exclusively by — 

(a) Swedish warships and also by all other ships belonging to or 

maintained by the Swedish Government. 
(6) Swedish commercial ships keeping up regular coast navigation 

in Erezund (Zund). 

(c) Swedish commercial ships bound from abroad to Swedish Baltic 
ports, and which are passing through the fairway with cargoes only 
from the said ports or in ballast. 

(d) Swedish ships (to which belong also ships having a capacity less 
than 20 registered tons) sailing from one Swedish port under contract 
to another Swedish port. 

No. 4. (1) On the latitude 55° 31/ 5" N. and longitude 12° 51' 0" E. 
is set for the direction of navigation, a lightship with an inscription 
"KGRN-a" and a distinctive sign consisting of a black cone having its 
top part up and (2 meters below) a black globe; the lightship has in the 
night, besides lights for ships at anchor, a white light and 2 meters lower 
a red light; both lights are seen from a distance of 2 miles at least. 

In latitude 55° 21/ 4" N. and longitude 12° 48' 2" E. is stationed 
another lightship marked "KGRS-a" and having, moreover, the same 
distinctive signs as the first one. 

(2) Commercial ship? and vessels entering the mined zone are obliged, 
even without any request, to stop and to anchor in the neighborhood of 
one of the respective lightships and wait the approach of one of the 
guard ship3 and they may not pass the mined district until they have 
received, after the customary inspection, permission from the com- 
mander of the guard ship. 

Commercial ship3 coming from a southern fairway to the south of 
the reef Falsterbo, must, however, according to the general regulation, 
be subjected, before entering the said fairway, to the above-mentioned 
inspection under the supervision of the commanding naval officer who 
has been put in charge of the command of the mined zone. 

(4) It is forbidden to navigate the mined zone during night and in 
thick weather. 

No. 5. (1) Commercial ships passing by the Kogrund Fairway not in 
tow or not being preceded by a ship belonging to or in charge of the 
Swedish Government, must, after having paid the fixed taxes, use a 
Swedish Government pilot who must be subordinate in everything 
regarding the sailing in the fairway, tc the commanding officer, to whom 
the responsibility of command has been given over the mined zone; 
the said pilots must strictly be directed by the regulation of this decree, 
as well as by separate orders which may be issued by the above men- 
tioned commanding officer. 

(2) A ship, having not the necessary Crown pilot when entering the 
Kogrund Fairway, can receive one from the lightship stated in No. 4. 

These regulations confirmed by the King's decree enter into force 
from July 29 (new style) of this year until their recall. Those who are 
concerned by it must be in absolute submission to if. 

(Signed) General Jdanko. 

Colonel Glasoff. 



158 Sweden, Mine Fields. 

Reg ulations for navigation in minefields, 1916. 

Notices to mariners — Marine ministry — Principal Hydrographic Board, Russia. 

The former information is abolished herewith. 
Warning: All vessels when entering mined ports along Sweden's 
coast must strictly observe all directions given from guard ships or by 
other means in order to avoid accidents. 

To distinguish guard ships they will signal as follows: 

By day and in good weather, signal by international code 
"M. N." 

By night, signal by Morse system . . . repeating several 

times. 
During fog, firing from guns or arms. 

(I) East and Sotjth Coasts — Mines and Obstacles. 

Warning: Information is received that mines and obstacles are laid 
at the following places: 

(A) Southern Kvarken. 

(C) Aolands Sea . 

(D) Entrance to Soedertelje. 

(E) At the approach to Stockholm and in the channel between 

the fortified districts Vaxholm and Oskar Fredriksborg. 

(F) Entrance to Faroesund. 
(H) In the harbor of Karlskrona. 

In order to avoid mines in the Southern Kvarken, Aolands Sea, and 
out at sea from Stockholmskaergaord (skerries), it is recommended that 
mariners employ the inner channels in the skerries of Oeregrund and 
the inner fairway between Arholma and Landsort. 

If it is impossible to navigate in the inner channels without entering 
mine districts, mariners are advised to use the zone of Swedish terri- 
torial waters. 

(II) West Coast — Mines. 

Warning: Mines are laid at the following places: 
(a) Goeteborg. 

(6) In the Ellelos fiord, Stig fiord, Hakefiord, and at the entrance 
to Uddevalla, in the inner side of the line from Essvik 
(on Bokenaes) through Islandsberg light, Eckerce light 
(so Molloe sund), Graen light (S. Kladesholm), and the 
inner mark of Lekskaer to Korshamn. 
(c) The entrance to Kungsbacka fiord in the inner side of the 
line at 90° (SO 81°) from the Southern promontory of the 
peninsula Onsala (Hallsunds point). 
N. B. — Information is also received that mines will be laid at other 
places along the western coast of Sweden without further notice. 

It is prohibited for war vessels of belligerent powers to enter the 
districts (b) and (c). 



Turkey, Defensive Sea Area. 159 

RULES FOR GOETEBORG. 

During trial installation of mines outside Goeteborg some channels 
may be closed by day 

From Stockholmskaer will be announced what entrance is closed 
for vessels entering and leaving, and the guard ship will give further 
directions. 

The signals are the following: 

By day. Two ballons signify that the channel between Knippe- 
holm and Hunnebaden (Goeteborgagrund) is closed, and one may use 
the route south off Hunnebaden. 

The ballon upon the cone signifies that the channel between Hunne- 
baden and Stockholmskaer is closed and one may use the route north off 
Hunnebaden. 

TURKEY. 

Circular relating to defensive sea area near the coast of Asia Minor, August 

26, 1916. 

Sublime Porte, 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 
Gl. No. 86331. August 26, 1916. 

SI. No. 53. 
Circular. 

note verbale. 

It appears from a communication from the vice commander in chief 
of the imperial army that since the military authorities have to fire 
on the enemy ships passing between the coast and the islands of Khios 
and Samos, and that since it is not possible to distinguish between 
enemy ships and those which are neutral, neutral vessels should not 
navigate in those regions in order to avoid any regrettable accidents. 

The ministry of foreign affairs in complying with the desire expressed 
by the vice commander in chief has the honor to request the embassy 
of the United States of America to kindly notify what preceded to the 
interested parties in order that they should absolutely refrain from 
frequenting the said region. 

To the embassy of the United States of America. 

Terms of Armistice vnth Allied Powers, signed at Mudros, Island of 
Lemnos, October 30, 1918. 1 

Conditions of an armistice agreed to and concluded between Vice 
Admiral the Honorable Sir Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, British 
Commander in Chief of the Mediterranean Station, acting under 
authority from the British Government, in agreement with their 
Allies, and His Excellency Raouf Bey, Turkish Minister of Marine; 

1 The text printed is that given out by the British Government. It differs from 
the text published in America, particularly in that Art. 15 was not included in the 
cabled version. There were consequent differences in order and numbering. 



160 Turkey, Armistice. 

His Excellency Rechad Hikmet Bey, Turkish Under Secretary for 
Foreign Affairs; Lieutenant-Colonel Saadullah Bey, Turkish General 
Staff, acting under authority from the Turkish Government. 

1. Opening of Dardanelles and Bosphorus and secure access to the 
Black Sea. Allied occupation of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus forts. 

2. Positions of all mine fields, torpedo tubes, and other obstructions 
in Turkish waters to be indicated and assistance given to sweep or 
remove them, as may be required. 

3. All available information concerning mines in the Black Sea to 
be communicated. 

4. All allied prisoners of war and Armenian interned persons and 
prisoners to be collected in Constantinople and handed over uncondi- 
tionally to the Allies. 

5. Immediate demobilization of the Turkish army, except such 
troops as are required for surveillance of frontiers and for the main- 
tenance of internal order. (Number of effectives and their disposition 
to be determined later by the Allies after consultation with the Turkish 
Government.) 

G. Surrender of all war vessels in Turkish waters or in waters occu- 
pied by Turkey. These ships will be interned in such Turkish port 
or ports as may be directed, except such small vessels as are required 
or police or similar purposes in Turkish territorial waters. 

7. The Allies to have the right to occupy any strategic points in the 
event of any situation arising which threatens the security of the Allies. 

8. Free use by allied ships of all ports and anchorages now in 
Turkish occupation and denial of their use by the enemy. Similar 
conditions are to apply to Turkish mercantile shipping in Turkish 
waters for purposes of trade and the demobilization of the army. 

9. Use of all ship repair facilities at all Turkish ports and arsenals. 

10. Allied occupation of the Taurus tunnel system. 

11. Immediate withdrawal of Turkish troops from northwest Persia 
to behind the pre-war frontier has already been ordered, and will be 
carried out. Part of Transcaucasia has already been ordered to be 
evacuated by Turkish troops. The remainder to be evacuated if re- 
quired by the Allies after they have studied the situation there. 

12. Wireless, telegraph, and cable stations to be controlled by the 
Allies, Turkish Government messages excepted. 

13. Prohibition to destroy any naval, military, or commercial 
material. 

14. Facilities to be given for the purchase of coal and oil fuel, and 
naval material from Turkish sources, after the requirements of the 
country have been met. None of the above materials to be exported. 

15. Allied control officers to be placed on all railways, including 
such portions of the Transcaucasian railways now under Turkish con- 
trol, which must be placed at the free and complete disposal of the 
allied authorities, due consideration being given to the needs of the 
population. This clause to include allied occupation of Batum. 
Turkey will raise no objection to the occupation of Baku by the Allies 



Turkey, Armistice. 161 

16. Surrender of all garrisons in Hedjaz, Assir, Yemen, Syria, and 
Mesopotamia to the nearest allied commander, and the withdrawal of 
troops from Cilicia, except those necessary to maintain order, as will 
be determined under clause 5. 

17. Surrender of all Turkish officers in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica 
to the nearest Italian garrison. Turkey guarantees to stop supplies and 
communications with those officers if they do not obey the order to 
surrender. 

18. Surrender of all ports occupied in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, 
including Misurata, to the nearest allied garrison. 

19. All Germans and Austrians, naval, military, and civilian, to be 
evacuated within one month from Turkish dominions, those in remote 
districts as soon after as may be possible. 

20. Compliance with such orders as may be conveyed for the dis- 
posal of the equipment, arms, and ammunition, including transport of 
that portion of the Turkish army which is demobilized under clause 5. 

21. An allied representative to be attached to the Turkish ministry 
of supplies in order to safeguard allied interests. This representative 
to be furnished with all information necessary for this purpose. 

22. Turkish prisoners are to be kept at the disposal of the allied 
powers. The release of Turkish civilian prisoners and prisoners over 
mlitary age to be considered. 

23. Obligation on the part of Turkey to cease all relations with the 
Central Powers. 

24. In case of disorder in the six Armenian vilayets the Allies reserve 
to themselves the right to occupy any part of them. 

25. Hostilities between the Allies and Turkey shall cease from 
noon, local time, on Thursday, 31st October, 1918. 

Signed in duplicate on b>oard His Britannic Majesty's Ship Aga- 
memnon, at Port Mudros, Lemnos, the 30th October, 1918. 

Arthur Calthorpe. 
Hussein Raoup. 
Rechad Hikmet. 
Saadullah. 

UNITED STATES. 
WAR MEASURES. 

Act relating to the violation of regulations for defensive sea areas, March 4, 

1917. 

[Naval appropriation act, 1917, 39 Stat., 1194.] 

That section forty-four of the act entitled "An act to codify, revise, 
and amend the penal laws of the United States," approved March 
fourth, nineteen hundred and nine, be, and the same is hereby, 
amended to read as follows: 

"Sec. 44. Whoever shall willfully trespass upon, injure, or destroy 
any of the works or property or material of any submarine mine or 
116506—19 11 



162 United States, Co-belligerents. 

torpedo or fortification or harbor-defense system owned or constructed 
or in process of construction by the United States, or shall willfully 
interfere with the operation or use of any such submarine mine, tor- 
pedo, fortification, or harbor-defense system, or shall knowingly, will- 
fully, or or wantonly violate any duly authorized and promulgated 
order or regulation of the President governing persons or vessels within 
the limits of defensive sea areas, which defensive sea areas are hereby 
authorized to be established by order of the President from time to 
time as may be necessary in his discretion for purposes of national 
defense, shall be punished, on conviction thereof in a district or cir- 
cuit court of appeals of the United States for the district or circuit in 
which the offense was committed, or into which the offender is first 
brought, by a fine of not more than $5,000, or by imprisonment for a 
term not exceeding five years, or by both, in the discretion of the 
court." 

Act defining the application of the neutrality laws to subjects of co-bel- 
ligerents with the United States, May 7, 1917. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, That section ten of chapter 
two of an act entitled "An act to codify, revise, and amend the penal 
laws of the United States," approved March fourth, nineteen hundred 
and nine, be amended so as to read as follows: 

"Sec. 10. Whoever, within the territory or jurisdiction of the United 
States, enlists or enters himself, or hires or retains another person 
to enlist or enter himself, or to go beyond the limits of jurisdiction 
of the United States with intent to be enlisted or entered in the 
service of any foreign prince, State, colony, district, or people as a 
soldier or as a marine or seaman on board of any vessel of war, letter of 
marque, or privateer shall be fined not more than $1,000 and impris- 
oned not more than three years: Provided, That this section shall not 
apply to citizens or subjects of any country engaged in war with a 
country with which the United States is at war, unless such citizen 
or subject of such foreign country shall hire or solicit a citizen of the 
United States to enlist or go beyond the jurisdiction of the United 
States with intent to enlist or enter the service of a foreign country. 
Enlistments under this provision shall be under regulations prescribed 
by the Secretary of War." 

Approved, May 7, 1917. 

Regulation relating to anchorage and navigation of vessels in waters of 
United States, February 25, 1918. 

[Official United States Bulletin, No. 245, p. 3.] 

February 25, 1918. 
To collectors of customs and others concerned: 

In accordance with Title II, section 1, of the so-called espionage act 
approved June 15, 1917, entitled, " An act to punish acts of interference 
with the foreign relations, the neutrality, and the foreign commerce of 



United States, Clearance of Vessels. 163 

the United States, to punish espionage, and to better enforce the crimi- 
nal laws of the United States, and for other purposes," and with the 
Executive order dated December 3 ? 1917, the following rules and regu- 
lations are promulgated : 

1. All existing rules and regulations governing anchorages and move- 
ments of vessels in the navigable waters of the United States established 
by lawful authority are hereby reaffirmed and continued in force during 
the period of the present war, under the authority vested in the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury by the aforesaid act and Executive order. 

2. The following persons are hereby authorized to enforce the rules 
and regulations governing the anchorage of vessels herein reaffirmed or 
promulgated : 

(a) For the port and harbor of New York and vicinity, the officer 
designated by the Secretary of the Treasury as captain of the port. 

(6) For the port of Norfolk, Hampton Roads, and vicinity the officer 
designated by the Secretary of the Treasury as captain of the port. 

(c) For all other ports and territorial waters of the United States, the 
collectors of customs for the district in which such port and waters are 
located, or the captain of the port when such officer has been designated 
by the Secretary of the Treasury. 

INSPECTION OF VESSELS. 

3. The collector of customs, through the captain of the port, or other 
agency acting for the collector, is hereby authorized to inspect and 
search at any time any vessel, foreign or domestic, or any person or 
package thereon, within the territorial waters of the United States, 
to place guards upon such vessels, and to remove therefrom any or all 
persons not specially authorized by him to go or to remain on board 
thereof. 

4. The collector of customs, through the captain of the port, or other 
agency acting for the collector, is hereby authorized to take full pos- 
session and control of any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the terri- 
torial waters of the United States, whenever, in his judgment, such 
action is necessary in order to secure such vessel from damage or injury, 
or to prevent damage or injury to any harbor or waters of the United 
States or to secure the observance of the rights and obligations of the 
United States. 

5. The collector of customs shall refuse clearance to any vessel hav- 
ing on board inflammable and explosive articles so laden or stowed 
as to render the same unnecessarily dangerous to navigation, and may 
also refuse clearance to any vessel bound for a foreign port with any 
person on board, either as officer, member of the crew, or passenger, 
whose departure from the United States on such vessel has been de- 
termined by the action of the proper Federal authorities to be inimical 
to the interests of the United States in the conduct of the war. 

6. The Secretary of the Treasury may require all lighters, barges, 
tugs, motor boats, sailboats, and similar craft operating in the harbor 



164 United States, Defensive Sea Area. 

or waters of any port of entry, to be especially licensed by the collector 
of customs for such purpose, and may revoke any license so granted 
for any failure to comply with the anchorage or harbor regulations for 
such port, or to obey the orders of the captain of the port in such regard , 
or for any act inimical to the interests of the United States in thr» 
conduct of the war. 

W. G. McAdoo, 
Secre tary of the Treasury . 
Approved : 
Woodrow Wilson, 

President. 
26 February, 1918. 

Executive order establishing defensive sea area, June 29, 1918. 
[Official United States Bulletin, No. 350, p. 1.] 

In accordance with the authority vested in me by section forty-four 1 
of the act entitled "An act to codify, revise, and amend the penal 
laws of the United States," approved March fourth, nineteen hundred 
and nine, as amended by the act "Making appropriations for the naval 
service for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, nineteen hundred 
and eighteen, and for other purposes," approved March fourth, nine- 
teen hundred and seventeen, I Woodrow Wilson, President of the 
United States, do order that the defensive sea area at Chesapeake 
entrance and the defensive sea area at Hampton Roads, established by 
Executive order under date of April fifth, nineteen hundred and 
seventeen, 2 be hereby abolished. 

And further, I do order established, subject to the same disclaimer 
of responsibility for damage inflicted as proclaimed in said order of 
April fifth, nineteen hundred and seventeen, a defensive sea area, to 
be maintained until further notification, at the place and within the 
limits described as follows — that is to say: 

Lower Chesapeake: 

Outer limit. — Line parallel to that joining Cape Henry Light and 
Cape Charles Light and 4 nautical miles to eastward thereof, and the 
lines from Cape Charles Light and from Cape Henry Light perpen- 
dicular to this line. 

Inner limits.— -Line tangent to end of wharf on west side of Old Point 
Comfort and Fort Wool, and a line running from Back River Light 
through the Ljight Vessel marking the southern end of the 35-foot cut 
known as the Baltimore Channel, thence to the eastern shore of Virginia. 

And I do further order that the "Regulations for Carrying into Effect 
the Executive Order of the President Establishing Defensive Sea 
Areas," approved by me April 5, 1917, 2 duly promulgated and pub- 
lished, are and shall be considered as of full effect and binding on all 



i Supra, p. 161. 

2 Naval War College International Law Documents, 1917, p. 233, 237. 



United States, Transfer of Vessels. 165 

persons and vessels within the limits of the defensive sea area hereby 
established. 

The designated points for ships entering and leaving the defensive 
sea area herein established shall be as follows: 

Eastern limit. — Chesapeake Bay main ship channel entrance buoy. 

Western limit. — In channel to northwestward of entrance buoy of 
dredged channel, Elizabeth River. 

Northern limit. — Light vessel marking the southern end of the 35-foot 
cut known as the Baltimore Channel, thence to the eastern shore of 
Virginia. 

Woodrow Wilson. 

The White House, June 2,9, 1918. 

Proclamation putting into effect law to prevent the acquisition of national 
ships or yards by foreign interests, August 7, 1918. 

(Official U. S. Bulletin, No. 386, p. 2.) 
By the President of the United States of America: 

A PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas, an act of Congress, entitled " Shipping act, 1916, " approved 
September 7, 1916, as amended by an act of Congress entitled "An act 
to amend the act approved September 7, 1916, entitled, 'An act to 
establish a United States Shipping Board for the purpose of encourag- 
ing, developing, and creating a naval auxiliary and naval reserve and 
a merchant marine to meet the requirements of the commerce of the 
United States with its territories and possessions and with foreign 
countries; to regulate carriers by water in the foreign and interstate 
commerce of the United States; and for other purposes,' " approved 
July 15, 1918, contains the following provisions: 

Sec. 37. That when the United States is at war or during any national emergency, the 
existence of which is declared by proclamation of the President, it shall be unlawful, 
without first obtaining the approval of the board: 

(a) To transfer or to place under any foreign registry or flag any vessel owned in whole 
or in part by any person a citizen of the United States or by a corporation organized 
under the laws of the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession 
thereof; or 

(6) To sell, mortgage, lease, charter, deliver, or in any manner transfer, or agree to sell, 
mortgage, lease, charter, deliver, or in any manner transfer, to any person not a citizen 
of the United States (1) any such vessel or any interest therein, or (2) any vessel docu- 
mented under the laws of the United States, or any interest therein, or (3) any ship- 
yard, dry dock, shipbuilding or ship-repairing plant or facilities, or any interest therein; or 

(c) To enter into any contract, agreement, or understanding to construct a vessel 
within the United States for or to be delivered to any person not a citizen of the United 
States, without expressly stipulating that such construction shall not begin until after 
the war or emergency proclaimed by the President has ended; or > 

(d) To make any agreement, or effect any understanding whereby there is vested in 
or for the benefit of any person not a citizen of the United States, the controlling interest 
or a majority of the voting power in a corporation which is organized under the laws of 
the United States, or of any State, Territory, District, or possession thereof, and which 
owns any vessel, shipyard, dry dock, or ship-building or ship-repairing plant or facili. 
ties; or 



166 United States, Requisition of Dutch Ships. 

(e) To cause or procure any vessel constructed in whole or in part within the United 
States, which has never cleared for any foreign port, to depart from a port of the United 
States before it has been documented under the laws of the United States. 

And whereas the destruction of maritime tonnage during the present 
war has rendered it imperative that the American merchant marine 
be retained under American control and free from alien influence; 

Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States 
of America, acting under authority conferred in me by said act, do 
hereby proclaim that a state of war and a national emergency within 
the meaning of said act do now exist, and I do hereby enjoin all persons 
from doing of the things in said act declared to be unlawful. 

For the purposes of said act of Congress, the national emergency 
herein proclaimed shall be deemed to continue until its termination 
has been evidenced by a proclamation of the President. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal 
of the United States to be affixed. 

Done in the District of Columbia this 7th day of August, in the year 
of our Lord 1918, and of the Independence of the United States of 
America the one hundred and forty-third. 

[seal.] Woodrow Wilson. 

By the President: 
Frank L. Polk, 

Acting Secretary of State. 

REQUISITION OF FOREIGN VESSELS. 

Proclamation talcing over Dutch vessels, March 20, 1918. l 
(Official United States Bulletin, No. 263, p. 1.) 
By the President op the United States of America, 
a proclamation. 

Whereas the law and practice of nations accords to a belligerent 
power the right in times of military exigency and for purposes essential 
to the prosecution of war to take over and utilize neutral vessels 
lying within its jurisdiction; 

And whereas the act of Congress of June 15, 1917, entitled "An act 
making appropriations to supply urgent deficiencies in appropriations 
for the Military and Naval Establishments on account of war expenses 
for the fiscal year ending June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and seven- 
teen, and for the other purposes," confers upon the President power 
to take over the possession of any vessel within the jurisdiction of the 
United States for use or operation by the United States: 

Now therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States 
of America, in accordance with international law and practice, and 

1 See also correspondence with the Netherlands Government respecting the requisi- 
tioning of ships by the associated governments, British Pari. Pap., Misc. No. 11 (1918); 
correspondence with the Netherlands Government regarding the requisitioning by His 
Majesty's Government of British owned or chiefly British owned ships under neutral 
flags, British Pari. Pap., Misc. No. 5 (1918). 



United States, Requisition of Dutch Ships. 167 

by virtue of the act of Congress aforesaid, and as Commander in Chief 
of the Army and Navy of the United States, do hereby find and pro- 
claim that the imperative military needs of the United States require 
the immediate utilization of vessels of Netherlands registry, now lying 
within the territorial waters of the United States; and I do therefore 
authorize and empower the Secretary of the Navy to take over on behalf 
of the United States the possession of and to employ all such vessels of 
Netherlands registry as may be necessary for essential purposes con- 
nected with the prosecution of the war against the Imperial German 
Government. The vessels shall be manned, equipped, and operated 
by the Navy Department and the United States Shipping Board, as 
may be deemed expedient; and the United States Shipping Board 
shall make to the owners thereof full compensation, in accordance with 
the principles of international law. 

In testimony whereof, I have- hereunto set my hand and caused the 
seal of the United States to be affixed. 

Done in the District of Columbia, this twentieth day of March, in 
the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and eighteen, and 
of the independence of the United States of America the one hundred 

and forty-second. 

Woodrow Wilson. 
By the President: 
Robert Lansing, 

Secretary of State. 

Statement by the President with reference to taking over Dutch vessels, 

March 20, 1918. 

(Official United States Bulletin, No. 263, p. 1.) 

For some months the United States and the Entente Allies have been 
conducting negotiations with the Dutch Government with the object 
of concluding a general commercial agreement. 

A very clear statement of the character of these negotiations was made 
on March 12 to the Dutch Parliament by his excellency the minister of 
foreign affairs of Holland. 1 As appears from the statement, the discus- 
sion proceeded upon the basis of two fundamental propositions, namely, 
that the United States and the Allies should facilitate the importation 
into Holland of foodstuffs and other commodities required to maintain 
her economic life, and that Holland should restore her merchant marine 
to a normal condition of activity. 

It was the task of the negotiators to develop a specific application of 
these propositions which would be acceptable to the Governments 
concerned. 

Early in January, 1918, the negotiators came to an understanding 
which was embodied in a tentative agreement, which was submitted to 

> Official United States Bulletin, No. 259, p. 1. For statement issued by Netherlands 
Government in Staats Courant, Mar. 30, 1918, ibid. No. 283, p. 2, and answer by United 
States Department of State, Apr. 13, 1918, ibid., No. 283, p. 1. 



168 United States, Requisition of Dutch Ships. 

the Governments concerned in order that if acceptable it might be 
ratified, or if unacceptable a counter proposal might be made. 

The negotiations becoming -prolonged, the Dutch delegates proposed, 
in order that their ships might sooner be put into remunerative service, 
that Dutch tonnage lying idle in American waters should, with certain 
exceptions, be immediately chartered to the United States for periods 
not exceeding 90 days. 

This proposal was accepted by the United States Government, and 
on January 25, 1918, the Dutch minister at Washington handed to the 
Secretary of State of the United States a note expressing the terms of 
the temporary chartering agreement and his Government's acceptance 
thereof. This agrement provided, among other things, that 150,000 
tons of Dutch shipping should, at the discretion of the United States, 
be employed partly in the service of Belgian relief and partly for 
Switzerland on safe conduct to Cette, France, and that for each ship 
sent to Holland in the service of Belgian relief a corresponding vessel 
should leave Holland for the United States. Two Dutch ships in the 
United States ports with cargoes of foodstuffs were to proceed to Hol- 
land, similar tonnage being sent in exchange from Holland to the 
United States for charter as in the case of other Dutch ships lying in 
the United States ports. 

The agreement was explicitly temporary in character and, being 
designed to meet an immediate situation, prompt performance was of 
the essence. The Dutch Government at once disclosed, however, that 
it was unwilling or unable to carry out this chartering agreement which 
it had itself proposed. The first desire of the United States was to se- 
cure at once shipping, as contemplated by the agreement, to transport 
to Switzerland foodstuffs much needed by the State. One difficulty 
after another was, however, raised to postpone the chartering of Dutch 
ships for Swiss relief, and, although the reason was never formally ex- 
pressed, it was generally known that the Dutch shipowners feared lest 
their ships should be destroyed by German submarines, even though 
on an errand of mercy, and though not traversing any of the so-called 
" danger zones" proclaimed by the German Government. That this 
fear was not wholly unjustified has, unhappily, been shown by the 
recent act of the German Government in sinking the Spanish ship 
Sardinero outside the "danger zone" when carrying a cargo of grain 
for Switzerland, and after the submarine commander had ascertained 
this fact by an inspection of the ship's papers. 

In respect of Belgian relief, the Dutch Government expressed its 
present inability to comply with the agreement on the ground that the 
German Government had given Holland to understand that it would 
forcibly prevent the departure from Holland of the corresponding ships, 
which under the agreement were to leave coincidently for the United 
States. The Dutch Government even felt itself unable to secure the 
two cargoes of foodstuffs, which under the agreement it was permitted 
to secure, since here again the German Government intervened and 



United States, Requisition of Dutch Ships. 169 

threatened to destroy the equivalent Dutch tonnage which under the 
agreement was to leave Holland for the United States. 

Nearly two months have elapsed since the making of the temporary 
chartering agreement, and the proposed general agreement has lain 
even longer without reply on the part of Holland. Meanwhile German 
threats have grown more violent, with a view to preventing any per- 
manent agreement and of forcing Holland to violate any temporary 
agreement. 

On March 7, through Great Britain, a final proposal, expiring on the 
18th, was submitted to Holland. A reply has been received which, 
while in itself unacceptable, might under other conditions have served 
as a basis for further negotiations. But the events to which I have 
alluded had served to demonstrate conclusively that we have been 
attempting to negotiate where the essential basis for an agreement, 
namely, the meeting of free wills, is absent. Even were an agreement 
concluded, there is lacking that power of independent action which 
alone can assure performance. I say this not in criticism of the Dutch 
Government. I profoundly sympathize with the difficulty of her posi- 
tion under the menace of a military power which has in every way 
demonstrated its disdain of neutral rights. But, since coercion does in 
fact exist, no alternative is left to us but to accomplish, through the 
exercise of our indisputable rights as a sovereign, that which is so 
reasonable that in other circumstances we could be confident of accom- 
plishing it by agreement. 

Steps are accordingly being taken to put into our service Dutch ship- 
ping lying within our territorial jurisdiction. This action on our part 
and the similar action which is being taken by Governments associated 
with us leaves to Holland ample tonnage for her domestic and colonial 
needs. We have informed the Dutch Government that her colonial 
trade will be facilitated and that she may at once send ships from Hol- 
land to secure the bread serials which her people require. These ships 
will be freely bunkered and will be immune from detention on our 
part. The liner New Amsterdam, which came within our jurisdiction 
under an agreement for her return, will, of course, be permitted at once 
to return to Holland. Not only so, but she will be authorized to carry 
back with her the two cargoes of foodstuffs which Holland would have 
secured under the temporary chartering agreement had not Germany 
prevented. Ample compensation will be paid to the Dutch owners 
of the ships which will be put into our service, and suitable provision 
will be made to meet the possibility of ships being lost through enemy 
action. 

It is our earnest desire to safeguard to the fullest extent the interests 
of Holland and of her nationals. By exercising in this crisis our ad- 
mitted right to control all property within our territory, we do no wrong 
to Holland. The manner in which we proposed to exercise this right 
and our proposals made to Holland concurrently therewith can not, I 
believe, fail to evidence to Holland the sincerity' of our friendship 
toward her. 

Woodrow Wilson. 



170 United States, Requisition of Dutch Ships. 

Statement of the Navy Department with reference to taking over of Dutch 

vessels, March 20, 1918. 

(Official United States Bulletin, No. 263, p. 1.) 

The following statment was given out by Secretary Daniels: 

In compliance with a proclamation of the President and in accordance with the rules 
of international law which gives to belligerent powers the right in time of military 
exigency and for purposes essential to the prosecution of war the authority to take over 
and utilize neutral vessels lying within its jurisdiction, orders were given to take over 
and man by the Navy all the Dutch ships now lying within the territorial waters of the 
United States. These vessels will be taken over immediately and manned by the 
Navy and will be operated as may be necessary for essential purposes connected with 
the prosecution of the war. The services to which they will be placed will be jointly 
determined between the Navy Department and the United States Shipping Board. 
Later on it may become advisable to man some of these vessels with merchant crews 
supplied by the Shipping Board, dependent upon the special service on which they will 
be employed. 

Executive order authorizing talcing over of materials on Dutch ships, 

March 28, 1918. 

[Official United States Bulletin, No. 273, p. 1.] 
EXECUTIVE ORDER. 

In pursuance of the authority conferred upon the President of the 
United States by the act approved June 15, 1917, entitled "An act 
making appropriations to supply urgent deficiencies for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1917, and for other purposes," the Secretary of the 
Navy is hereby authorized and directed to take over, on behalf of the 
United States, possession of all tackle, apparel, furniture, and equip- 
ment, and all stores, including bunker fuel, aboard each of the vessels 
of Netherlands registry now lying within the territorial jurisdiction of 
the United States, possession of which was taken in accordance with 
the proclamation of the President of the United States promulgated 
March 20, 1918; and in every instance in which such possession has 
heretofore been taken of such tackle, apparel, furniture, equipment, 
and stores, such taking is hereby adopted and made of the same force 
and effect as if it had been made subsequent to the signing of this 
Executive order. 

The United States Shipping Board shall make to the owners of any 
tackle, apparel, furniture, equipment, and stores taken under the 
authority of this order full compensation in accordance with the prin- 
ciples of international law. 

Woodrow Wilson. 

The White House, March 28, 1918. 



United States, Requisition of Austrian Vessel. 171 

Executive order requisitioning A us fro- Hungarian merchant vessel, Mag 

11, 1918. 

[Official United States Bulletin, No. 328, p. 10.] 

Whereas the following joint resolution adopted by Congress was 
approved by the President May 12, 1917 : 

Joint resolution aiithorizing the President to take over for the United States the pos- 
session and title of any vessel within its jurisdiction which at the time of coming therein 
was owned in whole or in part by any corporation, citizen, or subject of any nation 
with which the United States may be at war, or was under register of any such nation, 
and for other purposes. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in 
Congress assembled, That the President be, and he is hereby, authorized to take over 
to the United States the immediate possession and title of any vessel within the juris- 
diction thereof, including the Canal Zone and all territories and insular possessions of 
the United States except the American Virgin Islands, which at the time of coming 
into such jurisdiction was owned in whole or in part by any corporation, citizen, or 
subject of any nation with which the United States may be at war when such vessel 
shall be taken, or was flying the flag of or was under register of any such nation or any 
political subdivision or municipality thereof; and, through the United States Shipping 
Board, or any department or agency of the Government, to operate, lease, charter, and 
equip such vessel in any service of the United States, or in any commerce, foreign or 
coastwise. 

Sec. 2. That the Secretary of the Navy be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed 
to appoint, subject to the approval of the President, a board of survey, whose duty it 
shall be to ascertain the actual value of the vessel, its equipment, appurtenances, and 
all property contained therein, at the time of its taking, and to make a written report 
of their findings to the Secretary of the Navy, who shall preserve such report with the 
records of his department. These findings shall be considered as competent evidence 
in all proceedings on any claim for compensation. 

And whereas the following vessel was, at the time of coming into the 
jurisdiction of the United States, owned in whole or in part by a cor- 
poration, citizen, or subject of the Empire of Austria-Hungary, a nation 
with which the United States is now at war, or was flying the flag of or 
under the register of the Empire of Austria-Hungary, or of a political 
subdivision or municipality thereof: 

Passenger steamship Martha Washington, now lying at the port of 
New York : 

It is therefore ordered: That through the United States Shipping 
Board there be taken over to the United States the possession and title 
of the aforementioned vessel. The United States Shipping Board is 
further hereby authorized to repair, equip, and man said vessel; to 
operate, lease, or charter the same in any service of the United States, 
or in any commerce, foreign or coastwise; and to do and perform any 
and all things that may be necessary to accomplish the purposes of the 
joint resolution above set forth. 

Woodeow Wilson. 

The White House, 

11 May, 1918. 



172 United States, Censorship Regulations. 

CENSORSHIP REGULATIONS. 

Executive order relating to censorship of telegraph, telephone, and cable 

lines, April 28, 1917. 

(Official United States Bulletin, No. 1, p. 8.) 

Executive Order. a 

CENSORSHIP OF SUBMARINE CABLES, TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE 

LINES. 

Whereas the existence of a state of war between the United States 
and the Imperial German Government makes it essential to the public 
safety that no communication of a character which would aid the enemy 
or its allies shall be had. 

Therefore, by virtue of the power vested in me under the Constitu- 
tion and by the joint resolution passed by Congress on April 6, 1917, 
declaring the existence of a state of war, it is ordered that all companies 
or other persons owning, controlling, or operating telegraph and tele- 
phone lines or submarine cables are hereby prohibited from transmit- 
ting messages to points without the United States, and from delivering 
messages received from such points, except those permitted under rules 
and regulations to be established by the Secretary of War for tele- 
graph and telephone lines and by the Secretary of the Navy for sub- 
marine cables. 

To these departments, respectively, is delegated the duty of pre- 
paring and enforcing rules and regulations under this order to accom- 
plish the purpose mentioned. 

This order shall take effect from date. 

Woodrow Wilson. 

The White House, 

April 28, 1917. 



1 OBJECTS OF CENSORSHIP. 

The Committee on Public Information announces that arrangements have been 
made to put the Executive order into instant effect. Conference with the heads of 
the cable, telephone, and telegraph companies have been held in Washington during 
the week and all plans have been worked cut in detail. An expert personnel, pre- 
viously selected, and the generous and complete cooperation of the various companies 
combine to assure expedition and efficiency from the outset. The objects of the cen- 
orship are these: 

(1) To deny the enemy information of military value or any information prejudicial 
to the interests of the United States or to the interests of other enemies of the Imperial 
German Government. 

(2) To obtain information of value to the several departments of the United States 
Government. 

(3) v Po prevent the spreading of false reports or reports likely to interfere directly or 
indirectly with the successes of the naval or military operations of the United States 
or likely to prejudice relations with foreign powers or the security, training, discipline, 
or administration of the naval and military forces of the United States. 

Secretary Daniels has assigned Commander D. "W. Todd, Director of Naval Commu- 
nications, to have charge of the cable censorship, and Commander Archur B. Hon' will 
be in control of the New York division. Brig. Gen. Mclntyre has been selected by 
Secretary Baker to direct the telephone and telegraph supervision on the border. The 
censorship of telephones and telegraphs will affect the Mexican border only. 

The Committee on Public Information will provide the clearing house necessary to 
relate the activities of the naval and military censorship to every department of Gov- 
ernment. — (Official United States Bulletin, No. 1, p. 8.) 



United States, Cable Censorship. 173 

Regulations for cable censorship, May 1, 1917. 
[Official United States Bulletin, No. 1, p. 8.] 
These cable censorship regulations are issued for the guidance of the 
public. 

CABLE CENSORSHIP REGULATIONS. 

Codes.— The following authorized codes may be used, conditioned 
upon their acceptability under the censorship regulations in effect in 
the foreign countries concerned. The name of the code shall be written 
in the check and be signaled free: 

A. B. C; 5th. 

Scott's, 10th edition. 

Western Union (not including five-letter edition.) 

Lieber's (not including five-letter edition). 

Bentley's Qompjete Phrase Code (not including the oil and mining 
supplements). 
> Broomhall's Imperial Combination Code. 

Broomhall's Imperial Combination Code, rubber edition. 

Meyer's Atlantic Cotton Code, 39th edition. 

Riverside Code, 5th edition. 

A. Z. 

Addresses. — Must be complete, but properly registered addresses 
may be used where permitted by the censorship abroad. However, 
■code addresses registered subsequent to December 31, 1916, may not 
be used in messages to and from Central South America, Cuba, Porto 
Rico, Virgin Islands, Haiti, San Domingo, Curacao, or in messages 
transiting over the Commercial Pacific cable or via Trans-Pacific 
wireless. 

Text. — -Cablegrams without text will not be passed. 

Signatures. — All cablegrams must be signed by the name of the 
firm, or, in case of an individual, by at least the surname. Code 
addresses as signatures are not permitted. 

Decoding and translation of cablegrams. — All code cablegrams and 
cablegrams written in the approved foreign languages will be decoded 
or translated by censors." 

Suppressions, delays, etc. — All cablegrams are accepted at the sender's 
risk and may be stopped, delayed, or otherwise dealt with at the discre- 
tion of the censor, and without notice to the senders. No information 
respecting the transmission, delivery, or other disposal of any cable- 
gram shall be given by paid service, and requests made by mail must 
be addressed to the telegraph or cable companies and must be passed 
upon by the censor. Telegraphic and post acknowledgements of 
receipt (P. C. and P. C. P. services) are suspended in all countries. 

Information to senders. — Any explanation of a text word or words, 
■etc., required by the censor from the sender in the United States shall 
be obtained by a collect message from the censor to the sender and by a 
paid reply from the sender of the cablegram. 

Coded cablegrams filed directly at cable offices where a cable censor 
is stationed, as at New York, Key West, Galveston, and San Francisco, 
should be accompanied by a translation. This will expedite the works 
•of the censor and thereby greatly reduce delay. 



174 United States, Cable Censorship. 

Regulations for cable censorship, No. 2, May 31, 1917. 
[Official United States Bulletin, No. 22, p. 5.] 

The Office of the Director of Naval Communications and Chief Cable 
Censor has issued Cable Censorship Regulations No. 2, effective May 
31, superseding and amending No. 1, issued May 1. 

The regulations follow: 

Language. — Cablegrams to Central and South America, to the West 
Indies, and to points reached by the Pacific routes, may be written 
in plain English, French, or Spanish. 

Codes. — The following authorized codes may be used, conditioned 
on their acceptability under the censorship regulations in effect in the 
foreign countries concerned. The name of the code shall be written 
in the check and will be signaled free: 

1. A, B, C, fifth. 

2. Scott's tenth edition. 

3. Western Union (not including five-letter edition). 

4. Lieber's (not including five-letter edition). 

5. Bentley's Complete Phrase Code (not including the oil and 
mining supplements). 

6. Broomhall's Imperial Combination Code. 

7. Broomhall's Imperial Combination Code, rubber edition. 

8. Meyer's Atlantic Cotton Code, thirty-ninth edition. 

9. Riverside Code, fifth edition. 

10. A, Z. 

CODE ADDRESSES. 

Address must be complete; but properly registered code addresses 
may be used, where permitted by the censorship abroad. However, 
code addresses registered subsequent to December 31, 1916, may not 
be used in messages to and from Central and South America, Cuba, 
Porto Rico, Virgin Islands, Haiti, San Domingo, Curacao, or in mes- 
sages transmitted over the Commercial Pacific cable, or via trans- 
Pacific wireless. 

Cablegrams without text or with only single-word text will not be 
passed. 

Signatures. 1 — All cablegrams must be signed; in the case of indivi- 
duals by the surname at least; in the case of a firm or organization, by the 

1 The Naval Communication Service authorizes the following: 

Recent orders to cable censors have interpreted and altered the paragraphs on "Ad- 
dresses" and "Signatures" in Cable Censorship Regulations No. 2. 

Heretofore it has been required only that "the full name of the sender must appear 
on space provided in blank." The following order has been issued: 

" Every sender of a cablegram must place his full name and address on the face of the 
cablegram, and likewise the full name and address of the addressee. This will not be 
considered a part of the cablegram, but is for the information of censorship." 

In addition to limiting, as, at present, signatures on cablegrams to the surname of an 
individual or in the case of firms or organizations to the surname of a responsible member 
or officer thereof, when satisfactory information regarding him is on file with the censor, 
censors are now instructed to pass organization signatures of two or more words when 
understandable. Examples: "Pacific Mail" for the Pacific Mail Steamship Co.; 
"Second National" for the Second National Bank of Boston; "Studebaker Corporation' ' 
for the Studebaker Corporation of America. — (Official United States Bulletin No. 35 , 
p. 4.) 



United States, Cable Censorship. 175 

surname of a responsible member of the firm or officer of the organiza- 
tion, when satisfactory information regarding him is on file with the 
censor. The full name of sender must appear on space provided on 
blank. Code addresses as signatures are not permitted. 

SUPPRESSIONS, DELAYS, ETC. 

Suppressions, delays, etc. — All cablegrams are accepted at senders' 
risk, and may be stopped, delayed, or otherwise dealt with at the dis- 
cretion of the censor and without notice to the senders. No informa- 
tion respecting the transmission, delivery, or other disposal of any 
cablegrams shall be given by paid service, and requests made by mail 
must be addressed to the telegraph or cable companies and must be 
passed upon by the censor. Telegraphic or post acknowledgments of 
the receipt (P. C. or P. C. P. services) are suspended to all countries. 

Information to senders. — The cable company will notify the station 
of origin by free service when a message does not conform to the cen- 
sorship regulations. Any explanation of a test word or words, etc., 
required by the censor from the sender in the United States or Canada 
shall be obtained by a collect message from the censor to the sender 
and by a paid reply from the sender of the cablegram. 

Coded cablegrams filed directly at cable offices where a cable censor 
is stationed, as at New York, Key West, Galveston, and San Francisco, 
should be accompanied by a translation, and if it is certified by some 
responsible member of a firm it will tend to expedite the transmission 
of the message. 

Figures. — Unrelated numbers or code words which translate into 
unrelated numbers prohibited. 

Serial numbers. — The serial numbering of cablegrams will be per- 
mitted when the following conditions are complied with: Four figures 
will be used. The first two figures will be the daily serial number 
of the cablegram. The second two will be the day of the month. In 
the first nine messages of each day the first figure will be "0." On the 
first nine days of the month the third figure will be "0." The serial 
number will be the last word in the message and will immediately 
precede the signature. 

USE OF TEST WORDS. 

Test words. — Test words are permitted when senders comply with 
regulations which will be furnished on application to the censor or 
telegraph and cable companies. 

To relieve individuals and organizations transmitting money by 
cable of the necessity for furnishing copies of their systems of test 
words, affidavits will be accepted to cover the use of such test words. 

Organizations and individuals desiring to use test words to authen- 
ticate their messages and to act as a check on the -amount of money 
transmitted, must furnish an affidavit to cover the following: 

"The test word will be the first word in the body of the message. 
Such test word will have no other meaning or use than that of authenti- 



176 United States, Cable Censorship. 

eating the amount of money transmitted or that of preventing fraud 
by unauthorized payments of money." 

The letter transmitting the affidavit should state the cable landing 
point or points through which the use of a test word is desired — that 
is, a bank sending messages from New York, Galveston, and San Fran- 
cisco should so state in their letter transmitting the affidavit. If the 
bank handles cable business through one cable landing point only 
such as the New York cable origin, the letter of transmittal should 
«tate this point only. 

Affidavits should be mailed to the Chief Cable Censor, Room 209, 
Southern Building, Washington, D. C. 

Prohibited. — Military information, aid to the enemy, information of 
movements of all vessels to submarine zone, private codes, cablegrams 
not understandable to the censor. 

It is the constant study and effort of the cable censorship to ease the 
situation of the American trader and correspondent, consistent with the 
objects of military censorship. Among the significant changes above 
from Regulations No. 1 are: 

1. Instead of requiring the signature in full of a firm, corporation, or 
other organization the signature of the surname of a responsible member 
of the firm, corporation, or other organization is accepted when satis- 
factory information regarding him is on file with the censor. 

2. When translations and decoded copies of cablegrams are certified 
by some responsible member of a firm or organization they will be 
expedited in transmission. 

3. When the context in which figures appear is clear they will be 
allowed, but unrelated numbers, or code words which translate into 
unrelated numbers, are prohibited. 

4. The serial numbering of cablegrams will be permitted when the 
following conditions are complied with: Four figures will be used. 
The first two figures will be the daily serial number of the cablegram. 
The second two will be the day of the month. In the first nine messages 
of each day the first figure will be "0." On the first nine days of the 
month the third figured will be "0." The serial number will be the 
last word in the message and will immediately precede the signature. 

5. Test words are allowed when senders comply with the above 
regulations. 

General Order relating to divulging Naval information oj value to the 

enemy, June 11, 1917. 

(Official United States Bulletin, No. 27, p. 2.) 

Secretary of the Navy Daniels has made public the following general 

order: 

1. The department has reason to believe that information of a character most valu- 
able to the enemy, and which might prove most disastrous to the Navy, has in some 
way reached the enemy. In view of the strenuous efforts that have been made to pre 
vent the dissemination of such information, the department believes that in practically 
every instance this has resulted from certain information being given in confidence to 
or spoken in the presence of, a close relative or a friend who, failing to appreciate the 



United States, Cable Censorship. 177 

gravity of the offense, inadvertently transmitted it into the hands of those who most 
desired to obtain it. 

2. The department has on previous occasions endeavored to impress upon everyone 
hx the naval service the urgent necessity for carefully guarding against the dissemina- 
tion of any military information which could possibly be of advantage to an enemy. 
The situation at this time is entirely too grave to permit of a continuance of present 
practice in this regard. Officers, enlisted personnel, and civilian employees are there- 
fore directed not to discuss any question relating to the disposition, movements, or 
proposed movements of naval or military forces (including personnel) at any time, 
except officially, either among themselves or with any persons outside the naval service. 
It should be clearly understood that families and relatives are to be considered as "out- 
side the naval service." 

3. All persons who attempt to obtain prohibited information from persons in the 
naval service should be regarded with suspicion and reported without delay to the 
proper authorities. 

4. Those to whom a knowledge of a violation of this order comes shall consider it a 
serious official duty to report the matter immediately to the Navy Department for 
disciplinary action. 

5. This order shall be read to the crews of all naval vessels and shall be posted in con- 
spicuous places on board all ships of the Navy. Chiefs of bureaus and commandants 
of navy yards and stations will see that it is brought to the attention of all persons, civil 
and military, under their orders. 

■ Regulation? for cable censorship, No. 5, June 26, 1917. 
[ Official United States Bulletin, No. 38, p. 7.] 

The Office of Naval Gable Censorship has issued Cable Censorship 
Regulations No. 5, to be effective June 26, 1917, and supersede all 
previous regulations. They are published below and will be found to 
contain few changes from former issues. 

The significant new material will be found in paragraphs 12 and 14, 
which are wholly new, and in paragraphs 4, 5, 7, 11, and 13, which are 
new in part. 

Paragraph 12 puts into effect a new form of serial numbering. There 
have been many requests from the small exporter and importer who did 
not find the former allowed serial number plan helped them over days 
when no message was sent. It is to help the small trader that this new 
order has been issued. 

The greater latitude allowed by paragraphs 4, 7, and 13 is in conform- 
ity with the constant effort of cable censorship to ease, as far as possible, 
the necessary restrictions of this military expedient made necessary by 
our state of war. 

The regulations, revised, follow: 

1. Language. — Cablegrams to Central and South America, to the 
West Indies, and to points reached by the Pacific routes, may be 
written in plain, English, French, or Spanish. 

2. Codes. — The following authorized codes may be used, conditioned 
on their acceptability under the censorship regulations in effect in the 
foreign countries concerned. The name of the code shall be written in 
the check and will be signaled free: 

(1) A. B. C, fifth. 

(2) Scott's tenth edition. 

(3) Western Union (not including five-letter edition). 

116506—19 12 



178 United States, Cable Censorship. 

(4) Lieber's (not including five-letter edition). 

(5) Bentley's Complete Phrase Code (not including the oil and min- 
ing supplements). 

(6) Broomhall's Imperial Combination Code. 

(7) Broomhall's Imperial Combination Code, rubber edition. 

(8) Meyer's Atlantic Cotton Code, thirty-ninth edition. 

(9) Riverside Code, fifth edition. 

(10) A. Z. 

3. Addresses. — Must be complete, but properly registered code 
addresses may be used, where permitted by the censorship abroad. 
However, code addresses registered subsequent to December 31, 1916, 
may not be used in messages to and from Central and South America, 
Cuba, Porto Rico, Virgin Island, Haiti, San Domingo, Curacao, or in 
messages transmitted over the Commercial Pacific cable, or via trans- 
Pacific wireless. 

4. Signatures. — All cablegrams must be signed, in the case of an 
individual, by the surname at least; in the case of a firm or organiza- 
tion, by the surname of a responsible member of the firm or officer of 
the organization, when satisfactory information regarding him is on 
file with the censor, or by an abbreviated signature of two or more 
words from the incorporated title when understandable (examples, 
"Pacific Mail" for the Pacific Mail Steamship Co., "Second National" 
for the Second National Bank, or "Studebaker Corporation" for the 
Studebaker Corporation of America). The full name of sender must 
appear on space provided on blank. Code addresses as signatures 
are not permitted. 

5. Address and signature in full. — Every sender of a cablegram must 
place his full name and address on the face of the cablegram, and like- 
wise the full name and address of the addressee. This will not be 
considered a part of the cablegram, but is for the information of 
censorship. 

6. Cablegrams without text will not be passed. 

7. Single-word cablegrams will be passed when censor is satisfied 
of plain English word or when a single code word translates into two 
or more words understandable to the censor. 

8. Suppressions, delays, etc. — All cablegrams are accepted at sender's 
risk and may be stopped, delayed, or otherwise dealt with, at the 
discretion of the censor and without notice to the senders. No infor- 
mation respecting the transmission, delivery, or other disposal of any 
cablegrams shall be given by paid service, and requests made by mail 
must be addressed to the telegraph or cable companies and must be 
passed upon by the censor. Telegraphic or post acknowledgments of 
the receipt (P. C. or P. C. P. services) are suspended to all countries. 

9. Information to senders. — The cable company will notify the 
station of origin by free service when a message does not conform to 
the censorship regulations. Any explanation of a test word or words, 
etc., required by the censor from the sender in the United States or 



United States, Gable Censorship. 179 

Canada shall be obtained by a collect message from the censor to the 
sender and by a paid reply from the sender of the cablegram. 

10. Coded cablegrams filed directly at cable offices where a cable 
censor is stationed, as at New York, Key West, Galveston, and San 
Francisco, should be accompanied by a translation, and if it is certified 
by some responsible member of a firm it will tend to expedite the 
transmission of the message. 

11. Figures. — Unrelated numbers or code words which translate 
into unrelated numbers are prohibited, except as set out in paragraph 12. 

12. Serial numbering of cablegrams will be permitted under the 
following conditions: Cablegrams may be numbered from 1 to 100, 
inclusive, in plain figures or authorized code translating into plain 
figures. At option of the sender two additional figures may be added 
to serial number, indicating the day of the month, and these figures 
may be in plain figures or in authorized code translating into figures, 
but on the first nine days of the month the numeral shall be preceded by 
a zero. The serial number, when used, shall be the last word in the 
message preceding the signature. Nothing herein requires any cable- 
gram to have a serial number. 

13, 1 Test words. — (a) Test words are permitted when senders comply 
with regulations as already issued, which will be furnished on applica- 
tion to the censor or telegraph and cable companies. 

(b) Cablegrams with test word to addressee who has qualified for 
use of test words will be passed. 

(c) Foreign branches of American firms, banks, or other organiza- 
tions which have qualified for use of test word need not make additional 
a<fndavit, but are privileged to use test word under affidavit of parent 
organization. 

(d) Foreign firms, banks, or other organizations will be privileged 
to use test word only after making affidavits as required by censorship 
test word regulation. 

14. Commodity. — As a general rule the commodity should be in- 
cluded in the message. It may be omitted at the discretion of the 
censor if it appears in the translation filed by the sender in a manner 
satisfactory to the censor. If it is omitted in a message arriving from 



1 The Naval Communication Service has issued the following notice: 

For present paragraph 32 in cable censorship circular No. 5, and for paragraph 13 in 
cable censorship regulations No. 5, substitute the following: 

(a) A test word is permitted in any cablegram addressed to or sent by a bank, firm, or 
other organization which has qualified by complying with the regulations already 
issued. Regulations as to qualifying will be furnished on application to cable censors 
or to telegraph or cable companies. 

(&) Foreign firms are privileged to qualify if they so desire, but may use test words 
when addressing qualified banks, firms, or other organizations. 

(c) Qualification of American firm, bank, or other organization will include its foreign 
branches. 

(d) Where a test word is used it will be the first word of the message.— (Official United 
States Bulletin, No. 43, p. 4.) 



180 United States, Cable Censorship. 

a foreign source, the censor, if he thinks expedient, may demand the 
commodity from the addressee. 

15. Prohibits. — In addition to the other above regulations, the fol- 
lowing are prohibited: 

(a) Military information. 

(b) Aid to the enemy. 

(c) Information ctf all transoceans movements of vessels. 

(d) Private codes. 

(e) Cablegrams obscure and not understandable to the censor. 

Regulations for cable censorship No. 6, July 25, 1917. 

(Official United States Bulletin No. 64, p. 3.) 

The Naval Communication Service has issued cable censorship 
regulations No. 6, effective on the date censorship of Atlantic cables 
is made effective. 1 These regulations supersede all previous cable 
censorship regulations: 

1. No cablegrams will be accepted for transmission to Germany or 
to any country assisting Germany in the prosecution of the war. 

2. Language. — (a) Trans-Atlantic cablegrams must be in plain 
English or French, or in Italian in the case of telegrams originating in 
or destined to Italian territory (whether originating in the United 
States or in transit through), except that authorized codes (see par. 
3) may be used in cablegrams to countries cooperating with the United 
States in the prosecution of the war. 

(b) Cablegrams to Central and South America, to the West Indies, 
and to points reached by the Pacific routes, must be written in plain 
English, French, or Spanish, or in one of these languages translated 
into one of the codes enumerated in paragraph 3. 

3. Codes.- — The following authorized codes may be used, conditioned 
on their acceptibility under the censorship regulations in effect in 
the foreign countries concerned. The name of the code shall be written 
in the check and will be signaled free: 

1. A, B, C, fifth. 

2. Scott's tenth edition. 

3. Western Union (not including five-letter edition). 

4. Lieber's (not including five-letter edition). 

i Secretary of the Navy Daniels signed the formal order this morning (July 18, 1917) 
for the extension of the cable censorship of all trans-Atlantic undersea communication. 

"Since May 4," said Secretary Daniels, "a cable censorship has been in effect with 
respect to South and Central America, Mexico, and the Orient. Trans-Atlantic cables 
were exempted temporarily out of our desire to learn the workings of the French and 
British censorships in order to assure effective cooperation without duplication. 

"Mr. George Creel, chairman of the Committee on Public Information, has been con- 
ducting this study, and his recommendation, made as the result of investigation and 
conference, carries with it an effective plan of procedure. 

"Commander David W. Todd, director naval communications, will continue his 
executive direction of the cable censorship, and the New York office is in charge of Com- 
mander Arthur B. IToff "—(Official United States Bulletin, No. 50, p. 1.) 



United States, Cable Censorship . 181 

5. Bentley's complete phrase code (not including the oil and mining 
supplements) . 

6. Broomhall's imperial combination code. 

7. Broomhall's imperial combination code, rubber edition. 

8. Meyer's Atlantic cotton code, thirty-ninth edition. 

9. Riverside code, fifth edition. 

10. A. Z. (not authorized on cablegrams to British possessions). 

4. Addresses. — The address must be complete, but code addresses 
properly registered before July 1, 1914, may be used on trans-Atlantic 
cablegrams, and code addresses properly registered before January 1, 
1917, may be used on all cablegrams not passing over trans-Atlantic 
cables. 

5. Signatures. — All cablegrams must be signed; in the case of an 
ndividual, by the surname at least; in the case of a firm or organization, 
by the surname of a responsible member of the firm or officer of the 
organization, when satisfactory information regarding him is on file 
with the censor: or by an abbreviated signature of two or more words 
from the incorporated title when understandable (examples: " Pacific 
Mail" for the Pacific Mail Steamship Co., " Second National" for 
the Second National Bank, or "Studebaker Corporation" for the 
Studebaker Corporation of America). The full name of sender must 
appear on space provided on blank. Code- addresses as signatures 
are not permitted. 

6. Address and signature in full. — 'Every sender of a cablegram must 
place his full name and address on the face of the cablegram, arid like- 
wise the full name and address of the addressee. In so far as it relates 
to authorized code addresses and to signatures, this information will 
not be considered a part of the cablegram, but is for the information of 
censorship. 

7. Vessel's name required. — If the message refers to a shipment or to a 
voyage, the name of the vessel concerned must appear on the message, 
but will not be considered a part of the cablegram. 

8. Cablegrams without text will not be passed. 

9. Single-word cablegrams will be passed when censor is satisfied of 
plain English word or when a single code word translates into two or 
more words understandable to the censor. 

10. Suppressions, delays, etc. — 'All cablegrams are accepted at sender's 
risk, and may be stopped, delayed, or otherwise dealt with at the 
discretion of the censor and without notice to the senders. No infor- 
mation respecting the transmission, delivery, or other disposal of any 
cablegran shall be given by paid service, and requests made by mail 
must be addressed to the telegraph or cable companies and must be 
passed upon by the censor. Telegraphic or post acknowledgments of 
the receipt (P. C. or P. C. P. services) are suspended to all countries. 

11. Information to senders. — -The cable company will notify the 
station of origin by free service when a message does not conform to the 
censorship regulations. Any explanation of a test word or words, etc.. 



182 United States, Cable Censorship. 

required by the censor from the sender in the United States or Canada 
shall be obtained by a collect message from the censor to the sender 
and by a paid reply from the sender of the cablegram. 

12. Coded cablegrams filed directly at cable offices where a cable 
censor is stationed, as at New York, Key West, Galveston, and San 
Francisco, should be accompanied by a translation, and if it is certified 
by some responsible member of a firm it will tend to expedite the 
transmission of the message. 

13. Figures. — Unrelated numbers or code words which translate into 
unrelated numbers are prohibited, except as set out in paragraph 14. 

14. Serial numbering of cablegrams will be permitted under the 
following conditions: Cablegrams may be numbered from 1 to 999, 
inclusive, in plain figures or authorized code translating into plain 
figures, but the serial number must begin with number 1 on the first 
day of each month. At option of the sender, two additional figures 
may be added to serial number, indicating the day of the month, and 
these figures may be in plain figures or in authorized code translating 
into figures, but on the first nine days of the month the numeral shall 
be preceded by a zero. The serial number when used shall be the last 
word in the message preceding the signature. Nothing herein requires 
any cablegrams to have a serial number. 

15. Test word. — (a) In order to safeguard the interests of responsible 
individuals and organizations transmitting money by cable, the use 
of test words will be permitted, and to relieve them of the necessity for 
furnishing copies of their systems of test words affidavit will be accepted 
t>> cover use of such test words. 

(6) Organizations and individuals desiring to use test words to 
authenticate their messages and to act as a check on the amount of 
money transmitted must furnish to the chief cable censor, Navy 
Department, Washington, an affidavit sworn to before a properly con- 
stituted authority covering substantially the following allegations: 

"The test word will be the first word in the body of the message. 
Such test word will have no other meaning or use than that of authen- 
ticating the amount of money transmitted or that of preventing fraud 
by unauthorized payments of money." 

(c) A test word is permitted in any cablegram addressed to or sent 
by a bank, firm, or other organization which has qualified by complying 
with the regulations herein prescribed. 

id) Foreign firms are privileged to qualify if they so desire, but even 
though not qualified they may use test words when addressing qualified 
banks, firms, or other organizations. 

(e) Qualification of an American firm, bank, or other organization 
will include its foreign branches. 

16. Commodity. — As a general rule- the commodity should be included 
in the message. It may be orr.ittcd at the discretion of the censor if it 
appears in the translation fil d by the sender in a manner satisfactory 
to the censor. If it is omitted in a message arriving from a foreign 



United States, Cable CensorsJiijj. 183 

source, then the censor, if he thinks it expedient, may demand the 
commodity from the addressee, as proposed in paragraph 11. 

17. Prohibits.— In addition to the other above regulations, the 
following are prohibited : 

(a) Military information. 
(6) Aid to the -enemy. 

(c) Information of all transocean movements of vessels. 

(d) Private codes. 

(e) Cablegrams obscure and not understandable to the censor. 

18. Strict conformity with the above instructions is required by 
United States censorship, but will not insure the passage of messages 
by foreign censorship. 

1. In the above regulations the following are the significant changes 
and additions: 

Paragraphs 1, 7, and 18 are new or based *on orders issued since the 
issue of regulations No. 5. 

Paragraph 2, subparagraph (a) is new. 

Paragraph 4 is new and relates to trans-Atlantic cablegrams. 

Paragraph 6, line 4, is new and relates back to first part of paragraph 4. 

Paragraph 14 permits serial numbering up to 999, inclusive, to con- 
form to British censorship. The latter half of sentence 2 this para- 
graph 14 is new, though in general use previously. 

Regulations for cable censorship, May 21, 1918. 

[Official United States Bulletin, No. 315, p. 10.] 

Foreword. 

1. Cablegrams will not be passed unless the identy of the addressee 
and sender is satisfactorily established and the text is clear. 

2. It can not be assumed that because a message is clear to the sender, 
who is familiar with all the surrounding circumstances, it will be 
equally understandable to the censor, who is unfamiliar with the cir- 
cumstances. 

3. Careful observance of these regulations is required. 

4. The trading with the enemy act of October 6, 1917, provides as 
follows: 

"Any person who willfully evades or attempts to evade the submis- 
sion of any such communication (mail, cable, radio, etc.) to such cen- 
sorship or willfully uses or attempts to use any code or other device for 
the purpose of concealing from such censorship the intended meaning 
of such communication, shall be punished as provided in section 16 of 
this act" (10 years or $10,000 or both). 

1. Foreign Censorship. , 

Strict compliance with these regulations, while ^required, will not 
insure the passage of any cablegram either by United States or foreign 
censorship. The British and French censorships are largely coordi- 
nated with the United States censorship, but these and other foreign 



184 United States, Cable Censorship. 

censorships from time to time promulgate rules of which senders of 
cablegrams should keep themselves informed through the cable and 
telegraph companies. 

2. Sender's Risk. 

All cablegrams are accepted at the sender's risk and may be stopped, 
delayed or otherwise dealt with at the discretion of the censor, without 
notice to the sender. 

3. Communication with the Enemy. 

No cablegrams will be accepted for transmission to Germany or her 
allies or to territory under her control. 

4. No Information Regarding Transmission. 

No information regarding the transmission of cablegrams is permitted 
to be given. Cable service involving notification by the company to 
the sender as to whether the cablegram has been delivered is suspended. 

5. Plain Language Address. 

(a) A complete address is required in every cablegram, that is, an 
address which will clearly identify the person or organization the cable- 
gram is intended for. 

(6) Except where a code address is permitted under these regula- 
tions, the address must be in plain language. The use of an abbrevia- 
tion of the entire postal address, provided such abbreviation is sufficient 
in itself to insure the identification of the addressee by the censors 
through whose hands the cablegram will pass, is not prohibited; but all 
abbreviations of address are used at the risk of the senders, and censor- 
ship gives no assurance that any specific abbreviation will in all cases 
suffic to insure identification of the addressee or ready delivery of the 
cablegram. 

6. Code Address. 

(a) Registration of code addresses during the war is not permitted. 
(6) Code addresses are not permitted in cablegrams to or from neutral 
European countries or their possessions. 

(c) Code addresses to Central and South America, while not pro- 
hibited in cablegrams from United States territory, are discouraged. 
If a code address is used, the censor will require a full identification 
of the addressee, which will often impose on the sender a considerable 
delay and a greater expense than would have been occasioned by the 
use of a plain language address in the first instance. 

(d) Great Britain and France upon entering the war refused to 
recognize code addresses registered on or after July 1, 1914. The 
United States upon entering the war refused to recognize code addresses 
registered on or after January 1, 1917. Therefore a cablegram to 
United States territory via British or French censorship must not be 
addressed to a code address not registered before July 1, 1914; but 



United States, Cable Censorship. 185 

code addresses registered up to January 1, 1917, may be used on cable- 
grams between the United States, Cuba, Curacao, Haiti, Porto Rico, 
San Domingo, the Virgin Islands, Central and South America (except 
British, Dutch, and French Guiana and British Honduras), and points 
reached by the Commercial Pacific cable; that is, Hawaiian Islands, 
Guam, Philippine Islands, Japan, and China (except Hongkong). 

(e) Only one code address for incoming messages may be used by 
one person or organization; but where there are independent branches 
of one organization a code address may, with the permission of the 
chief cable censor, be retained for each branch. 

(/) A code address as signature is not permitted. 

7. Information Concerning Addressee on Cable Blank. 

(a) When a code address or any abbreviation of a plain language 
address is used in a cablegram the full name and full address of the 
addressee must also be recorded on the blank on which such cablegram 
is filed. This full address will not be transmitted as a part of the 
cablegram. 

(6) If a cablegram is addressed to an individual acting in behalf of 
a firm or other organization, the full name and full address of this 
organization and the addressee's connection with it must appear on 
the blank, as well as the full name and address of the addressee. 

Note. — Full name and full address as used in 7 and 9 shall be under- 
stood to mean given name, initials, and surname; street and number, 
name of office or other building, if any, and room number therein. 

8. Signature. 

(a) All cablegrams must be signed. 

(6) The signature transmitted should, when considered in connection 
with the text and the addressee, be such as to identify clearly the 
sender and distinguish him from any other. individual, firm, or organiza- 
tion with a similar name. 

(c) The transmitted signature of an individual must consist of the 
surname at least. 

(d) The transmitted signature of a firm or organization must be 
sufficiently complete to identify it clearly. The surname of a respon- 
sible member of the firm or officer of the organization may be used, 
provided satisfactory information regarding him is on file with the 
censor. 

(e) A code address as signature is not permitted. 

9. Information Concerning Sender on Cable Blank. 

(a) In addition to the signature required in the cablegram, the full 
name and full address of the sender must be recorded^ as supplemen- 
tary information, on the blank on which each cablegram is filed. 

(6) If the cablegram is signed by an individual acting in behalf of a 
firm or other organization, or by an abbreviated form of the name of 



186 United States, Cable Censorship. 

that organization, the full name and full address of that organization 
and the individual's connection with it must also be given on the blank. 
(See note under 7.) 

10. Text. 

Cablegrams that include only address and signature with no text 
are not permitted, and single word cablegrams will be passed only 
when their meaning is clear to the censor. 

11. Language. 

All cablegrams must be in plain language, either English or French, 
or in one of the 10 codes authorized in paragraph 12 below, except as 
follows: 

(a) Italian is permitted for cablegrams originating in or destined for 
Italy, Libya (Tripoli), and Italian possessions in East Africa. 

(6) Spanish is permitted between the United States, Central and 
South America (except British Honduras and British Guiana), Cuba, 
Haiti, San Domingo, Porto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Curacao, Hawaiian 
Islands, Guam, the Philippine Islands, Japan, and China (except 
Hongkong) ; and also between Spain and Portugal on the one hand and 
<3uba, Porto Rico, and Central and South America (except British 
Honduras and British Guiana) on the other hand. 

12. Codes. 

(a) The use of code to or from neutral European countries and their 
possessions is not permitted. 

(6) With this exception, United States cable censorship permits the 
use, conditioned on their acceptibility under the regulations in effect 
in the foreign censorships concerned, of the following authorized codes; 

1. A. B. C. Fifth Edition (not including five-letter edition). 

2. Scott's Tenth Edition. 

3. Western Union (not including five-letter edition). 

4. Lieber's (not including five-letter edition). 

5. Bentley's (not including Oil and Mining Supplements). 

6. Broomhall's Imperial Combination Code. 

7. Broomhall's Imperial Combination Code, Rubber Edition. 

8. Meyer's Atlantic Cotton Code, Thirty -ninth Edition. 

9. Riverside Code, Fifth Edition. 

10. A. Z. 

(c) Not more than one code is permitted in any one cablegram. 

(d) The name of the code used shall be written on the face of the 
cablegram, but will not be charged for. 

(e) The use of private codes is prohibited. 

13. Information Required by Censor in Regard to Specific 

Cablegrams. 

(c) Information required by the censor from a cable user in the 
United States or Canada in regard to a specific cablegram will be 
obtained when necessary by a collect telegram from the censor to the 
cable user and by a paid reply from the cable user. 



United States, Cable Censorsliij). 187 

(b) Cablegrams filed at station of censorship: 

When a cablegram is riled directly at a cable office where a station 
of censorship is located (as in New York, San Francisco, Galveston, or 
San Juan), the censor's action will be facilitated if the cablegram is 
filed in duplicate and a full written explanation of the message is given, 
particularly in the case of cablegrams containing numbers. 

This explanation, it must be understood, is not available to foreign 
•censors, and difficulty will more certainly be avoided if the text of the 
■cablegram is clear in itself. 

If the cablegram so filed at the cable office is in authorized code or 

foreign language, it will tend to minimize delay if a translation, 

also in duplicate and certified as to its correctness by the sender, 

Accompanies it. 

14. Shipping. 

Shipping cablegrams concerning neutral vessels (not chartered to 
Allied firms) should always contain the name of the vessel. In no 
case will a shipping cablegram be passed where the identity of the 
vessel is not made clear to the censor. 

15. Commodity. 

The action of both United States and foreign censors on a trade cable- 
gram will be facilitated and delay minimized if the name and quantity 
■of the commodity involved may readily be determined from the text. 
Cable users would do well to inform their foreign correspondents of 

this fact. 

16. Numbers. 

Numbers that are unrelated to the text or not easily understandable 
to the censor are not permitted, whether expressed in plain figures 
or by code words translating into plain figures. 

17. Serial Numbers. 

Cablegrams may, if desired, be numbered serially from 1 to 999, 
inclusive, in plain figures or authorized code translating into plain 
figures. The serial number, when used, must be the first word follow- 
ing the address. At the option of the sender, the series may begin 
afresh with number 1 on the 1st day of each month. At the option 
of the sender, also two additional figures may be added to the serial 
number, indicating the day of the month, in which case the figure 
indicating each of the first nine days of the month shall be preceded by 
a zero. For example: The 25th cablegram of the series, sent on the 
4th day of the month, would be indicated as 2504; the 25th cablegram, 
on the 12th day of the month, as 2512; the 205th, on the 18th, as 20518. 

18. Test Words. 

An American banking institution or the American branch of a foreign 
institution that wishes permission to use a test word in remittance 
cablegrams will apply to the Chief Cable Censor. A correspondent of a 



188 United States, Cable Censorship. 

banking institution that is entitled to use a test word does not require 
specific permission to use a test word in a remittance cablegram to the 
institution so privileged. 

19. Cablegrams to Persons on Enemy Trading List. 

Cablegrams to or from persons on the enemy trading list will not be 
permitted unless a license has first been obtained from the War Trade 
Board. The number of the license preceded by ■ ! ETL " — for example, 
"ETL 4075" — must be the last words of the cablegram, except that 
the word "patent" or a test word may follow the "ETL" number. 
Even when licensed, such cablegrams are subject to all censorship 
regulations. 

20. Address for Cablegrams to United States Oversea Forces. 

Cablegrams to and from members of the oversea forces are subject 
to censorship and must conform to all censorship regulations. Special 
forms of address, however, have been provided as follows: 

(a) Cablegrams for members of the United States Naval Forces 
abroad should be addressed "Usnavforce, London," and should have 
as the first words of the text the name of the addressee (given name 
spelled out and such initials as are necessary), followed by the name 
of the ship or unit to which he is attached ("U. S. S. " before the ship's 
name being unnecessary). 

The following is a sample cablegram : 

(Address) "USNAVFORCE, London. 

(Text) "Frank B. Howard, Charleston. Informed 

examinations successfully passed. 
(Signature) "Hammond." 

(6) Cablegrams for members of the United States Military Forces 
abroad, including Marines at present serving with the Army, should 
be addressed "Amexforce, London," and should have as the first 
words of the text the name of the addressee and the official designation 
of the unit to which he belongs. 

The following is a sample cablegram : 

(Address) "AMEXFORC;E, London. 

(Text) "H. K. Saunders, Company K, Forty-seventh 

Infantry. Will not change address. 
(Signature) "Jane Saunders." 

(c) When there is a probability that two men in the service have 
identical surnames and initials, the name should be given in full, as 
"Frank Barrett Smith;" or the rank or rating should be given, as, for 
example: " Captain Frank B. Smith," or "Frank B. Smith, Ordinary 
Seaman." 



United States, Cable Censorship. 189 

Note. — Cablegrams coming from members of the United States 
Over-Sea Forces addressed u Censor, New York," and having as the 
first word of the text a code word already registered with the Chief 
Cable Censor under the provisions of Cable Censorship Circular No. 7, 
will be forwarded by the censor as provided in that circular, but no 
new registrations will be made. 

D. W. Todd, 
Captain, U. S. Navy, 
Director Naval Communications and Chief Cable Censor. 

Regulations relating to censorship of cablegrams , June 6, 1918. 
(Official United States Bulletin, No. 328, p. 10.) 

The chief cable censor issues the following: 

Arrangements have been completed by the chief cable censor with 
the telegraph companies whereby full information concerning the 
identity and address of the sender and addressee of a cablegram may 
be forwarded to the station of the first cable censor through whom the 
cablegram will pass. 

INFORMATION FOR CENSOR. 

Under the present regulations each cablegram must have a satis- 
factory address and signature. Under the arrangements completed 
the sender may, if he desires, add to the cablegram any information as 
to addressee and sender which may be thought to be helpful -to the 
censor. The information so forwarded will be paid for by the sender 
at rates arranged by the telegraph companies. Inquiries on this point 
should be addressed to the telegraph companies. 

The method whereby this information may be forwarded to the 
station of the first cable censor should not induce cable users to send 
cablegrams which are not regular in form and inherently clear. 

Cablegrams will be censored on their merits and any additional in- 
formation forwarded as far as the station of the first cable censor and 
will stop at that point. At a further station of cable censorship the 
cablegram will be acted upon without having the benefit of the added 
explanation. 

PURPOSE OF THE ARRANGEMENT. 

The effect and purpose of this arrangement is to make it possible for 
all cable users, no matter where located, to supply the censor with 
information concerning the addressee and sender, which should be 
written on the cable blank in all instances and which thus comes to 
the attention of the censor in cases in which the original cable blank 
as filed comes into his hands, as in the case where the cable blank is 
filed at a cable office immediately adjacent to a station of cable 
censorship. 



190 United States, Taking Over of Cables. 

Proclamation takinj over marine cable systems, November %, 191.8. 

(Official United States Bulletin, No. 465, p. 4.) 

By the President op the United States op America. 

a proclamation. 

Whereas the Congress of the United States, in the exercise of the 
constitutional authority vested in them, by joint resolution of the 
Senate and House of Representatives, bearing date July 16, 1918, 
resolved : 

That the President, during the continuance of the present war, is authorized and 
empowered, whenever he shall deem it necessary for the national security or defense , 
to supervise or take possession and assume control of any telegraph, telephone, marine 
cable, or radio system or systems, or any part thereof, and to operate the same in such 
manner as may be needful or desirable for the duration of the war, which supervision, 
possession, control, or operation shall not extend beyond the date of the proclamation 
by the President of the exchange of ratifications of the treaty of peace: Provided, That 
just conpensation shall be made for such supervision, possession, control, or operation , 
to be determined by the President; and if the amount thereof, so determined by the 
President, is unsatisfactory to the person entitled to receive the same, such person shall 
be paid 75 per cent of the amount so determined by the President and shall be entitled 
to sue the United States to recover such further sum as, added to said 75 per cent, will 
make up such amount as will be just compensation therefor, in the manner provided 
for by section 24, paragraph 20, and section 145 of the Judicial Code: Provided further y 
That nothing in this act shall be construed to amend, repeal, impair, or affect existing 
laws or powers of the several States in relation to taxation or the lawful police regulations- 
of the several States, except wherein such laws, powers, or regulations may affect the 
transmission of Government communications or the issue of stocks and bonds by such 
system or systems. 

And whereas it is deemed necessary for the national security and 
defense to supervise and to take possession and assume control of all 
marine cable systems and to operate the same in such manner as may 
be needful or desirable: 

Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, 
under and by virtue of the powers vested in me by the foregoing resolu- 
tion, and by virtue of all other powers thereto me enabling, do hereby 
take possession and assume control and supervision of each and every 
marine cable system and every part thereof owned or controlled and 
operated by any company or companies organized and existing under 
the laws of the United States, or any State thereof, including all equip- 
ment thereof and appurtenances thereto, whatsoever, and all materials 
and supplies. 

It is hereby directed that the supervision, possession, control, and 
operation of such marine cable systems hereby by me undertaken shall 
be exercised by and through the Postmaster General, Albert S. Burle- 
son. Said Postmaster General may perform the duties hereby and here- 
under imposed upon him, so long and to such extent and in such manner 
as he shall determine, through the owners, managers, boards of directors, 
receivers, officers, and employees of said marine cable systems. 



United States, Talcing Over of Cables. 191 

Until and except so far as said Postmaster General shall from time 
to time by general or special orders otherwise provide, the owners, 
managers, boards of directors, receivers, officers, and employees of 
the various marine cable systems shall continue the operation thereof 
in the usual and ordinary course of the business of said systems, in the 
names of their respective companies, associations, organizations, 
owners, or managers, as the case may be. 

Regular dividends hitherto declared and maturing interest upon 
bonds, debentures, and other obligations may be paid in due course, 
and such regular dividends and interest may continue to be paid until 
and unless the said Postmaster General shall from time to time other- 
wise by general or special orders determine; and, subject to the ap- 
proval of said Postmaster General, the various marine cable systems 
may determine upon and arrange for the renewal and extension of 
maturing obligations. 

From and after 12 o'clock midnight on the 2d day of November, 1918, 
all marine cable systems included in this order and proclamation shall 
conclusively be deemed within the possession and control and under 
the supervision of said Postmaster General without further act or 
notice. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal 
of the United States to be affixed. 

Done by the President, in the District of Columbia, this 2d day of 
November in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and 
eighteen and of the independence of the United States the one hundred 
and forty- third. 

[seal] Woodrow Wilson. 

By the President: 

Robert Lansing, 

Secretary of State. 

Order of Postmaster General with reference to operation of cables, November 

20, 1918. 

(Official United States Bulletin, No. 468, p. 2.) 

Postmaster General Burleson has issued the following order relative 
to the marine-cable service: 

Pursuant to the proclamation of the President of the United States, dated the 2d day of 
November. 1918, 1 have assumed possession, control, and supervision of the marine-cable 
systems of the United States. This proclamation has already been published and the 
officers and operating officials of the cable companies are acquainted with its terms. 

Until further notice the marine-cable companies shall continue operation in the ordi- 
nary course of business through regular channels. Regular dividends heretofore declared 
and maturing interest on bonds, debentures, and other obligations may be paid in due 
course, and the companies may renew or extend their maturing obligations unless other- 
wise ordered by the Postmaster General. All officers, operators, and employees of the 
marine-cable companies will continue in the performance of their present duties, report- 



192 United States, Exports Council. 

ing to the same officers as heretofore and on the same terms of employment. Should 
any officer, operator, or employee desire to leave the service, he should give notice as here- 
tofore to the proper officer, so that there may be no interruption or impairment of the 
service to the public. 

I earnestly request the loyal cooperation of all officers, operators, and employees, and 
the public, in order that the service rendered shall not only be maintained at a high 
standard, but improved wherever possible. It is the purpose to coordinate and unify 
these services so that they may be operated as a national system with due regard to the 
interests of the public and the owners of the properties. 

No changes will be made until after the most careful consideration of all the facts. 
When deemed advisable to make changes, due announcement will be made. 

Nothing contained in this order shall be construed to affect in any way the censorship 
of marine cables now conducted under the direction of the Secretary of the Navy under 
Executive order of September 26, 1918. 

TRADE RESTRICTIONS. 

Executive order creating Exports Council, June 22, 1917. 
[Official Bulletin, No. 40, p. 4; War Trade Board, Rules and Regulations, No. 1, p. 5.] 

EXECUTIVE ORDER. 

By virtue of authority vested in me by Title VII of the act approved 
June 15, 1917, entitled, "An act to punish acts of interference with 
the foreign relations, the neutrality, and the foreign commerce of 
the United States, to punish espionage and better to enforce the 
criminal laws of the United States, and for other purposes," I hereby 
vest in the Secretary of Commerce the executive administration of all 
instructions issued by the President under said Title VII and of the 
proclamations thereunder, and the said Secretary is hereby authorized 
and directed to take such measures as may be necessary to administer 
and execute the same and to grant or refuse export licenses thereunder 
in accordance with those instructions. 1 

I hereby establish an Exports Council, to be composed of the Secre- 
tary of State, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, 
and the Food Administrator, and I hereby authorize and direct the 
said Exports Council, thus constituted, to formulate, for the considera- 
tion and approval of the President, policies and make the recommenda- 
tions necessary to carry out the purposes of this act. 2 

(Signed) Woodrow Wilson. 

The White House, 22 June, 1917. 



1 This authority was superseded by that of the Exports Administration Board, created 
by Executive order, August 21, 1917 (W. T. B. Rules and Reg., No. 1, p. 11), which in 
turn was superseded by the War Trade Board, created by Executive order, October 12 
1917 (Ibid., No. 1, p. 42). 

2 Superseded by the War Trade Council, similarly constituted, with addition of the 
chairman of the Shipping Board, created by Executive order, October 12, 1917 (W. T. B., 
Rules and Reg., No. 1, p. 43). 



United States, War Trade Policy. 193 

General policies of the War Trade Board as set forth in the first annual 
report, dated December 31, 1917. l 

[Journal W. T. B., 7: 15.] 
The War Trade Board on February 25 issued the following statement: 

The general policies followed by the War Trade Board and an outline of the board's 
labors for 1917 in the control of export and import trade are indicated in the first annual 
report to the President, which the board now makes public. 

The mobilization of the economic arm of the United States and the effective use of 
trade restraints upon the central powers is here revealed in action. The language of the 
report shows a desire to proceed by agreement and negotiation with other countries and 
to avoid even the appearance of coercion or retaliation in the board's relations with 
neutrals. 2 

With German traders and German comforters in neutral countries, however, there is no 
compromise indicated, but relentless isolation. The language of the report gives these in- 
timations of policies and results: 

"The activities of the board are roughly divisible into three spheres— those relating to 
the control of exports, 3 those relating to the control of imports, 4 and those relating to 
enemy trade. 5 

"The board has sought, first, to conserve for ourselves and for those associated with us 
in the war such commodities as are required to maintain adequately the economic life of 
the several nations and to carry out their war programs. Other objects sought have been 
to prevent our commodities reaching the enemy directly or indirectly, as by releasing 
like goods for the enemy, and to prevent commercial transactions between persons 
within the United States and an enemy or an ally of the enemy." 

In undertaking to supply the food and other vital wants of neutral peoples, under care- 
fully considered agreements, the board has desired "to prevent acute suffering in those 
countries and to prevent them from falling under the economic power of the enemy." 

These trade agreements the board has regarded as being particularly important in the 
case of those European neutrals which are in trade relations with the enemy. Against 
these European neutrals, the report goes on to say, "temporary embargoes have been 
enforced pending the securing of information indispensable to permit the board to issue 
licenses." 

An agreement has been concluded with Switzerland, assuring to the Swiss the periodic 
receipt of a stipulated grain ration and of other articles required to maintain the economic 
existence of the people of Switzerland. "The Swiss Government, on the other hand, 
gives satisfactory assurances against exportation to our enemies of imported commodities 
and agrees to limit, in certain other respects, her trading with the enemy." s 

1 British Report on same subject, supra, p. 91. 

2 Regulations requisitioning Netherland's ships, supra, p. 166; Bunker Coal Regula- 
tions, supra, p. 202. 

s Infra, p. 195. 

* Infra, p. 199. 

6 Trading with the Enemy Act, October 6, 1917. W. T. B., Rules and Reg., No. 1, 
p. 31), section 2, c, gives the President power to declare persons wherever resident who 
are "natives, citizens, or subjects" of enemy countries, and not citizens of the United 
States, "enemies." Proclamations of February 5, 1918, and May 31, 1918, declared sev- 
eral classes of such persons "enemies," the latter including those who might be "in- 
cluded in a publication issued by the War Trade Board of the United States of America, 
entitled 'Enemy Trading List.' " (Sec. 4.) 

Enemy trading List, No. 1, with names and addresses of some 1,600 firms, classified 
alphabetically under 20 countries, mostly neutral, was published October 6, 1917. A 
supplement of November 15, 1918, removed some 200 names and added some 1,400. 

Enemy Trading List, No. 2, with some 4,500 names, classified under 29 countries, was 
issued March 15, 1918, and was followed by fortnightly cumulative supplements of 
removals and additions. 

Enemy Trading List, No. 3," with some 5,000 names classified under 30 countries, was 
issued December 13, 1918. 

6 Agreement with Switzerland, Procedure for obtaining licenses, W. T. B. Rules and 
Reg., No. 2, p. 42. 

116506—19 13 



194 United States, War Trade Policy. 

A still more definite achievement is discoverable in the board's references to the 
northern European neutrals, where temporary embargoes are in force pending the 
conclusion of comprehensive agreements. i The report continues: 

"Their exports of foodstuffs to the central powers have declined from last year's corre- 
sponding exports in amounts estimated at from 65 to 85 per cent, depending on the 
neutral, and there has been a decrease in the export of many other important commo- 
dities. 

"In November, 1917, we became party to Great Britain's tentative agreement with 
Norway, as a result of which action on our part 1,400,000 tons dead-weight of Norwegian 
shipping were chartered into the service of the United States and Great Britain for the 
period of the war. Shortly following, temporary agreements were concluded with 
Holland and with Sweden. That with Holland gives us the use for periods up to 90 
days, of 450,000 tons dead-weight of her shipping which had heretofore, for a long period, 
lain idle. The agreement with Sweden gives us the use for three months of tonnage 
estimated at 250,000 tons dead-weight which had not theretofore been employed in 
services useful to us. 

"Specific accomplishments of this character are, however, far from constituting a full 
measure of the results achieved by the War Trade Board. The elimination of enemy 
advantage from our trade and, to a considerable extent, from that of the world, the 
securing and conserving of commodities essential to ourselves and those associated with 
us in the war, the bringing of shipping generally into the services most useful to us — these 
results can not be accurately stated or appraised at the present time, nor have they been 
accomplished by any single act or agreement." 

The report explains the use of bunker coal licenses 2 as being intended to assure the uti- 
lization of America's restricted supply of fuel primarily by ships performing services 
useful to the United States and its associates in the war. 

Abolition of calls at Halifax for ships sailing between United States and European 
neutral ports which is foreshadowed in a paragraph dealing with the endeavors of the 
board to reduce the necessary control machinery over sailings has Since been accom- 
plished; "letters of assurance," heretofore issued by the British Embassy, are also no- 
longer required. 

The extent of the business under the control of the board may be gathered from the 
fact that the Bureau of Exports has handled approximately 425,000 applications for 
licenses to export and was, at the date of the report, passing upon between four and five 
thousand applications per day. 

The Bureau of Imports, of more recent formation, has received, to January 1, 5,279 
applications for licenses to import, upon which 4,719 licenses, covering commodities of 
an aggregate value of $237,810,949, had actually been issued. 

In order to guide merchants in their transactions with foreigners, there was published 
in October an "Enemy Trading List," containing the names of individuals and associa- 
tions in neutral countries who were enemies or allies of enemies. This list is not a fixed 
and unchanged classification, but is subject to constant revision, and the board has been 
able to remove from the original list many firms who have cleared themselves of the taint 
of enemy character. 

The personnel of the War Trade Board amounts to 1,526, the report shows. The total 
financial obligation incurred up to December 31 is $541,498.80. The board is now housed 
in a number of detached buildings, but a new two-story building is nearing completion, 
which, with its 204,552 feet of floor space, will presently house all the bureaus at a great 
advantage in time and labor. 

The membership of the War Trade Board at present is as follows: 

Vance C. McCormick, chairman, representative of the Secretary of State. 

Albert Strauss, representative of the Secretary of the Treasury. 

Alonzo E. Taylor, representative of the Secretary of Agriculture. 

Clarence M. Woolley, representative of the Secretary of Commerce. 

Beaver White, representative of the Food Administrator. 

Frank C. Munson and Edwin F. Gay, representatives of the United States Shipping: 
Board. 

Thomas L. Chadbourne, counselor, and representative of the Secretary of State. 

i Agreement with Norway, April 13, 1918 (Official Bulletin, May 27, 1918, Am. Jounr. 
Int. Law, Supp. 12: 246); Denmark, Sept. 18, 1918 (W. T. B. Journ., 14: 6); Spain, 
March 7, 1918 (W. T- B. Journ. 8: 3); Procedure for obtaining licenses for export ta 
Netherlands, March 15, 1918, and for Sweden, March 23, 1918 (W. T. B., Rules and Reg.,. 
No. 2, pp. 33,34). 

2 Infra, p. 202. 



United States, Export Emhargo. 195 

Proclamation prohibiting export of coal, food, grains, meats, steel, and 
other commodities, except by license, July 9, 1917. l 

[ Official Bulletin, No. 50, p. 3; War Trade Board, Rules and Regulations, No. 1, p. 6.] 

BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. A PROCLA- 
MATION. 2 

Ywiereas Congress has enacted, and the President has on the 15th 

day of June, 1917, approved, a law which contains the folio-wing: 

provisions : 

Whenever during the present war the President shall find that the public safety 
shall so require, and shall make proclamation thereof, it shall be unlawful to export 
from or ship from or take out of the United States to any country named in such proc- 
lamation any article or articles mentioned in such proclamation, except at such time - 

1 Lists of commodities requiring expert licenses under the proclamation were pub- 
lished July 9, 1917, August 6, 1917, October 22, 1917. (W. T. B., Rules and Reg. No..l ; . 
pp. 9, 10, 52.) 

A Proclamation of August 27, 1917, prohibited the export of specified commodities 
held to include every article of commerce, (Ibid. No. 1, p. 26) to certain countries neigh- 
boring Germany and of other specified commodities to the remaining countries. (Ibid. 
No. 1, p. 12.) This "conservation list" was published September 18, 1917, and amended 
October 22, 1917. (Ibid. No. 1, pp. 26, 50.) The list as pubashed May 17, 1918, con_ 
tilned some 1,500 commodities, alphabetically arranged. (Ibid. No. 2, p. 13.) 

A Prclamation of September 7, 1917, prohibited the export of coin, bullion, and cur- 
rency to certain countries except with the consent of the Federal Reserve Board subject- 
to the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury. (Ibid. No. 1, p. 22.) 

A Proclamation of November 28, 1917, extended the "conservation" list. (W. T. B-- 
Journ., 2:4.) 

A Proclamation of February 14, 1918 extended the "license" requirement to include 
all commodities (infra, p. 197). 

Special license regulations have been frequently issued with reference to particular 
commodities, such as wool, cotton, silk, coin, bullion, coal, etc. or with reference to par- 
ticular countries such as Switzerland, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Greece, The 
Allies, Canada, etc. These latter special regulations have sometimes resulted from 
the conclusion of international agreements. 

2 Immediately after issuing the embargo proclamation, President Wilson made the 
following statement: 

In controlling by license the export of certain indispensable commodities from the 
United States, the Government has first and chiefly in view the amelioration of the food 
conditions which have arisen or are likely to arise in our own country before new crops 
are harvested. Not only is the conservation of our prime food and fodder supplies a - 
matter which vitally concerns our own people, but the retention of an adequate supply 
of raw materials is essential to our program of military and naval construction and the 
continuance of our necessary domestic activities. We shall, therefore, similarly safe- 
guard all our fundamental supplies. 

It is obviously the duty of the United States in liberating any surplus products over 
and above our own domestic needs to consider first the necessities of all the nations en- 
gaged in war against the Central Empires. As to neutral nations, however, we also 
recognize our duty. The Government does not wish to hamper them. On the con- 
trary, it wishes and intends, by all fair and equitable means, to cooperate with them in 
iheir difficult task of adding from our available surpluses to their own domestic supply 
and of meeting their pressing necessities or deficits. In considering the deficits of food 
supplies, the Government means only to fulfill its obvious obligation to assure itself 
that neutrals are husbanding their own resources and that our supplies will not become 
available, either directly or indirectly, to feed the enemy. 

Woodrow Wilson. 

(Official Bulletin, No. 50, p. 3, W. T. B., Rules and Reg., No. 1, p. 7.) 



196 United States, Export Embargo. 

or times, and under such regulations and orders, and subject to such limitations and 
exceptions as the President shall prescribe, until otherwise ordered by the President 
or by Congress: Provided, however, That no preference shall be given to the ports of one 
State over those of another. 

Any person who shall export, ship, or take out, or deliver or attempt to deliver for 
export, shipment, or taking out, any article in violation of this title, or of any regulation 
or order made hereunder, shall be fined not more than $10,000, or, if a natural person, 
imprisoned for not more than two years, or both; and any article so delivered or exported, 
shipped, or taken out, or so attempted to be delivered or exported, shipped, or taken 
out, shall be seized and forfeited to the United States; and any officer, director, or agent 
of a corporation who participates in any such violation shall be liable to like fine or 
imprisonment, or both. 

Whenever there is a reasonable cause to believe that any vessel, domestic or foreign, 
is about to carry out of the United States any article or articles in violation of the pro- 
visions of this title, the collector of customs for the district in which such vessel is located 
is hereby authorized and empowered, subject to review by the Secretary of Commerce, 
to refuse clearance to any such vessel, domestic or foreign, for which clearance is required 
by law, and by formal notice served upon the owners, master, or person or persons in 
command or charge of any domestic vessel for which clearance is not required by law, 
to forbid the departure of such vessel from the port, and it shall thereupon be unlawful 
for such vessel to depart . Whoever, in violation of any of the provisions of this section, 
shall take, or attempt to take, or authorize the taking of any such vessel out of port or 
from the jurisdiction of the United States, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or impris- 
oned not more than two years, or both; and, in addition, such vessel, her tackle, ap- 
parel, furniture, equipment, and her forbidden cargo shall be forfeited to the United 
States. 

And whereas the public safety requires that succor shall be pre- 
vented from reaching the enemy; 

Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States 
of America, do hereby proclaim to all whom it may concern that, 
except at such time or times and under such regulations and orders 
and subject to such limitations and exceptions as the President shall 
prescribe, until otherwise ordered by the President or by Congress, 
the following articles, namely, coal, coke, fuel oils, kerosene and 
gasoline, including bunkers; food grains, flour and meal therefrom, 
fodder and feeds, meat and fats; pig iron, steel billets, ship plates and 
structural shapes, scrap iron and scrap steel; ferromanganese; fer- 
tilizers; arms, ammunition and explosives, shall not, on and after 
the 15th day of July, 1917, be carried out of or exported from the 
United States or its territorial possessions to Abyssinia, Afghanistan, 
Albania, Argentina, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, her colonies, posses- 
sions, or protectorates; Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Chile, Co- 
lombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, her colonies, possessions, or 
protectorates; Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, France, her 
colonies, possessions, or protectorates; Germany, her colonies, posses- 
sions, or protectorates; Great Britain, her colonies, possessions or 
protectorates; Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Italy, her col- 
onies, possessions, or protectorates; Japan, Liberia, Leichtenstein, 
Luxemburg, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Nepal, Nica- 
ragua, the Netherlands, her colonies, possessions, or protectorates; 
Norway, Oman, Panama, Paraguay, Persia, Peru, Portugal, her 
colonies, possessions, or protectorates; Roumania, Russia, Salvador, 



United States, Export Embargo. 197 

San Marino, Serbia, Siam, Spain, her colonies, possessions, or pro- 
tectorates; Sweden, Switzerland, Uruguay, Venezuela, or Turkey. 

The orders and regulations from time to time prescribed will be 
administered by and under the authority of the Secretary of Com- 
merce, from whom licenses, in conformity with the said orders and 
regulations, will issue. 1 

In witness whereof 1 have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal 
of the United States to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington this 9th day of July, in the year 
of our Lord 1917 and of the independence of the United States of 
America the one hundred and forty-first. 

[seal.] Woodrow Wilson. 

By the President: 
Frank L. Polk. 

Proclamation 'prohibiting export of all articles, February 14, 1918. 

[Official Bulletin, No. 235, p. 2; W. T. B. Journ. 7: 4.] 

Exports Proclamation. 

by the president of the united states of america, a proclamation. 

Whereas Congress has enacted and the President has, on the 15th 
day of June, 1917, approved a law which contains the following pro- 
visions: 

Whenever during the present war the President shall find that the public safety shall 
so require, and shall make proclamation thereof, it shall be unlawful to export from or 
ship from or take out of the United States to any country named in such proclamation. 

1 Procedure in applying for licenses: 

The Secretary of Commerce, William C. Redfield, made the following announcement 
with reference to the procedure to be adopted by exporters in the United States in ap- 
plying for export license. 

First, applications for license may be made by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 
Commerce, Division of Export Licenses, 1435 K Street, Washington, D. C, or to any of 
the branches of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce — New York, Boston, 
Chicago, St. Louis, New Orleans, San Francisco, and Seattle. 

Second, in applying for a license to export any of the commodities covered by the 
President's proclamation, applicants should give the following information in triplicate 
form: 

a. Quantity. 

b. Description of goods. 

c. Name and address of consignee. 

d. Name and address of consignor. 

Third, the license will be good for only 60 days and at the expiration of that time 
must be renewed, and if not shipped within that time a new application must be made. 

Fourth, the various branch offices of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce 
have been given full instructions as to the disposition of all applications for licenses. 

It is the desire of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce to minimize the 
exporter's difficulties as much as possible, and therefore wherever practicable the dis- 
trict offices will be authorized to issue the licenses. It is thought, however, that many 
of the applications may have to be forwarded to Washington for decision. 

In case exporters desire they may telegraph their applications direct to the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Division of Export Licenses, 1435 K Street, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

(Official Bulletin, No. 50, p. 3, W. T. B., Rules and Reg., No. 1, p. 7.) 



198 United States, Export Embargo. 

■any article or articles mentioned in such proclamation, except at such time or times, and 
under such regulations and orders, and subject to such limitations and exceptions as 
the President shall prescribe, until otherwise ordered by the President or by Congress: 
Provided, however, That no preference shall be given to the ports of one State over those 
of another. 

-And whereas the President has heretofore by proclamations dated 
July 9, 1917, August 27, 1917, September 7, 1917, and November 28, 
1917, declared certain exports in time of war unlawful, and the President 
now finds that the public safety requires that such proclamations be 
amended and supplemented in respect to the articles and countries 
hereinafter mentioned: 

Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States 
•of America, do hereby proclaim to all whom it may concern that the 
public safety requires that the following articles, namely: All kinds of 
arms, guns, ammunition, and explosives, machines for their manufac- 
ture or repair, component parts thereof, materials or ingredients used 
in their manufacture, and all articles necessary or convenient for their 
use; all contrivances for or means of transportation on land or in the 
water or air, machines used in their manufacture or repair, component 
parts thereof, materials or ingredients used in their manufacture, and 
all instruments, articles, and animals necessary or convenient for their 
use; all means of communication, tools, implements, instruments, 
equipment, maps, pictures, papers, and other articles, machines, and 
documents necessary or convenient for carrying on hostile operations; 
all kinds of fuel, food, foodstuffs, feed, forage, and clothing, and all 
articles and materials used in their manufacture; all chemicals, drugs, 
dyestuffs, and tanning materials; cotton, wool, silk, flax, hemp, jute, 
sisal and other fibers and manufactures thereof; all earths, clay, glass, 
sand, stone, and their products; animals of every kind, their products 
£tnd derivatives; hides, skins, and manufactures thereof; all nonedible 
/animal and vegetable products; all machinery, tools, dies, plates, and 
apparatus, and materials necessary or convenient for their manufacture ; 
medical, surgical, laboratory, and sanitary supplies and equipment; 
all metals, minerals, mineral oils, ores, and all derivatives and manu- 
factures thereof; paper pulp, books, and all printed matter and material 
necessary or convenient for their manufacture; rubber, gums, rosins, 
tars, and waxes, their products, derivatives, and substitutes, and all 
articles containing them; wood and wood manufactures; coffee, cocoa, 
tea, and spices; wines, spirits, mineral waters, and beverages; and all 
other articles of any kind whatsoever shall not, on and after the 16th 
day of February, in the year 1918, be exported from, or shipped from, 
or taken out of the United States or its Territorial possessions to Abys~ 
sinia, Afghanistan, Albania, Argentina, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, her 
colonies, possessions, and protectorates, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, 
Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, her colonies, possessions, 
and protectorates, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, France, her 
colonies, possessions, and protectorates, Germany, her colonies, posses- 
sions, and protectorates, Great Britain, her colonies, possessions, and 



United States, Export Embargo. 199 

protectorates, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Italy, her colonies, 
possessions, and protectorates, Japan, Liechtenstein, Liberia, Lux- 
embourg, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Nepal, The Nether- 
lands, her colonies, possessions, and protectorates, Nicaragua, 
Norway, Oman, Panama, Paraguay, Persia, Peru, Portugal, her 
colonies, possessions, and protectorates, Roumania, Russia, Sal- 
vador, San Marino, Serbia, Siam, Spain, her colonies, possessions, 
und protectorates, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Uruguay, or Vene- 
zuela, except under license granted in accordance with regulations 
or orders and subject to such limitations and exceptions as have here- 
tofore been, or shall hereafter be prescribed in pursuance of the powers 
conferred by said act of June 15, 1917. The said proclamations of 
July 9, 1917, August 27, 1917, September 7, 1917, and November 28, 
1917, and paragraph II of the Executive order of October 12, 1917, are 
hereby confirmed and continued and all rules and regulations hereto- 
fore made in connection therewith or in pursuance thereof are likewise 
hereby confirmed and continued and made applicable to this proclama- 
tion. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal 
of the United States of America to be affixed. 

Done in the District of Columbia, this 14th day of February in the 
year of our Lord One Thousand Nine Hundred and Eighteen and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the One Hundred and 

Forty-Second. 

Woodrow Wilson. 
By the President: 

Robert Lansing, 

Secretary of State. 

Proclamation prohibiting import of all articles, February 14, 191S. 1 

(Official Bulletin, No. 235, p. 2; W. T. B., Journ. 7: 10.) 

Imports Proclamation. 

by the president op the united states of america — a procla- 
MATION. 

Whereas Congress has enacted, and the President has, on the sixth 
day of October. 1917, approved a law which contains the following pro- 
visions : 

Whenever during the present war the President shall find that the public safety 
so requires and shall make proclamation thereof it shall be unlawful to import into 
the United States from any country named in such proclamation any article or articles 
mentioned in such proclamation except at such time or times, and under such regula- 
tions or orders, and subject to such limitations and exceptions as the President shall 
prescribe, until otherwise ordered by the President or by Congress: Provided, however, 
That no preference shall be given to the ports of one State over those of another. 



*A proclamation of November 28, 1917, prohibited the import of certain commodities 
unless licensed by the War Trade Board. (W. T. B., Journ. 2 : 1.) Regulations for 
the importation of specified materials, and for importation from specified countries 
have been pubished, W. T. B., Rules and Reg., No. 2, pp. 67, 69. 



200 United States, Import Prohibition. 

And. whereas, the President has heretofore by proclamation dated 
November 28, 1917. declared certain imports in time of war unlawful, 
and the President now rinds that the public safety requires that such 
proclamation be amended and supplemented in respect to the articles 
and countries hereinafter mentioned : 

Now. therefore. I. Woodrow AVilson. President of the United States 
of America, do hereby proclaim to all whom it may concern that the 
public safety requires that the following articles, namely: All kinds of 
arms. guns, ammunition, and explosives, machines for their manufac- 
ture or repair, component parts thereof, materials, or ingredients used 
in then manufacture, and all articles necessary or convenient for their 
use: all contrivances for or means of transportation on land or in the 
water or air. machines used in their manufacture or repair, component 
parts thereof, materials or ingredients used in their manufacture, and 
all instruments, articles, and animals necessary or convenient for them 
use: all means of communication, tools, implements, instruments, 
equipment, maps, pictures, papers. "and other articles, machines, and 
documents necessary or convenient for carrying on hostile operations; 
all kinds of fuel. food, foodstuffs, feed, forage, and clothing, and all 
articles and materials used in their manufacture; all chemicals, drugs, 
dyestuffs. and tanning materials: cotton, wool. silk. flax. hemp, jute, 
sisal, and other fibers and manufactures thereof: ail earths, clay, glass. 
sand, stone, and their products: animals of every kind, their products 
and derivatives: hides, skins, and manufactures thereof; all nonedible 
animal and vegetable products: all machinery, tools, dies, plates, and 
apparatus, and materials, necessary or convenient for their manufac- 
ture; medical, surgical, laboratory, and sanitary supplies and equip- 
ment; all metals, minerals, mineral oils, ores, and all derivatives and 
manufactures thereof; paper pulp, books, and all printed matter, and 
materials necessary and convenient for their manufacture; rubber, 
gums, rosins, tars, and waxes, their products, derivatives, and substi- 
tutes, and all articles containing them; wood and wood manufactures; 
coffee, cocoa, tea, and spices; wines, spirits, mineral waters, and bev- 
erages; and all other articles of any kind whatsoever, shall not, on and 
after the 16th day of February, in the year 1918, be imported into the 
United States or its territorial possessions from Abyssinia, Afghanistan, 
Albania. Argentina. Austria-Hungary, Belgium, her colonies, posses- 
sions, and protectorates; Bolivia. Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Chile, Co- 
lombia. Costa Pica, Cuba. Denmark, her colonies, possessions, ana pro- 
tectorates; Dominican Republic. Ecuador, Egypt, France, her colo- 
nies, possessions, and protectorates; Germany, her colonies, posses- 
sions, and protectorates; Great Britain, her colonies, possessions, and 
protectorates; Greece, Guatemala. Haiti. Honduras, Italy, her colonies, 
possessions, and protectorates; Japan, Liechtenstein, Liberia, Luxem- 
bourg, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Nepal, The Nether- 
lands, her colonies, possessions, and protectorates; Nicaragua, Norway, 
Oman, Panama, Paraguay, Persia, Peru, Portugal, her colonies, pos- 



United States, Import Prohibition. 201 

sessions, and protectorates; Roumania, Russia, Salvador, San Marino, 
Serbia, Siam, Spain, her colonies, possessions, and protectorates; Swe- 
den, Switzerland, Turkey, Uruguay, or Venezuela, except under 
license granted in accordance with regulations or orders and subject 
to such limitations and exceptions as have heretofore been, or shall 
hereafter be, prescribed in pursuance of the powers conferred by said 
act of October 6, 1917. The said proclamation of November 28, 1917, 
and paragraph 111 of the Executive order of October 12, 1917, are 
hereby confirmed and continued and all rules and regulations hereto- 
fore made in connection therewith or in pursuance thereof are like- 
wise hereby confirmed and continued and made applicable to this 
proclamation. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the 
seal of the United States of America to be affixed. 

Done in the District of Columbia this 14th day of February, in the 

year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and eighteen and of the 

independence of the United States of America the one hundred and 

forty-second . 

Woodrow Wilson. 
By the President: 

Robert Lansing, 

Secretary of State. 

NAVIGATION REGULATIONS. 

Regulation refusing license to sailing vessel in war zone, September 29, 

1917} 

[W. T. B., Journ. 1:7; Rules and Reg. No. 2, p. 45.] 

The War Trade Board, in accordance with request made by the 
United States Shipping Board and by the Navy Department, has 
instructed the Director of the Bureau of Export Licenses not to grant 
licenses for any proposed shipments by sailing vessel going through 
the war zone. It is, of course, obvious that steamers can navigate the 
war zone with less danger than slow sailing craft, and sailing ships, if 
used in safer waters, would to an extent release steam vessels now used 
in such waters. 

The attention of shippers is therefore called to the fact that clearance 
will be refused sailing vessels destined to proceed through the war zone, 

1 In view of the cessation of hostilities, the War Trade Board on Nov. 21, 1918, 
announced that previous restrictions upon the voyages of sailing vessels and auxiliary 
motor vessels in the so-called "submarine danger zone" have been modified so as to 
include in the prohibited area only the waters north of the Bay of Biscay, or, in other 
words, all waters north of 43 degrees 40 minutes north latitude and east 12 degrees west 
longitude. Additional modifications will be announced from time to time as the waters 
included within the above-defined area are reported as having been cleared of mines. 

It will be observed that the prohibitions hitherto applicable against sailing vessels 
and auxiliary motor vessels proceeding into the Mediterranean and ports south of the 
Bay of Biscay are hereby removed. (*W. T. B. R. 336. Journ. 16:29.) 



202 United States, Bunker Goal Regulations. 

regardless of the fact that the goods themselves may have already been 
licensed. Licenses will be granted in the future for shipments to 
European countries only on condition that the goods are to be shipped 
by some vessel other than a sailing vessel. The Board will revoke 
licenses covering goods to be shipped' through the war zone if any 
shippers attempt to ship them by sailing vessel. — Announcement made 
September 29, 1917. 

Regulations for hunker coal and ship's supplies licenses, Feb. 1, 1918} 
[Journal of War Trade Board, 5:11.] 

War Trade Board, 
Bureau of Transportation, 

Washington, D. C. 

GENERAL RULES NO. 1 GOVERNING GRANTING LICENSES FOR BUNKER 
FUEL, PORT, SEA, AND SHIP'S STORES AND SUPPLIES. 

No vessel shall be allowed to clear from any port of the United States, 
„ r any United States possession, without having secured a license or 
licenses from the War Trade Board, through its Bureau of Transporta- 
tion, covering all the bunker fuel aboard the vessel at the time of sailing 
(including coal, coke, oil, kerosene, and gasoline) and port, sea, and 
ship's stores and supplies. Stores and supplies are for convenience 
hereafter included with bunker fuel under the general designation of 
"bunkers." Before the loading of any "bunkers" on any vessel at 
any port of the United States or its possessions shall be permitted, the 
license for "bunkers" must be obtained. All applications for licenses 
for "bunkers" must be made upon Application Form B-l, or such 
other form as may hereafter be adopted by this Board. Applications 
for such licenses shall be approved only in accordance with the following 
:.and such other rules as may from time to time be adopted : 

I. No application for "bunkers" by a sailing vessel for a voyage into 
the submarine war zone shall be approved. Sailing vessels equipped 
with auxiliary motive power shall in the application of these rules be 
classified as sailing vessels. A motor ship having no sailing power 
whatsoever shall be deemed to be in the same class as a steamship. 

II. No application for "bunkers" by any vessel which has disobeyed 
any order of the United States Navy or of the United States Shipping 
Board, hereinafter called "Shipping Board," shall be approved. 

III. No application for "bunkers " by any vessel of American registry 
not requisitioned by the "Shipping Board" shall be approved, except 
for a voyage and in a trade approved by the War Trade Board, and, if 
under charter, unless the charterer and the terms and conditions of the 
charter are approved by the War Trade Board. 

1 The Exports Administrative Board issued a statement of policy on Bunkers to 
Neutrals, Oct. 5, 1917. (W. T. B., Rules and Reg., No. 1, p. 30.) 



United States, Bunker Coal Regulations. 203 

IV. 1 No application for "bunkers" by any neutral vessel shall be 
-approved unless the person or persons managing, owning, chartering, 
or controlling such vessel shall have reported to and filed in duplicate, 
with the War Trade Board, the name of all the vessels and the masters, 
and any changes that may from time to time have occurred respecting 
said vessels and masters, managed, owned, chartered, or controlled by 
him or them. 

V. 1 No application for "bunkers" by any neutral ship shall be ap- 
proved unless the person or persons owning, managing, chartering, or 
-controlling such vessel shall enter into an agreement in a form to be 
approved by the War Trade Board, agreeing to comply with and be 
bound by each and all of the following regulations. Failure to comply 
with any of these regulations in the case of any one vessel may involve 
the refusal of "bunkers" to all of the vessels of the particular person 
firm, or corporation managing, owning, chartering, or controlling the 
vessel in question: 

(a) No vessel shall be chartered to a subject (including a person, 
firm, or corporation) of Germany or its possessions, or of any power 
-allied with Germany, or to any person, firm, or corporation who or 
which shall not be acceptable to the War Trade Board. 

(b) No vessel shall trade with, or be bound to, any port in Germany 
or its possessions, or to any country allied with Germany, nor shall a 
vessel aid any vessel employed by or for Germany or any country allied 
with Germany. 

(c) No vessel shall, without the consent of the State Department, 
carry any subject of Germany or its possessions, or of any country allied 
with Germany. 

(d) No vessel shall carry any cargo which comes from or through or is 
destined to Germany or its possessions, or to any country allied with 
Germany. 

(e) Every vessel which proceeds from or to the United States, to or 
from Norway, Sweden, Denmark (including Iceland and the Faroe 
Islands), Holland, Spain, or to or from any neutral port in the Medi- 

i The War Trade Board announces that the rules governing the issuance of licenses for 
bunker fuel and ship's stores have been amended so that American vessels not requisi- 
tioned by the Shipping Board are brought within the regulations prescribed for neutral 
vessels in Paragraphs IV and V of the " General Rules No. 1," which were published on 
Jan. 19 to go into effect Feb. 1, 1918. Paragraphs rv and V as amended read as follows^ 

rv. No application for "bunkers" by any neutral vessel or by any vessel of American 
registry not requisitioned by the U. S. Shipping Board shall be approved unless the person 
or persons managing, owning, chartering, or controlling such vessel shall have reported 
to and filed, in duplicate, with the War Trade Board the names of all the vessels and 
masters, and any changes that may from time to time have occurred respecting said ves- 
sels and masters, managed, owned, chartered, or controlled by bim or them. 

V. No application for "bunkers" by any neutral ship or by any vessel of American 
registry not requisitioned by the TJ. S. Shipping Board shall be approved unless the person 
or persons owning, managing, chartering, or controlling such vessel shall enter into an 
agreement in a form to be approved by the War Trade Board, agreeing to comply with 
and be bound by each and all of the following regulations. Failure to comply with any 
of these regulations in the case of any one vessel may involve the refusal of "bunkers" 
to all of the vessels of the" particular person, firm, or corporation managing, owning* 
chartering, or controlling the vessel in question. (Feb. 5, 1918, Journ. W. T B. 6 : 11.) 



204 United States, Bunker Coal Regulations. 

terranean Sea, shall call for examination as may be directed by the 
War Trade Board. 

(/) No vessel shall carry from a port outside the United States to 
any European port cargo which has been previously approved by the 
War Trade Board or the Interallied Chartering Executive. 

(g) No vessel shall carry any cargo from Norway, Sweden, Denmark 
(including Iceland and the Faroe Islands), Holland, Spain, or Switz- 
erland to any ports unless such cargo is accompanied by a certificate 
of nonenemy origin. 

(h) No vessel shall carry any goods which are consigned to "order" 
(goods may, however, be consigned to the order of a person, firm, or 
corporation when such person, firm, or corporation is the actual con- 
signee). This provision shall not apply to goods shipped from a port 
of the United States or its possessions to countries other than Norway, 
Sweden, Denmark (including Iceland and the Faroe Islands), Holland, 
Spain, and Switzerland. 

(i) No vessel shall carry any coal or mineral oil (including naphtha 
and gasoline) unless the consignee is approved by the War Trade Board. 

(J) 1 If a vessel is fitted with wireless telegraphy, the sending appa- 
ratus shall be sealed in such manner that no message can be sent without 

1 The War Trade Board on Sept. 14, 1918, announced the following amendment to 
subparagraph (j) of Article V of General Rules No. 1, Governing Granting Licenses for 
Bunker Fuel, Port, Sea, and Ship's Stores and Supplies: 

"If a vessel is fitted with wireless telegraphy, the sending apparatus shall be sealed 
in such manner that no message can be sent without the knowledge of the master. The 
master shall be responsible for seeing, first, that no message to the enemy is sent by 
wireless telegraphy; second, that no reports are made of vessels sighted or of any 
weather conditions experienced; third, that no wireless messages of any kind are sent 
within 200 miles of England, France, Portugal, or Italy, except emergency messages 
relating to vessels or persons in distress, unless specifically authorized by war-time 
radio instructions promulgated by authorized representatives of the Navy Department, 
in which case the specific provisions of such instructions are to be followed exactly." 

The following is added to General Rules No. 1 as Article VII thereof: 

"No application for bunkers by any vessel under the American flag shall be approved 
e xcepting on the same understanding respecting wireless messages as is outlined in 
subparagraph (j) of Article V for neutral and unrequisitioned American vessels." 
(W. T. B. R. 229, Journ., 14 : 24.) 

The War Trade Board on Nov. 12, 1918, announced the following amendment of sub- 
paragraph ( j) of Article V of ". General Rules No. 1, Governing Granting Licenses for 
Bunker Fuel, Port, Sea, and Ship's Stores and Supplies" : 

"If a vessel is fitted with wireless telegraphy, the sending apparatus shall be sealed 
in such a manner that no message can be sent without the knowledge of the master. 
The master shall be responsible for seeing, first, that no message to the enemy is sent 
by wireless telegraphy; second, that no reports are made of vessels sighted or of any 
weather conditions experienced unless specifically authorized by war-time radio instruc- 
tions promulgated by authorized representatives of the Navy Department, in which case the 
specific provisions of such instructions are to be followed exactly; third, that no wireless 
messages of any kind are sent within 200 miles of England, France, Portugal, or Italy, 
except emergency messages relating to vessels or persons in distress, unless specifically 
authorized by war-time radio instructions promulgated by authorized representatives of the 
Navy Department, in which case the specific provisions of such instructions are to be followed 
exactly." 

The following shall be added to "General Rules No. 1, Governing Granting Licenses 
for Bunker Fuel, Port, Sea, and Ship's Stores and Supplies" as Article VII thereof: 

"No application for bunkers by any vessel under the American flag shall be approved 
excepting on the same understanding respecting wireless messages as is outlined in 
subparagraph (j) of Article V for neutral and unrequisitioned American vessels." 
(W. T. B. R. 313, Journ., 16:29.) 



United States, Bunker Coal Regulations. 205 

the knowledge of the master. The master shall be responsible for 
seeing, first, that no message to the enemy is sent by wireless telegraphy; 
second, that no reports are made of vessels sighted or of any weather 
conditions experienced; third, that no wireless messages of any kind 
are sent within 200 miles of England, France, Portugal, or Italy, except 
emergency messages relating to vessels or persons in distress. 

(k) The owner or charterer shall, upon request to do so by the War 
Trade Board, dispense with the services of the master, officers, or any 
members of the crew. 

(Z) No vessel shall proceed on any voyage or be chartered on trip or 
time charter without the previous consent of the War Trade Board or 
the Interallied Chartering Executive. 

(m) No vessel shall carry any cargo which is consigned to or shipped 
by any person, firm, or corporation with whom citizens of the United 
States are prohibited by law from trading. 

(n) No vessel shall carry to or from any European port any cargo 
which is consigned to or shipped by any person, firm, or corporation 
with whom citizens of any of the allied countries are prohibited by law 
from trading. 

(o) No vessel shall be bought or sold without the previous approval 
of the United States Shipping Board, War Trade Board, or of the Inter- 
allied Chartering Executive. 

(p) No vessel shall be laid up in port without the approval of the 
War Trade Board or the Interallied Chartering Executive. 

(q) Every vessel clearing from a port of the United States shall 
observe all orders and requirements of the Committee on Ship Protec- 
tion of the Emergency Fleet Corporation, of the Navy Department, of 
the Department of Commerce, and the Bureau of War Risk Insurance 
of the Treasury Department. 

(r) All "bunkers" received by any vessel shall be used solely for 
the purposes of the vessel, and no portion of the bunkers shall be 
landed in any port or transferred to any other vessel. 

(s) A report in duplicate shall be furnished to the War Trade Board 
each month, showing in detail the movement of all vessels subject to 
these regulations. 

Regulations, registering new vessels as American, February 23, 1918. 
[Journal, W. T. B., 7: 15.] 

Action has been taken by the War Trade Board, in cooperation with 
the United States Shipping Board, to insure that all the vessels turned 
out under the shipbuilding program, or otherwise, shall be registered 
as American vessels, and thereby kept under the control of the United 
States Government. The following announcement was made public 
on February 23 : 

In order to effect this a ruling has been adopted by the War Trade 
Board, which will be incorporated as paragraph VI in General Rules 



206 United States, Registration of Vessels. 

No. I, Governing the Granting of Licenses for Bunker Fuel, Port, Sea, 
and Ship's Stores and Supplies, and which reads as follows: 

"No application for bunkers by any vessel built in the United States and completed 1 
after February 1, 1918, shall be granted, unless the vessel is documented under the 
American flag, or unless the United States Shipping Board shall have waived such docu- 
mentation." 

Clause (o) of paragraph V of the General Rules No. 1 above referred to, as amended' 
February 5, provides that no neutral or uncommandeered American vessel shall be 
bought or sold without the previous approval of the United States Shipping Board, 
the War Trade Board, or the Interallied Chartering Executive. 

In the application of this clause (o) the War Trade Board has issued the following an- 
nouncement of the principles which will guide their action in the administration of this 
paragraph, which is to the following effect: 

"That applications for permission to buy or sell the vessels mentioned in clause (o) Of 
paragraph V should be made in the first instance to the United States Shipping Board 
and that the War Trade Board would be governed by tbe decision of the United States 
Shipping Board upon such application." 

For the further guidance of applicants for permission to buy or sell vessels under 
section (o), the following rules of the Shipping Board have been issued: 

"Applications to the Shipping Board for permission to buy or sell vessels under section 
(o) of paragraph V of the War Trade Board's General Rules No. 1 should include the fol- 
lowing information: 

" 1. Name of vessel. 

"2. Official number. 

"3. Date of construction. 

"4. Type of vessel. 

"5. Gross tonnage. 

"6. Dead-weight capacity. 

"7. Speed. 

"8. Name of purchaser 

"9. Citizenship." 1 

"10. Number of years' experience on the part of the purchaser in operating vessels^ 

" 11. Trade in which purchaser proposes to place the vessel. 

"12. Total price. 

"13. Price per dead-weight ton." 

Regulations governing the exportation of dunnage, Sept. 9, 1918. 

[Journal, W. T. B., 14:24.] 

The War Trade Board on September 9, 1918, announced the addi- 
tion of Paragraph VI to the General Rules No. 1, Governing Granting; 
Licenses for Bunker Fuel, Port, Sea, and Ship's Stores and Supplies. 
The paragraph reads as follows: 

No dunnage shall be allowed to proceed out of the United States or any of its terri- 
tories or possessions on any vessel, except under license of the War Trade Board, either 
as ship's stores or as cargo. No applications for "bunkers " of any vessel shall be granted 

1 "Attention is called to the following definition of a citizen of the United States, as 
given in section 2 of the Shipping Act approved September 7, 1916: 

" ' That within the meaning of this act, no corporation, partnership, or association sball 
be deemed a citizen of the United States unless the controlling interest therein is owned 
by citizens of the United States, and, in the case of a corporation, unless its president and 
managing directors are citizens of the United States and the corporation itself is organ- 
ized under the laws of the United States, or of a State, Territory, District or possession _ 
thereof.' " (Official footnote.) 



United States, Dunnage and Deck Cargoes. 207 

unless such dunnage as she may have aboard is so licensed. Vessels will not be permitted 
to clear with dunnage unless properly covered either by export or bunker license. If 
declared as ship's stores, dunnage can not be discharged at any foreign port or trans- 
ferred to any other vessel without special permission from the. Bureau of Transportation 
of the War Trade Board.* 

Steamship owners, agents, and masters and also shippers are reminded- 
that this regulation has been operative for some time, but that heretofore 
it has not been incorporated in the General Rules which were given 
publicity. (W. T. B. R. 215.) 

Restrictions on deck cargoes and cargoes carried by sailing vessels, Sept. 10,. 

1918. 

[W. T. B., Journ., 14:24.] 

The War Trade Board have adopted certain restrictions on deck" 
cargoes on unarmed vessels proceeding without convoy from Atlantic 
and Gulf ports, as announced on September 10, 1918. 2 The War Trade- 
Board also announce certain restrictions on cargoes carried by sailing 
vessels. In order to avoid delays and unnecessary expense, vessel 
owners, charterers, and agents should consult with collectors of cus- 
toms or agents of the Bureau of Transportation, War Trade Board, 
before making commitments for deck cargoes or cargoes to be carried, 
by sailing vessels. (W. T. B. R. 220.) 



i The War Trade Board on Nov. 30, 1918, announced that Paragraph VI to the General 
Rules No. 1, Governing Granting Licenses for Bunker Fuel, Port, Sea, and Ship's Stores- 
and Supplies, has been amended to read as follows: 

No dunnage shall be allowed to proceed out of the country on any vessel except under" 
license of the War Trade Board, either as ship's stores or as cargo. No applications for 
"bunkers" of any vessels shall be granted unless such dunnage as she may have aboard 
is so licensed. Vessels will not be permitted to clear with dunnage unless properly 
covered either by export or bunker license. If declared as ship's stores, dunnage can. 
not be discharged at any foreign port or transferred to any other vessel without special 
permission f rem the Bureau of Transportation. 

Dunnage (lumber and wood), as per following list only — poplar; gum; white pine;- 
yellow pine, under 12" by 12" 25' leng; Cottonwood; hemlock; staves, shooks, heads, 
made of red or white oak; staves, shooks, heads, made of ash — which is intended solely 
for use as dunnage aboard vessel on which shipped, and not for commercial use abroad,. 
will be licensed in usual and reasonable quantities under bunker licenses. 

Burlap and jute bagging or bags when used either for topping purposes on board grahv 
vessels or for dunnage purposes on board any vessel will be considered as ship's stores- 
and licensed accordingly. 

This ruling cancels all previous rules and regulations respecting the licensing of dun- 
nage. It is suggested that those interested should confer with agents of the Bureau of 
Transportation, or collectors of custcms at pcrts where there are no agents, for further 
information on the subject. (W. T. B. R. 344, Journ. 10:31.) 

2 The War Trade Board on Nov. 18, 1918, announced that they had rescinded War- 
Trade Board ruling 220, issued Sept. 10, 1918, with respect to certain restrictions on deck- 
cargoes on unarmed vessels proceeding without convoy frcm Atlantic and Gulf ports 
and certain classes of cargo carried by sailing vessels. 

The restrictions heretofore, impesed upon certain classes of cargo carried by auxiliary 
m t r vessels have also been resinded. (W. T. B. R. 327, Journ. 16:29.) 



208 United States, Recognition of Status. 

RECOGNITION OF INTERNATIONAL STATUS. 

Recognition of French Protectorate in Morocco, January 17, 1917. 

The Secretary of State to the French Ambassador. 

Referring to my informal note of the 2d instant and your excellency's 
reply of the 8th instant in regard to the recognition of French pro- 
tectorate in Morocco, I have the honor to inform you that the Govern- 
ment of the United States, taking into consideration the political 
relations of the Government of the French Republic to the Government 
of Morocco, has concluded to recognize, and hereby formally recognizes, 
the establishment of the French protectorate over the French zone of 
the Shereefian Empire. 

The Government of the United States is moved to take this action 
notwithstanding the present conflict in Europe in order to meet the 
wishes of the French Government and the French people, for whom the 
Government and people of the United States entertain a traditional 
and sincere friendship. 

I have the honor to request the customary courtesy of your excellency 
in bringing the foregoing to the attention of the French Government. 
I am, etc., 

Robert Lansing. 

Recognition of republican government in Russia, March 22, 1917} 

Statement by United States Ambassador Francis. 

I have the honor, as the ambassador and representative of the Gov- 
ernment of the United States accredited to Russia, to state, in accord- 
ance with instructions, that the Government of the United States has 
recognized the new Government of Russia, and I, as ambassador of 
the United States, will be pleased to continue intercourse with Russia 
through the medium of the new Government. 

May the cordial relations existing between the two countries con- 
tinue to obtain; may they prove mutually satisfactory and beneficial. 

Reply by Russian Foreign Minister, Dr. Paul Milyukoff. 

Permit me, in the name of the Provisional Government, to answer 
the act of recognition by the United States. You have been able to 
follow for yourself the events which have established the new order 
of affairs for free Russia. I have been more than once in your country 
and may bear witness that the ideals which are represented by the 
Provisional Government are the same as underlie the existence of your 
own country. I hope that this great change which has come to Russia 
will do much to bring us closer together than we have ever been before. 

I must tell your excellency that during the past few days I have 
received many congratulations from prominent men in your country 
assuring me that the public opinion of the United States is in sympathy 
with us. Permit me to thank you. We are proud to be recognized 
first by a country whose ideals we cherish. 

1 The Czar abdicated for himself and son Mar. 15, 1917. Great Britain, France, and 
Italy followed the United States by recognizing the new government March 22, 1917. 



United States, Recognition of Czechoslovaks. 209 

Recognition of nationalistic aspirations of Czechoslovaks and Ju go-Slavs, 

May SI, 1918. 1 
(Official United States Bulletin No. 323, p. 2.) 

The Secretary of State desires to announce that the proceedings of 
the Congress of Oppressed Races of Austria-Hungary, 2 which was held 
in Rome in April, have been followed with great interest by the Gov- 
ernment of the United States, and that the nationalistic aspirations 
of the Czecho-Slovaks and Jugo-Slavs for freedom have the earnest 
sympathy of this Government. 

Recognition of belligerency of Czecho-Slovaks, September 3, 1918. 3 
(Official United States Bulletin No. 402, p. 1.) 

The Secretary of State makes the following announcement: 

The Czecho-Slovak peoples having taken up arms against the Ger- 
man and Austro-Hungarian Empires and having placed organized 
armies in the field which are waging war against those Empires under 
officers of their own nationality and in accordance with the rules and 
practices of civilized nations; and 

The Czecho-Slovaks having, in prosecution of their independent 
purposes in the present war, confided supreme political authority to 
the Czecho-Slovak National Council, 

The Government of the United States recognizes that a state of bel- 
ligerency exists between the Czecho-Slovaks thus organized and the 
German and Austro-Hungarian Empires. 

It also recognizes the Czecho-Slovak National Council as a de facto 
belligerent Government, clothed with proper authority to direct the 
military and political affairs of the Czecho-Slovaks. 

The Government of the United States further declares that it is pre- 
pared to enter formally into relations with, the de facto Government 
thus recognized for the purpose of prosecuting the war against the 
common enemy, the Empires of Germany and Austro-Hungary. 

Demand for Austro-Hungarian recognition of independence of Czecho- 
slovaks and Jugo-Slavs, October 18, 1918.^ 

[Official United States Bulletin, No. 441, p. 2.] 

From the Secretary of State to the Minister of Sweden. 

Department op State, 

October 18, 1918. 
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of the 
7th instant, in which you transmit a communication from the Impe- 
rial Royal Government of Austria-Hungary to the President. I am 

1 Adhesion by Allied Supreme War Council June 4, 1918, supra, p. 98. 

» Supra, p. 107. 

8 Recognition by France, June 30, 1918, supra, p. 49; Great Britain, Aug. 13, 1918, 
supra, p. 99. Japan accorded recognition Sept. 9, 1918. Cuba recognized the belliger- 
ency of the Czecho-Slovaks by presidential decree Nov. 5, 1918. 

* Austrian reply, supra, p. 13. 

116506—19 14 



212 United States, Recognition of Poland. 

" Further, in the conditions of peace, laid down in his address to Congress of January 8, 
1918, the President declared that invaded territories must be restored as well as evacu- 
' ated and freed. The Allied Governments feel that no doubt ought to be allowed to 
exist as to what this provision implies. By it they understand that compensation will 
be made by Germany for all damages done to the civilian population of the Allies and 
their property by the aggression of Germany by land, by sea, and from the air. 

"lam instructed by the President to say that he is in agreement 
with the interpretation set forth in the last paragraph of the memo- 
randum above quoted. I am further instructed by the President to 
request you to notify the German Government that Marshal Foch has 
been authorized by the Government of the United States and the 
Allied Governments to receive properly accredited representatives of 
the German Government, and to communicate to them terms of an 
armistice." 

Accept, sir, the renewed assurances of my highest consideration. 

Robert Lansing. 
Mr. Hans Sulzer, 

Minister of Switzerland, in charge of German interests in the United 

States. *. 

Note recognizing the provisional government of Poland, January SO, 1919. 
[Official United States Bulletin, Jan. 30, 1919, p. 1.] 
Secretary of State Lansing to Ignace Paderewski. 

The President of the United States directs me to extend to you as 
Prime Minister and Secretary for Foreign Affairs of the Provisional 
Polish Government his sincere wishes for your success in the high 
office which you have assumed and his earnest hope that the Govern- 
ment of which you are a part will bring prosperity to the Republic of 
Poland. 

It is my privilege to extend to you at this time my personal greet- 
ings and officially to assure you that it will be a source of gratification 
to enter into official relations with you at the earliest opportunity to 
render to your country such aid as is possible at this time as it enters 
upon a new cycle of independent life, will be in full accord with that 
spirit of friendliness which has in the past animated the American 
people in their relations with your countrymen. 

URUGUAY. 

Decree requiring radiotelegraphy on vessels, January 13, 1912. 

Considering that wireless telegraphy presents for navigation not only 
a useful service, but principally a medium for aid of great importance 
in cases of accident, etc.," it is decreed: 

Article I. — After May 1, 1912, all vessels carrying passengers be- 
tween the ports of the Republic and foreign ports, shall be equipped 
with radiotelegraphic installations. 

Art. II. — Such installations shall be of sufficient strength to receive 
and transmit messages for a distance of at least 62 miles on river vessels, 
and 248.5 miles on ocean-going vessels. 



Uruguay, Radiotelegraphy . 213 

Art. III. — The installations shall be kept in good working order, for 
communicating with stations in the Republic. 

Art. IV. — The stations shall be in charge of persons competent to 
operate radiotelegraphic apparatus. 

Art. V. — The service of the stations shall conform, in every respect, 
to the conditions established at the Berlin International Radiotele- 
graphic Convention. 

Art. VI. — Prior to the decree becoming operative, agents of shipping 
companies shall inform the inspection general of wireless telegraph 
national service the characteristics, system, power, etc., of the wireless 
apparatus installed on vessels owned by the companies they represent. 

Art. VII. — After this decree becomes operative, vessels which have 
not complied with its provisions shall not be granted dispatch to carry 
passengers in the ports of Uruguay. 

Art. VIII. — A similar penalty shall be applied to vessels not keeping 
their radiotelegraphic apparatus in proper order. 

Art. IX. — The inspection general of the wireless telegraph national 
service is charged with enforcing this decree. 

Art. X. — Let this be communicated to interested parties, and pub- 
lished, etc. 

Battle Y Ordonez. 

Montevideo, January 8, 1912. 

Frederic W. Goding, 

Consul. 
Montevideo, Uruguay, January 13, 1912. 

Decree requisitioning German vessels, September 14, 1917. 

Montevideo, September 14, 1917. 

Department for Foreign Affairs, War Department and Navy 

Department. 

Considering that rumors have reached the executive power that some 
of the German ships anchored in the port of Montevideo were to be 
sunk, an event, which if allowed to take place would seriously damage 
the service of the port; 

Considering that it is the duty of the executive power to safeguard 
the interests of his country and avoid such an event by taking the 
necessary police measures of a preventive character, as dictated by 
motives of public safety; 

Considering that such a step should not be construed as an aggression 
against the nation to whom the said ships pertain; 

The President of the Republic decrees: 

1. The captain of ports will place an armed guard on all interned 
German ships, in order to prevent any prejudicial acts being committed 
either against the ships or against the port of Montevideo. 

2. This decree to be communicated and published. 

(Signed) Viera. 

Baltasar Brun. 
A. Gaye. 



INDEX. 



Page. 

- Aaland Islands, navigation to 147 

.Abdication of— 

Austrian Emperor 11, 14 

Bulgarian King 11 

German Emperor 12, 55 

Russian Czar 12, 144 

Abyssinia: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Adjudication of prize (see Prize). 

Administration of occupied territory (see Armistice). 

Adriatic Islands, Italy to receive 102 

-Adriatic Sea, free navigation in 19 

Liberation of ". 108 

Mine fields in 100 

Afghanistan: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Africa, Italian expansion in 103 

Aggression, requisition of vessels not so considered 213 

.Agreement, basis for 169 

Air craft (see Armistice). 

Albania: 

Allocation of territory of 102 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Neutralization of . . ... 102 

Protectorate of Italy;. ... . ..„....-.-.. -. 102 

Alliance, Lithuania and Germany 54 

Allies: 

Armistices 13, 14, 35, 56, 159 

Agreement with Italy 101 

Armistice Commission (see Armistice). 

Commercial agreements with neutrals 167, 194 

Export of goods to 144, 195 

Military cooperation of 101 

Terms of armistice suggested by 211 

War Council (see Supreme War Council). 

A Isace-Lorraine : 

Delivery of railroads of 59 

Evacuation of 57, 68 

Inhabitants to be paid debts 77 

Maintenance of railroads in 72 

American nations, solidarity of 99 

Amerongen, Netherlands, abdication of KaiSer at 55 

Amier River, anchorage prohibition in 136 

Anchorage: 

Prohibitions 134, 136 

Regulations 45, 121, 136, 163, 164 

Angary (see Requisition). 

Appraisal of vessels 127, 171 

(See also Prize.) 

215 



216 Index. 

Arabia: Page* 

Disposition of 103. 

Independence of 103 

Argentine Republic: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200- 

Armed merchant vessels: 

Consul to guaranty defensive character 39 

Defensive character to be determined 38 

Sojourn of 38 

Armenia: 

Occupation of 161 

Interned inhabitants to be handed over to Allies 160 

Arming of vessels in neutral territory (see Base of operations). 

Armistice: 

Administration of occupied territory 17, 30, 35, 58 

Aerial forces immobilized 66 

Air craft to be concentrated 19 

Arrest of persons violating 146 

Blockade to continue 19, 66 

Cessation of hostilities 14, 18, 21, 26, 34, 37, 56, 63, 85, 145, 147, 161 

Consuls, withdrawal of 36 

Control of merchant fleet 83 

Control of telegraph, telephone, and radio 37, 70, 73, 160 

Declaration of German plenipotentiaries on signing 73 

Demobilization 14, 30, 35, 160 

Denunciation of treaties 62 

Destruction in evacuated territory forbidden 35, 58, 83 

Destruction of military material forbidden 16, 29, 160' 

Destruction of naval material forbidden 67 

Destruction of vessels forbidden 20, 27,28 

Diplomatic officials of allied powers to withdraw 36 

Duration of 67 

Effect of noncombatants 74 

Evacuation of persons of allied nationality 161 

Evacuation of territory 15, 35, 57, 61, 148, 160, 161 

Evacuation of troops 17, 30, 36 

Execution of 73 , 76, 78, 79, 85 • 

Execution of impossible 74 

Financial guaranties 77 

Financial guaranties not fulfilled 76 

Fortifications to be dismantled 19 

Freedom of navigation 18, 19, 65 

Horses to be retained 22 

Injury to inhabitants of evacuated regions forbidden 58 

Intercourse between belligerents 146 

Interment of dead 146 

Internal administration exempt from interference 34 

Internment of troops 17 

Internment of vessels 64, 6 5 

Line of demarkation 146, 147 

Maintenance of troops 33, 60 

Material not to be removed from evacuated territory 35, 66 

Means of communication not to be impaired.-. . 59 

Military forces allowed for police 30 : 

Military practice 148 

Mine fields to be indicated 19,27,33,60,65,160 

Mines to be discharged 25 

Nationals of allied powers to withdraw 36 

Navalstores to be supplied 160- 



Index. 217 

Armistice — Continued. Page. 

Neutrality questions not to be raised 66 

Neutral zone 21,58,69,83,146 

Notification of neutrals 18, 63, 67 

Occupation of evacuated territory 16, 29, 30, 57, 6 9 

' Occupation of neutral zone 76 

Occupation of right bank of Rhine 83 

Occupation of strategic points 17, 31, 37, 160 

Occupation of territory 19, 160, 161 

Passage of troops forbidden 34 

Passage of troops permitted 31, 33, 37 

Personal equipment to be retained 22, 36 

Pillage forbidden 16 

Pilots to be furnished 29 

Place of surrendering material 23 

Poisoned wells to be revealed 60 

Population of evacuated regions, ill treatment of 76 

Ports to be opened 38 

Postal and telegraphic communication forbidden 33 

Postal control 34 

Previous agreement on conditions of 101 

Prisoners of war — 

Disposal of 161 

Employment of 36 

Exchange of 149 

111 treatment of 76 

Repatriation of 17,20,25,33,36,60,63,80,160 

Troops to become '. 21, 24, 36, 57 

Prolongation of 75, 78, 85 

Prosecution of inhabitants forbidden 58 

Provisioning of civilian population 62, 66, 83 

Railroads — 

Use of 24,37,160 

Repair of 32 

Reenforcement of troops forbidden 145 

Reestablishment of cultural and commercial relations 149 

Relations with ally to cease 34, 38, 161 

Reparation for damages 63 

Repatriation of interned civilians 25, 33, 36, 57, 160 

Repatriation of prisoners of war. (See Armistice, prisoners of war.) 

Reprisals for violation of 60 

Restoration of industrial and agricultural material 82 

Of money and papers 63 

Of property in invaded regions 77, 78 

Of vessels 20, 28, 66 

Requisitions — 

Forbidden 16, 62 

Payment for 24, 60 

Permitted 17,33,60 

Sick and wounded, care of in occupied territory 17 

Straits to be opened to navigation 160 

Submarines not delivered 76 

Surrender of agricultural machinery 79 

Of goods in evacuated territory „ ." . . . . 59 

Of military material 16, 22, 32, 36, 5? 

Of submarines 18, 63, 81 

Of territory 160 

(See also Armistice, occupation of territory.) 

Of transporation material 31, 59, 71, 79 

Of troops.. 161 

Of vessels 18,19,26,27,31,32,64,75,81,160 



218 Index. 

.Armistice— Continued. Page. 

Telegraph, control 34 

Telegraphs,, repair.of. 32 

Telephone, control of 34 

Termination of 85, 145 

Termination not automatic on nonexecution 67 

Time— For evacuation 24, 28, 30, 57, 58, 68, 69, 74 

For surrendering material 64, 70, 83 

Transfer of vessels forbidden 67 

Transmission of intelligence, means of, under occupants' control 37, 70, 73, 160 

Transportation, maintenance of, in evacuated territory 70, 71 

Transport material, use of 17, 31 

Troops, surrender of. (See Armistice, surrender oi troops.) 
Vessels — 

Liable to capture , 19, 66 

Movement of, to be notified 26, 63 

Surrender of. (See Armistice, surrender of vessels.) 

Violation of. 76 

-Armistice commissions: 

Allied. .........;. 23, 25, 28, 70, 79 

German 79 

International . 68, 72, 76, 79, 86, 148, 149 

Maintenance of 26 

Armistices: 

Austria-Hungary with Allies and associated powers 13, 14 

Bulgaria with Allies 13,35 

Germany with Allies and associated powers 13, 56 

Hungary with Allies and associated powers 30 

List of, European war 12 

Roumania with central powers 12 

Russia with central powers 13, 145 

Turkey with Allies 13, 159 

. Asia Minor, mine fields on coast of ^ 48 

Assir, surrender of garrison. : 161 

Associated powers and Allies, armistices 13, 14, 56. 

Asturias, British hospital ship 90 

Asylum: 

In time of peace 45 

To belligerent war vessels 50, 121, 151 

To prizes 51, 152 

To submarine vessels 118 

Austria-Hungary: 

Abdication of Emperor 11, 14 

Armistices 13, 14 

Autonomy of people demanded 210 

Declaration of oppressed nationalities of 107 

Declaration of war 11 

Evacuation of territory 15 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Independence of nationalities demanded .• 210 

Opposed to national aspirations 108 

Recognition of States by 11, 12, 13 

Requisition of vessel of - 171 

Autonomy: 

Declaration of 47 

Of army recognized 210, 211 

Of nationalities demanded 210 

Auxiliary vessel. (See Vessels.) 



Index. 219 

Page. 
A zores, war zone around 51 

Baku, occupation of 160 

•-•Balance- of power in Mediterannean 102 

Baltic ports, exports from, prohibited 139 

Baltic Sea: 

Free access to 65 

Mine fields in 135 

Base of operations: 

Augmenting crew of belligerent war vessel in neutral territory forbidden 50, 151 

Departure of vessel intended to cruise from neutral waters forbidden 152 

Establishment of coaling station in neutral territory forbidden 152 

Increase of armament in neutral port forbidden 50, 151, 152 

Repair of belligerent war vessel in neutral territory forbidden without author- 
ization 151 

Use of neutral territory as, forbidden 152 

Batum, occupation of 160 

Bay of Biscay, war zone in 201 

IB ay s . (See Territorial waters . ) 

Belgian Relief Commission, vessels of 52, 168 

Belgium: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Evacuation of 57, 66, 68 

Belligerency, recognition of 209, 210 

(See also Recognition.) 

Bergen, Norway, military port 117 

Bill of sale, ship's paper 40 

Blacklist: 

Bunkers to be refused to vessels trading with firms on 205 

Cable to firms on, prohibited 188 

Importance of 91 

United States 193, 194 

Black Sea, mine fields in 28, 33, 132, 160 

Ports to be evacuated 66 

Blockade: 

Definition < 40 

Effectiveness 40 

Financial 91 

Great Britain, report on administration of 91 

Importance of 91 

Inability for breach of 40, 42, 44, 128 

Method of conducting 92 

Of Italy 107 

Unaffected by armistice 66 

(See also Armistice.) 

Blockaded waters, war zone referred to as 52 

Bolivia: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Bone fide transfer 39 

Boris, Bulgarian king, abdication of 11 

Bosphorus, opening of 160 

Bothnia, Gulf of: 

Mine fields in 136 

Navigation in 138 

Bourgas, Bay of, entry forbidden 1 35 

Brazil: 

Decree revoking neutrality 34 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 



220 Index. 

Page. 

Brenner River, to be boundary of Italy 10r 

Bret-Litovsk: 

Armistice of, Russia-Central powers 145 

Treaty of, Russia-Central powers 62, 145 

Bucharest, treaty of, denounced 62 

Bulgaria: 

Abdication of emperor \\ 

Armistice 13, 35. 

Circular, defensive sea area 35 

Declaration of war U 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited ,. 200- 

Bunker coal, United States regulations 202 

(See also Navigation regulations. ) 

Bunkers, definition of 202 

Cable: 

Censorship of. (See Censorship.) 

Method of operating under Government control 191, 192 

United States, law authorizing taking over by Government 190 

(See also Transmission of intelligence.) 

Canada: 

Law, transfer of vessels 87 

Licenses for export to 195 

Canal, Kaiser Wilhelm, navigation of 50 

Capture: 

Exemptions from 42 

Forbidden in neutral waters 39, 50, 151 

Procedure 42 

Report of 43 

Right of 39 

Vessels liable to 42, 122 

Cargo: 

Invoice of, on captured vessel 42 

(See also Enemy goods, Neutral goods.) 

Cartel ship. (See Vessels. ) 

Cattegat 65 

Censorship, cable: 

Addresses 173, 174, 178, 181, 184, 188 

Atlantic cables, by United States 180 

Codes permitted 173, 174, 177, 180, 186 

Conformity of United States to British and French 183 

Information to be furnished censor 173, 175, 178, 181, 183, 185, 186, 189 

Languages permitted 173, 174, 177, 180, 186 

Location of stations for, in United States 173, 175, 179, 182, 187 

Name of vessel to be designated 181, 187 

Objects of 172 

Penalty for attempt to evade 183 

Personnel directing in United States 172 

Prohibited matter 176, 180, 183 

Message to blacklisted firm 188 

Message to enemy territory 180, 184 

Military information 176, 180, 183 

Signature 173,174,176,178,181,185 

Test words 175,176,179,182,187 

Text of message 173,174,178,181,186 

(See also Cable, Radiotelegraph, Telegraph, Telephone, Transmission of 
intelligence.) 



Index. 221 

Page. 
'Cernavoda, mine fields near 119 

Cessation of hostilities. (See Armistice.) 

Charles, Austrian Emperor, abdication 11,14 

Charter party, ship's paper 40 

Chief of State, sojourn of vessel carrying 45, 50, 121 

Chile: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

China: 

Export to, prohibited 196,198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Regulations, prize 39 

Regulations, sojourn of vessels 38 

Christiansand, Norway, military port 117 

Citizen, definition of 206 

Clearance of vessel, circumstances in which forbidden 163 

Coaling in neutral port of belligerent war vessel: 

Full bunker rule 50, 1 51 

Three months' interval rule ". ■ 152 

(See also Base of operations.) 

Coaling station, not to be established in neutral territory 152 

Coast fishing vessel. (See Vessels.) 

Cobelligerent: 

Application of neutrality laws to 162 

Censorship of cables to 180 

Permitted to recruit in United States 162 

Codes telegraphic. (See Censorship.) 

Coercion o f neutral 169, 193 

Colombia: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Combatan ts, definition 40 

(See also Persons.) 

Commercial restrictions: 

Allied or national vessels to be used - 143 

Bunker coal regulations 94 

Call at British port required 94 

Coercion of neutrals 93,169,193 

Commodities of which export prohibited 196, 198 

Commodities of which import prohibited 200 

" Conservation list" 195 

Destination of goods to be affirmed 204 

Discrimination forbidden ■ 196, 198, 199 

Embargoes 193,194 

To border neutrals 94 

Exports Administration Board created, United States 192 

Export Council created, United States 192 

Export licenses authorized 140, 192, 195 

Procedure for obtaining 194, 197 

Export prohibitions 95, 139, 195 

Purpose of 195 

Great Britain, policy in reference to 91 

Proclamations relating to 95, 97 

Import licenses, procedure for obtaining 194 

Required 201 

Legality of measures 94 

" Letters of assurance" not required 194 

Methods of bringing economic pressure on neutrals 93 



220 Index. 

Page. 

Brenner River, to be boundary of Italy 10r 

Bret-Litovsk: 

Armistice of, Russia-Central powers 145 . 

Treaty of, Russia-Central powers 62, 145 

Bucharest, treaty of, denounced 62 

Bulgaria: 

Abdication of emperor 11 

Armistice 13, 35 

Circular, defensive sea area 35. 

Declaration of war 11 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited ,. 200* 

Bunker coal, United States regulations 202 

(See also Navigation regulations. ) 

Bunkers, definition of 202 

Cable: 

Censorship of. (See Censorship.) 

Method of operating under Government control 191, 192 

United States, law authorizing taking over by Government 190 

(See also Transmission of intelligence.) 

Canada: 

Law, transfer of vessels 87 

Licenses for export to 195 

Canal, Kaiser Wilhelm, navigation of . 50 

Capture: 

Exemptions from 42 

Forbidden in neutral waters 39, 50, 151 

Proce dure 42 

Report of 43 

Right of 39 

Vessels liable to 42, 122 

Cargo: 

Invoice of, on captured vessel 42 

(See also Enemy goods, Neutral goods.) 

Cartel ship. (See Vessels. ) 

Cattegat 65 

Censorship, cable: 

Addresses 173,174,178,181,184,188 

Atlantic cables, by United States 180 

Codes permitted 173, 174, 177, 180, 186 

Conformity of United States to British and French 183 

. Information to be furnished censor 173, 175, 178, 181, 183, 185, 186, 189 

Languages permitted 173, 174, 177, 180, 186 

Location of stations for, in United States 173, 175, 179, 182, 187 

Name of vessel to be designated 181, 187 

Objects of. 172 

Penalty for attempt to evade 183 

Personnel directing in United States 172 

Prohibited matter 176, 180, 183 

Message to blacklisted firm 188 

Message to enemy territory 180, 184 

Military information 176, 180, 183 

Signature 173,174,176,178,181,185 

Test words 175,176,179,182,187 

Text of message 173,174,178,181,186 

(See also Cable, Radiotelegraph, Telegraph, Telephone, Transmission of 
intelligence.) 



Index. 221 

Page. 

• Cernavoda, mine fields near 119 

Cessation of hostilities. (See Armistice.) 

Charles, Austrian Emperor, abdication 11, 14 

Charter party, ship's paper 40 

Chief of State, sojourn of vessel carrying 45, 50, 121 

Chile: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

China: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Regulations, prize 39 

Regulations, sojourn of vessels 38 

Christiansand, Norway, military port 117 

Citizen, definition of 206 

Clearance of vessel, circumstances in which forbidden 163 

Coaling in neutral port of belligerent war vessel: 

Full bunker rule -. 50, 151 

Three months' interval rule 152 

(See also Base of operations.) 

Coaling station, not to be established in neutral territory 152 

Coast fishing vessel. (See Vessels.) 

Cobelligerent: 

Application of neutrality laws to 162 

Censorship of cables to 180 

Permitted to recruit in United States 162 

Codes telegraphic. (See Censorship.) 

Coercion of neutral 169, 193 

Colombia: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from , prohibited 200 

Combatan ts, definition 40 

(See also Persons.) 

Commercial restrictions: 

Allied or national vessels to be used 143 

Bunker coal regulations 94 

Call at British port required 94 

Coercion of neutrals 93, 169, 193 

Commodities of which export prohibited 196,198 

Commodities of which import prohibited 200 

"Conservation list" 195 

Destination of goods to be affirmed 204 

Discrimination forbidden • 196, 198, 199 

Embargoes 193, 194 

To border neutrals 94 

Exports Administration Board created, United States 192 

Export Council created, United States 192 

Export licenses authorized 140, 192, 195 

Procedure for obtaining 194, 197 

Export prohibitions 95, 139, 195 

Purpose of 195 

Great Britain, policy in reference to 91 

Proclamations relating to 95, 97 

Import licenses, procedure for obtaining 194 

Required 201 

Legality of measures 94 

" Letters of assurance" not required 194 

Methods of bringing economic pressure on neutrals 93 



222 Index. 

Commercial restrictions — Continued. Page. 

Military and naval material embargoed 96 

Netherlands, relations with allies 167 

Obj ect of 193- 

Penalty for violation of ] 96 

Personal effects exempt from embargo 98 

Preemption 93 

Printed matter exempt from embargo 98 

Rationing schedules 92 

Retaliation 193 

Russia, regulations relating to 139 

States to which export prohibited 196, 198 

States from which import prohibited 200 

Statistics of trade 93 

Trade agreements. (See Treaties.) 

United States— Laws relating to 193, 195, 197, 199 

Policy m reference to 197 

Proclamations relating to 195, 197, 199 

Trading with the enemy act 193 

War Trade Council created, United States 192 

Commissions. (See Armistice.) 

Committee on Public Information, United States, to regulate censorship 172" 

Compensation. (See Peace terms, Requisition.) 

Condemnation, vessels liable to 44 ' 

(See also Prize.) 

Confederation, Lithunia and Germany 55 • 

Confiscation : 

Liability of vessel to 123 

(See also Prize.) 

Of illegally transferred vessel 48 

Consul: 

To be informed of transfer of vessel 1-5 - 

To guaranty character of armed merchant vessel 39 " 

(See also Armistice.) 

Continuous voyage 93 

(See also Contraband.) 

Contraband : 

Absolute 1 22, 125 

Application of continuous voyage to . . i 125 ■ 

Application of days of grace to 123, 124 

Conditional 122, 125 

Destination of 125 ■ 

Liability of. 124, 125 

Liability of vessel for carriage of 40, 42, 44, 125, 130 

Merchant vessel not itself considered so 125 • 

Regulations to be issued 40 

Rules of : 122 

Vessels carrying not permitted in convoy 154 

Conversion of vessel 113 

Convoy, enemy, liability of vessels under ? 42, 44 

Convoy, neutral: 

Procedure for arranging 153 

Purpose of 153 

Responsibility of vessels under 155 

Swedish law relating to 153 

To be respected 41 

Vessels permitted in 154 

Corfu, Declaration of. (See Declaration of Corfu.) 

Corporation, nationality of 20ft ■ 

(See also Persons.) 



Index. 223 

Costa Rica: Page. 

Declaration of War 11 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Courland (Curland), export from , prohibited 139, 1 43 

Crew list, ship's paper 40 

Cuba: 

Declaration of War 11 

Export to. prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200- 

Recognition of States by 11 

Customs regulations 152 

Cyrenaica, surrender of ports in 161 

Czecho-Slovakia: 

Barrier to aggression 49 

Declaration of independence 11, 108 

Recognition of 11, 13, 49, 99, 109, 209 

Dalmatia: 

Evacuation of -. 15, 24 

Italy to receive 102 

Danube: 

Mine fields in 33, 1 18 

Mine fields to be removed from 28 

Free navigat ion in , 19 

Danzig 62" 

.Dardanelles, opening of 160 

Days of grace: 

Application to contraband. (See Contraband.) 

Japanese declaration relating to 118- 

Reciprocity in 113 

Route to be followed by vessel receiving 131 

Declaration of Corfu 102 

Declaration of independence by: 

Czecho-Slovak Republic 11 

Finland 11,47 

Hedjaz 12 

Jugo-Slav peoples 12, 107 

Ukraine 12 

Declaration of London: 

Application of, discontinued. 130 

Enemy character (art. 57) 129 

Report of drafting committee to be considered 127 

Russian decree relating to 130 

Declaration of Rome (1918) 107 

Declaration of war: 

Effect of, by United States against Germany 94 

List of, in European war 11 

Principle justifying— Duty to contribute to triumph of cause of civilization. . 99^ 

Declarations of war: 

Bulgaria against Roumania 11 

Costa Rica against Germany 11 

Cuba against Austria 11 

Guatemala against — 

Austria 11 

Germany 11 

Italy against Central powers 103 

Haiti against Germany 11 

Honduras against Germany 11, 99 

Nicaragua against — 

Austria. . .'. .....' 11 

Germany II 



224 Index. 

Page. 

De facto governments, recognition of 12, 209, 210 

Defensive sea area: 

Bulgaria, circular relating to 35 

Chesapeake Bay 164 

German Bay 53 

Germany, notice of 53 

Japan, notice of 109, 110 

Navigation in, forbidden 158 

Neutral 156,158 

Penalty for violation of 162 

Turkish circular relating to 159 

United States, Executive order relating to 164 

United States, law relating to 161 

Vessels in, may be fired on 159 

Waters around Samesand Khies 159 

White Sea 133 

(See also Navigation regulations.) 

Demobilization. (See Armistice.) 

Denmark: 

Export to, prohibited 97,196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Minefields off coast of 134, 135 

Mine laying by 134 

Recognition of States by 11 

To be notified of freedom of navigation 67 

Trade agreements of 194 

Destination: 

Of eneny vessels 113 

Of goods to be guaranteed , 141, 204 

(See also Contraband.) 

Destruction: 

Of enemy vessels 126 

Of hospital ships — 

Great Britain, statements relating to 89, 90 

Red Cross, statement relating to 90 

Of neutral vessels — 

Regulations for 126 

Threatened 109 

Of prizes 43 

Of Ship's papers. (See Ship's papers.) 
Of vessels — 

Effect of 166 

In forbidden area • 131 

(See also Armistice.) 

Diplomatic officers: 

To give guaranty of destination of goods 141 

To give notice of sojourn of vessel 121 

Vessels carrying, sojourn of 45, 50, 121 

(See also Armistice.) 

Dedacanesous Islands, Italy to receive 102 

Domicile: 

Definition 39 

Evidence of enemy character • • • • 39 

Of corporations 39 

Dominican Republic: 

Export to, prohibited 196,198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Donegal, British hospital ship 90, 91 

Dunnage. (See Navigation regulations.) 



Index. 225 

Ecuador: Page. 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Regulations, sojourn of vessels 45 

Egypt- 
Exports to, prohibited 190, 198 

Imports from, prohibited 200 

Embargo, on blacklisted firms 92 

(See also Commercial restrictions.) 

Emergency, existence of proclaimed 166 

Enemy cargo in neutral vessel : 44, 122 

Enemy character: 

Of corporations 52 

Of goods- 
Ownership 39 

Destination 39 

Incomplete transfer 39 

Of persons, domicile (see also Persons) 39 

Of vessels — 

Charter 52 

Flag 39 

Ownership 39, 52, 129, 130 

Russian order relating to 129 

Service 39, 52 

State which has yielded tonnage to enemy 53 

Subject to visit 40 

(See also Vessels.) 

Enemy ownership, goods of, liable to condemnation 44 

Enemy persons: 

Definition of 193 

Vessels not to be chartered to 203 

Enemy service, liability of vessels in 123, 130 

Enemy territory, messages to, forbidden 180, 184 

Enemy trade: 

United States policy toward 193 

Vessels engaged in, to be refused bunkers 203 

(See also Blacklist, Commercial restrictions.) 
Enemy trading list . (See B lacklist . ) 
Enemy vessel . (See Vessels, enemy character.) 

England, export of goods to, from Russia 142 

(See also Great Britain.) 

English language, use in cables permitted 174, 177, 180, 186 

Entente, Triple. (See Allies.) 

Eritria, Italian expansion in 103 

Espionage act, United States 162 

Esthonia (Estland): 

Export from, prohibited 143 

Recognition of 11 

Exports Administration Board, United States 192 

Exports Council , United States 192 

Exports. (See Commercial restrictions.) 

Ex-territorial jurisdiction 92 

Evacuation of territory. (See Armistice.) 

Far East, destruction of German business in 92 

Faroe Islands, vessels trading with to be examined 203 

Ferdinand, Bulgarian king, abdication 11 

Financial regulations to be respected 45 

(See also Armistice, Port regulations.) 

116506—19 15 



226 Index. 

Finland: Page. 

Declaration of independence 47 

Export regulations 140, 142 

Gulf of , navigation in forbidden 131 

Powers of Diet 47 

Recognition of 47 

Fishing vessels. (See Vessels.) 

Flag: 

Evidence of enemy character ' m 39 

Neutral, covers enemy goods 44 

Of requisitioned vessels 104 

Foch, General, authorized to communicate terms of armistice 212 

Force: 

Use of against submarines illegally in neutral waters 1 18 

Use of by neutral 156 

Foreign-controlled company, definition 88 

Fortifications, dismantling. (See Armistice.) 

Fourteen points of peace, President Wilson's 210, 211 

Fuel. (See Coaling.) 

France: 

Agreement with Italy with reference to entry into war 101 

Cable censorship regulations 183, 184 

Evacuation of 68 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Law, transfer of vessels . . 47-48 

Notice of mine fields 48 

Proclamation, sojourn of vessels 47 

Protectorate in Morocco, recognition of 208 

Recognition of States by 11, 12, 49 

Fraudulent papers. (See Ship's papers.) 

Free ships, free goods. (See Enemy goods in neutral vessels.) 

Freedom of the seas 211 

Free access to sea approved 98 

French language, use in cables permitted 174, 177, 180, 186 

Galicia 13 

Geneva convention ... 90 

German Bay, defensive sea area 53 

German East Africa, evacuation of 62 

Germany: 

Abdication of emperor 12 

Aggression by 212 

Armistice- 
Commission. (See Armistice.) 

Pronlongation 75, 78, 84 

Terms demanded of 211 

Armistices 12,13,56,145 

Bunkers refused to vessels found for 203 

Declaration on signing armistice 73 

Declaration of war 11, 99 

Declaration war zone 51 

Destruction of commercial establishments in Far East 92 

Destruction of vessels in neutral ports 213 

Effect of blockade on 95 

Export to, prohibited 196,198 

Hostilities against Poland to cease 85 

(See also Armistice.) 

Imports from, prohibited 200 

Merchant fleet to be under allied control 83 



Index. 227 

Germany — Continued. Page. 

National constitutional assembly proposed 55 

Notice, defensive sea area 53 

Oversea trade of, eliminated 93 

Private property taken from occupied regions to be restored 82 

Provisioning of, during armistice 66 

Regulations, enemy character 52, 53 

Regulations, sojourn of vessels 49 

Relations with Netherlands 168 

Restriction of commercial establishments in South America 92 

Restriction of propaganda in Spain 92 

Trade with border neutrals 93 

World opinion of objects and methods 92 

Goods, enemy, liability on national vessels 129 

(See also Armistice, Enemy character.) 

Goritzia, Italy to receive 101 

Gradisca, Italy to receive 101 

Great Britain: 

Agreement with Italy relating to entry into war 101 

Cable censorship regulations referred to 183, 184 

Export to, prohibited 196, 198 

Foreign ports of registry 87 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Laws not applicable to dominions 87 

Law, transfer of vessels 87, 88 

Merchant shipping act, amendment to 87 

Notice, visit and search 87 

Proclamation, export prohibition 95, 97 

Proclamation, radio 86 

Recognition of States by 11, 12, 99 

Report on administration of blockade 91 

Statements, destruction of hospital ships * 89, 90 

Statements of policy, home for the Jews 98 

Trade agreement with Norway 194 

Greece: 

Claim to Albanian territory 102 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Licenses for export to 195 

Territory to be evacuated 35 

Guarantee, of Poland, by Germany 54 

Guatemala: 

Declaration of war 11 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Gulfs. (See Territorial waters.) 

Hague convention, 1907: 

VIII. Convention relative to the laying of automatic submarine contact 

mines 119 

Notice of anchored mines (art. 3, sec. 2) 48 

X. Convention for the adaptation to maritime war of the principles of the 

Geneva Convention of 1906.. .' 90 

Hospital ships 42, 149 

XIII. Convention concerning the rights and duties.of neutral powers in mari- 
time war 100, 116 

Soj ourn of war vessels 46 

Haiti: 

Declaration of war 11 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 



228 Index. 

\ Halifax: Page. 

Calls at, abolished 194 

Stoppage of vessels at 94 

Harbor regulations 164 

Health regulations 121 

Hedjaz: 

Declaration of independence 12 

Recognition of 12 

Surrender of garrisons in , 161 

Helgoland, occupation of 75 

Holland. (See Netherlands.) 

Holy See. (See Papacy.) 

Honduras: 

Declaration of war 11, 99 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 20') 

Hospital ships. (See Vessels.) 

Hostilities, cessation of. (See Armistice, Germany.) 

Humanity, crimes against 90 

Hungary, armistice 30 

(See also Austria- Hungary.) 

Iceland, vessels trading with, to be examined 203 

Imports. (See Commercial restrictions.) 

Indemnity. (See Peace terms.) 

Independence, right of 108 

(See also Declaration of Independence, Recognition.) 

Inland waters. (See Territorial waters.) 

Inlets. (See Territorial waters.) 

Innocent passage, permitted 151 

Interallied chartering committee 92, 204, 205 

International Armistice Commission. (See Armistice Commissions.) 

International law: 

Crimes against 90 

Requires compensation for requisitioned vessels 167, 170 

Right of requisition under 166, 170 

To be applied in naval war 130 

International Red Cross Committee. (See Red Cross.) 

Interned civilians. (See Armistice, repatriation.) 

Internment: 

Of submarines 116 

Of war vessels '. 155 

Radio to be dismantled 155 

Supervision by neutral 156 

Swedish decree relating to 155 

(See also Armistice.) 

Istria, Italy to receive . 101 

Italian language, use in cables permitted 180, 186 

Italians, declaration of independence 108 

Italy: 

Agreement on entering war 101 

Agreement with Jugo Slavs 108 

Blockade of : 107 

Declaration of war by 103 

Decree, jurisdictional waters 99 

Decree, requisition of vessels 104 

Decree, transfer of vessels 105 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Notice mine fields 100, 107 



Index. 229 

flaly— Continued. Page. 

Protectorate of Albania promised to 102 

Recognition of States by 11, 12, 107, 109 

Territory promised to 101 

Japan: 

Declaration, days of grace ; 112 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Instructions, visit and search 113 

Ordinance, transfer of vessels 114 

Notification, defensive sea areas 109, 110 

Recognition of States by 11 

Regulations, defensive sea area 109, 110 

Jews, British statement of policy with reference to national home for 98 

Jugo-Slavs: 

Agreement with Italy 108 

Barrier to aggression 49 

Declaration of independence 12, 107, 108 

Declaration of Supreme War Council in reference to 98 

National aspirations of, approved '. ... 98, 107, 108, 209 

Recognition of . . 12, 13, 98, 209 

Jurisdiction, ex-territorial 92 

Jurisdictional waters. (See Territorial waters.) 

Kaiser Wilhelm Canal 50 

Khios, Island of, defensive sea area around 160 

Kirkwall, stoppage of vessels at 94 

Kogrund Passage, navigation of 156, 157 

Lanfranc, British hospital ship 90, 91 

Lausanne, treaty of 103 

Leichten stein: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Liberia: 

Export to, prohibited. 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Libya, rights of Italy in 103 

Licenses. (See Commercial restrictions.) 

Lithuania: 

Declaration of independence 54 

Recognition of 12, 54 

Livonia (Lifland), export from, prohibited 139,143 

Local regulations 152 

(See also Port Regulations.) 

Local trade, vessels engaged in. (See Vessels.) 

Log, ship's: 

Entry of visit in 41 

Ship's paper 40 

Luxemburg: 

Evacuation of 57, 98 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Mails, on prize to be forwarded 43 

Martha Wasington, Austrian vessel requisitioned, by United States 171 

Mediterranean Sea: 

Political balance in 102 

Vessels trading with neutral ports in, to be examined 203 

War zone in 52, 201 

Mesapotamia, surrender of garrisons in 161 



230 Index. 

Mexico: Page. 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Telegraph and telephone messages to, to be censored 172 

Military information. (See Censorship, transmission of intelligence.) 

Military material. (See Armistice, commercial restrictions.) 

Military necessity justifies requisition of vessel 166, 170 

Military port. (See Port.) 

Milyukoff , Paul, Russian foreign minister, statement by 208 

Mined areas: 

Adriatic Sea „■ 100 

Baltic Sea 135 

Black Sea 132 

Danish coast 134, 135 

Gulf of Bothnia 136 

Gulf of Finland 131 

Kogrund Passage 156 

Swedish coast 132, 134, 135 

Swedish waters 158 

Tyrrhennian Sea 107 

White Sea 133 

(See also Defensive sea areas.) 

Mines: 

France, notice of areas 48 

Italy, decree relating to 100 

Italy, notice of areas 107 

Marking of areas ■. 120 

Regulations for navigation in 158 

Reward for location of 132 

Roumania, notice of areas 118, 119 

Russia, notice of areas 132, 133, 134, 135, 136 

Sweden, regulations relating to 158 

Use of, by neutrals 150 

(See also Armistice.) 

Mohammedan power, to control Arabia - 103 

Monaco: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, pi ohibited 200. 

Montenegro: 

Claim to Albania 102 

Export to, prohibited - 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Morocco: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

French protectorate in. - 208 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Neutrality regulations H5 

Nationalistic aspirations. (See Recognition.) 

Nationality: 

Basis for territorial allocations 1° 8 

Of corporations 206 

Right of 49 >1° 8 

(See also Declaration of independence, recognition.) 

Naval material. (See Armistice, commercial restrictions.) 

Navigation: 

Freedom of. (See Armistice, freedom of the seas.) 

In belligerent waters 163 

In neutral waters I 58 

Internal I 39 

In territorial waters , 49 



Index. 231 

Navigation regulations: Page. 

Bunker coal permitted 143, 169 

Bunker-coal regulations, purpose of 194 

Bunker-coal restrictions 92, 202 

Bunker coal to be refused vessels not registered .' 206 

By Russia 131,136,137 

By Sweden 156, 159 

By United States 162, 201, 202, 205, 206, 207 

Clearance licenses, to be issued 202 

Clearance, may be refused 196 

Deck cargoes, restrictions on 207 

Dunnage, export forbidden 206, 207 

For Adriatic Sea .... 100 

For defensive sea areas 110, 111 

(See also Defensive sea areas.) 

For Gulf of Bothnia 138 

For Gulf of Finland 131, 137 

For Gulf of Riga 138 

For Kogrund Passage .- 156 

For military ports 117 

For mined areas 119 

(See also Mined areas.) 

For Swedish, coast 134 

For White Sea 133 

Licenses required 106, 201 

National vessels, restrictions on 114 

Neutral, to be observed 156 

Removed by armistice 67 

Sailing vessels forbidden in war zone 201, 202 

(See also Commercial restrictions, Defensive sea area, Local regulations, Mined 
areas, War zones.) 

Nepal: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Netherlands: 

Colonies, trade with Germany 93 

Commercial agreements 167, 194 

Export to, prohibited 97, 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Licenses for export 195 

Prisoners of war, interned in 61 

Requisition of vessels by United States .■ 166 

Requisition of vessels explained 169 

To be notified of freedom of navigation 67 

Vessels trading with to be examined 203 

Vessels, use of by United States 170 

Neutral commerce. (See Commercial restrictions . ) 

Neutral flag. (See Flag.) 

Neutral goods in enemy vessel 122 

Neutral persons. (Sec Persons.) 

Neutral property at sea. (See Blockade, Capture, Contraband, Free ships, Neu- 
tral goods, Unneutral service, Visit and search.) 

Neutral rights, German attitude toward 169 

Neutral shipping companies, agreements with 92 

Neutral States: 

Bordering Germany, trade of * 93 

Export prohibitions to, purpose of 195 

Methods of bringing economic pressure upon 93 

Notifications to. (See Armistice.) 

Trade agreements with 193 



232 Index. 

Pa^e. 

Neutral traders, scrutiny of suspected 92 

Neutral zone. (See Armistice.) 

Neutrality: 

Morocco regulations relating to 115 

Observance of regulations required 150 

Revocation of 34 

Swedish regulations relating to 150 

Tinted States laws of, amended 162 

Violation of 150 

Neutralization of Albania 102 

Neutralized territory, visit and search in forbidden 39 

New Amsterdam. Netherlands' vessel not requisitioned 169 

Nicaragua: 

Declaration of war 11 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Norway: 

Export to, prohibited 97, 196, 199 

Export to, from Russia 142, 14 1 

Import from, prohibited 200 

License for export to 195 

Note, limits of military ports 117 

Note, sojourn of vessels 117 

Recognition of states by 11 

Regulations, territorial waters 118 

To be notified of freedom of navigation 67 

Trade agreements with belligerents , 194 

Vessels trading with to be examined 203 

Occupation of territory. (See Armistice.) 

Occupied territory, status of 39 

Oman: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Order regulations 121 

Paderewsti, Ignace, prime minister of Poland, recognition of government of 212 

Palestine, statement of policy with reference to 98 

Panama: 

Export to, prohibited 196,199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Papacy, exclusion from peace negotiations 103 

Papers. (See Ship's papers.) 

Paraguay: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Parole of personnel of interned vessel 156 

Passport, ship's paper 39 

Peace, conditions of a just 98 

Peace negotiations 148 

Exclusion of Papacy from 103 

Peace preliminaries, armistice to be extended to 75, 78 

Peace terms: 

Compensation for damages 212 

Fourteen points 210, 211 

Restoration of territory 212 

Peace treaty: 

Agreement relating to 101 

Ordinance to terminate after 115 



Index. 233 

Persia: Page. 

Evacuation of 148, 160 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Territorial integrity of 148 

Persons: 

Corporation — 

Foreign controlled, definition 88 

National, definition 89 

Enemy — 

On neutral vessel, may be made prisoner of war 130 

Removed from vessel in belligerent waters 163 

Treatment of vessel carrying 42, 44 

Nationality of 206 

Neutral— 

On prize to be released 43 

Commercial agreements with belligerent 92 

Noncombatants — 

Effect of armistice on . 74 

Safety to be assured before destruction of vessel 43 

Treatment of on prize 42 

Peru: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

Petrograd, export from, forbidden 139, 143 

Philanthropic vessel. (See Vessels.) 

Pillage. (See Armistice.) 

Pilot: 

Embarkation of 26 

Use of neutral, required 131, 152 

Pilot vessel, signals of '. 110, HI 

Pilotage 50 

In defensive sea area 110, 111, 157 

In mine fields 119 

Regulations 152 

Poisoned wells to be revealed 60 

Pola, occupation of 19 

Poland: 

Barrier to aggression 49 

Declaration of independence 108 

Hostilities against, to cease : 85 

Independence of, affirmed 98 

Recognition of 12, 13, 53, 209, 212 

Police power of State; not affected by government operation of means of com- 
munication 190 

Police regulations 45, 152 

Port: 

Conditionally open 120 

Military, access to, forbidden 117 

Open, definition of 120 

Police powers of 213 

Port regulations, to be respected 45, 121, 152 

Portugal: 

Export to, prohibited 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 200 

P ost al . ( See Armistice . ) 

Postmaster General, United States, to operate cables 190 

1 'reemption 93 



234 Index. 

Prisoners of war: Page. 

Armed forces of enemy on neutral vessel treated as 130 

Conventions relating to 61 

Neutral persons on prize, not so considered 43 

Officers and crew of enemy prize treated as 42 

Repatriation of. (See Armistice.) 

Private property at sea. (See Blockade, Capture, Commercial restrictions, Con- 
traband, Enemy character, Free snips, Neutral goods, Neutral commerce, 
Unneutral service, Visit and search.) 

Privateers, sojourn of, forbidden . . 152 

Prize: 

Appraisal of, Russian regulations 127 

Asylum to 152 

Definition -. 40 

Destruction of. (See Destruction.) 

Hatches to be sealed 42 

Passengers to be released 42 

Perishable goods on, to be sold 43 

Restoration of 151 

Sale of, in neutral territory forbidden 152 

Sequestration of 51 

Sojourn of, forbidden 152 

To be adjudicated 44 

To be brought to port . , 43 

Treatment of 42 

Prize court: 

Forbidden in neutral territory 50, 152 

To adjudicate all prizes ' 40, 43, 44 

Vessels condemned by, to be restored 76 

Prize money, abolished 126 

Prize regulations: 

China 33 

Enforcement of * >. 45 

Russia 121,127,128,129,130 

Protectorate: 

Morocco, by France 208 

Albania, by Italy . 102 

Ports of 47 

Recognition of .-. — 208 

Protest: 

Misuse of hospital ships 89 

Destruction of hospital ships 90 

Terms of armistice 74 

Provisional government, recognition of 12, 208, 212 

(See also De facto government, Recognition.) 

Provisioning of belligerent war vessels in neutral port 50, 151 

(See also Base of operations.) 

Prussia, abdication of king of 55 

Radiotelegraphy: 

Berlin convention relating to 213 

Control of, by belligerent 86 

Control of, on vessels in territorial waters 86 

Great Britain, proclamation relating to 86 

Restrictions upon use of 204 

Sojourning vessel to observe regulations 121 

Station not to be established in neutral territory 152 

To be dismantled on interned vessel 155 

United States law, authorizing taking over by government 190 

Uruguay, decree relating to 212 

Use of, required on passenger vessels 212 

(See also, Armistice, Transmission of intelligence.) 



Index. 235 

Railways. (Sec Armistice.) 

Rationing. (Sec Commercial restrictions.) Page. 

Recapture 44 

Reciprocity 121, 1 13 

Recognition of— 

Czecho-Slovak Republic by — v 

Austria 11, 13 

Cuba 11 

France 11,49 

Great Britain 11, 99 

Italy 11,109 

Japan 11 

United States 11 , 209 

Esthonia by Great Britain 11 

Finland by- 
Denmark 11 

France 11 

Germany 11 

Norway - 11 

Russia 11 

Sweden 11 

Switzerland 11 

Hedjaz by Great Britain 12 

Jugo-Slavia by— 

Allies 12,98 

Austria 12, 13 

United States 12, 209 

Lithuania by Germany 12, 54 

New States, list of 11, 12 

Poland by — 

Austria 12, 13 

Germany . : 12, 53 

United States 12, 209, 212 

Russian provisional government by — 

France 12 

Great Britain 12 

Italy 12 

United States 12, 208 

Ukraine by — 

Germany 12, 54 

Russia 12, 54 

Recruiting in neutral territory forbidden 162 

Red Cross? 

Note relating to destruction of hospital ships 90 

Protection of 149 

Registration of vessels, United States regulations 205 

Release: 

Of innocent vessel, 41, 43 

Of recaptured vessel 44 

Of persons on prize 42 

Religious vessels. (See Vessels.) 

Reparation. (See Armistice.) 

Repair of vessels. (See Asylum.) 

Repatriation of prisoners of war. (See Armistice.) 

Reprisals 60 

Threatened 90 

Requisition: 

Appraisal of vessels 171 

Of bunker fuel on neutral vessel permitted 170 



236 Index. 

Requisition— Continued. Page. 

Of enemy vessel 113 

Compensation for 170, 171 

United States resolution authorizing 171 

Of material on neutral vessel 170 

Of merchant vessels, agreement for use of 105 

Authorized 104, 163 

Compensation for 104, 105 

Italian decree relating to 104 

United States act authorizing 166 

Uruguay decree authorizing 213 

Of national vessels 114 

Of neutral vessels 167 

Compensation for 169 

Right of when in belligerent jurisdiction 166 

Justification for 169, 170 

United States authorization 166, 167, 170 

Requisitions, to be paid for 33 

(See also Armistice.) 
Restoration: 

Of illegally taken prize 151 

Of territory. (See Peace terms.) 
Of vessels. (See Armistice.) 

Retaliation 52, 193 

Revolution. (See Abdication, Recognition.) 
Responsibility: 

For destruction, in prohibited area 135, 136 

For destruction of neutral vessel 126 

For violation of conventions 90 

Rhine: 

Evacuation of left bank of 58, 69 

Occupation of right bank of 76, 183 

Riga, Gulf of, navigation in, closed 138 

Rivers. (See Territorial waters.) 
Roadsteads. (See Territorial waters.) 

Rome, Congress of (1918) 209 

Roumania: 

Armistice 12 

Declaration of war 11 

Evacuation of 61 

Export to, prohibited 196,199 

Import from, prohibited ". 201 

Law, protection of Red Cross t 149 

Notice of mine fields 1 18, 1 19 

Passage of troops, forbidden 34 

Roumanians, declaration of independence of 108 

Russia: 

Abdication of Czar 12,144 

Agreement with Italy on entry into war 101 

Armistice 13, 145 

Care of prisoners of war 80 

Decree, treatment of cargo on national vessels 128 

Decree, declaration of London 130 

Evacuation of 61 

Export to, prohibited : 196,199 

Import from, prohibited 201 

Internal situation of it 

Notice of mine fields 132,133,134,135,135 

Order, enemy character of vessels t J J 



Index. 237 

Russia— Continued. Page. 

Recognition of provisional government of 208 

Recognition of States by 11 

Regulations, appraisal of prize 127 

Regulations, export of goods 139 

Regulations, navigation 131, 136, 137 

Regulations, prize 121,127,128,129,130 

Regulations, sojourn of vessels 120 

Reply of pro visional government to recognition by United States 208 

Warships to be surrendered 66 

Safety regulations 121 

Sale of vessel. (See Transfer of vessel.) 

Salvador: 

Export to, prohibited. 196, 199 

Import from, prohibited 201 

Samos, Island of, defensive sea area around 159 

Sanitary regulations 45, 152 

San Marino: 

Export to, prohibited 197, 199 

Import from, prohibited 201 

Sardinero, Spanish vessel submarined 168 

Scientific vessels. (See Vessels.) 

Search: 

Procedure 41, 122 

Use of force 41 

(See also Visit and search.) 

Secret treaties. (See Treaties.) 

Secretary of Commerce. (See United States.) 

Secretary of the Navy. (See United States.) 

Secretary of War. (See United States.) 

Self-determination, right of 47, 108 

(See also Nationality.) 

Sequestration. (See Prizes.) 

Serbia: 

Claim to Albanian territory 102 

Deficiency of transport material 31,32 

Export to, prohibited 197, 199 

Import from, prohibited. 201 

Telegraphic service with 32 

Territory to be evacuated 35 

Ships. (See Vessels.) 

Ship's papers: 

Care of after capture 42 

Destruction of, renders vessel liable 42 

Fraudulent, renders vessel liable , 42 

List of 39,40 

To be turned over to convoying vessel 154 

Siam: 

Export to, prohibited 197, 199 

Import from, prohibited 201 

Sick and wounded. (See Armistice, Red Cross.) 

Sailing vessels. (See Vessels, Navigation regulations.) 

Sofia, Bulgaria, not to be occupied 37 

Sojourn: 

China, regulations relating to 38 

Ecuador, regulations relating to. 45 

France, proclamation relating to 47 

Germany, regulations relating to 49 

Norway, note relating to 117 

Of armed merchant vessels • 38 



238 Index. 

Sojourn— Continued. 

Of belligerent war vessels — 

Duration of stay— Page. 

Twenty-four hour rule 150, 151 

Fourteen days 50 

Forbidden 118 

Hague conventions to apply 46 

Interval between departure of vessels of opposing belligerents, 24 hours. 50, 151 

Licensed pilots to be employed 152 

Local regulations to be observed 152 

Notice to port authorities required 49, 121 

Number of vessels in port at one time, 3 50, 151 

Of hospital ships 151 

Of nonbelligerent war vessels — 

Anchorage regulations 45 

Crew not to land armed v 46 

Death sentence not to be executed on 46 

duration of stay, 15 days 45 

Forbidden— 

In inner territorial waters „ 150 

In war ports 117, 150 

Hydrographic observations forbidden 46 

Notification of port authorities required 45, 46 

Number of vessels in port at onetime, 3 45 

Violation of regulations, ground for ejection 46 

Of privateers, forbidden 152 

Of prizes . (See Prizes . ) 

Of scientific, religious, and philanthropic vessels 50, 151 

Of submarines, forbidden 116 

Of vessels — * 

Application of reciprocity ; 121 

In belligerent port, regulations 46, 147 

Violating neutrality, forbidden 150 

Withheadsof State 45,50 

With diplomatiq officers 45, 50 

Russia, regulations relating to 120 

Somaliland, Italian expansion in 103 

South America, restriction of German business in , 92 

Sovereign state, rights of 169 

Spanish language, use of, in cables permitted 156, 174, 177, 180 

Spain: 

Destruction of vessels of 168 

Export to, prohibited 197, 199 

Import from, prohibited 201 

Restriction of German propaganda in 92 

Vessels trading with, to be examined 203 

Zone of influence in Morocco 116 

Sphere of influence 102, 11 6 

States of the world, list of 196,198,201 

Submarine cables. (See Cables, Censorship.) 
Submarine mines. (See Mines.) 
Submarine vessels: 

Moroccan ordnance relating to 116 

Neutral military, forbidden in neutral waters 118 

Neutral, regulations for 116 

Navigation regulations for 118 

Surrender of. (See Armistice.) 

Use of SI 



Index. 239 

Tage. 

Submarine warfare, effect of 93, 168 

Supplying vessels. (See Base of operations, Provisioning.) 

Supreme War Council, declaration with reference to Slavs 98 

Suspension of arms, agreement for, 148; (see also Armistice). 

Sweden: 

Decree, internment of war vessels 155 

Exports to, prohibited 97,197,199 

Import from, prohibited 201 

Intermediary between United States and Austria-Hungary 209 

Law, convoy 153 

License for export to 195 

Mine fields, on coast of 134, 135 

Mine laying by 132, 134 

Note, extent of territorial waters 153 

Proclamation, protection of hospital ships 149 

Recognition of States by 11 

Regulations, navigation of Kogrund passage ~. 156 

Regulations, neutrality , 150 

Trade agreements 194 

Switzerland: 

Export to, prohibited 197, 199 

Import from, prohibited 201 

Intermediary between United States and Germany 211 

Licenses for export to 195 

Prisoners of war interned in 61 

Recognition of States by 11 

Trade agreements '. 193 

Vessels for use of 168 

Syria: 

Minefields off coast of 48 

Surrender of garrisons in 161 

Taxing power of state not affected by Government operation of means of com- 
munication 190 

Telegraph, censorship of 172 

United States law authorizing taking over by Government 190 

(See also Armistice, Cable, Censorship, Transmission of intelligence, Radio- 
telegraphy.) 

Telephone: 

Censorship of 172 

United States law authorizing taking over by Government 190 

(See also Armistice, Censorship, Transmission of intelligence.) 

Territorial integrity, Persia 148 

Territorial inviolability 102 

Territorial waters: 

Bays, definition of 100, 116 

Definition of 100,116 

Extent of— 

Three-mile limit 116,118 

Four-mile limit 118, 153 

Six-mile limit 100 

Inland, navigation of 49, 132 

Inner, defined 150 

Innocent passage of 151 

Italy, decree relating to 99 

Morocco, ordinance relating to 116 

Neutral , hostilities in forbidden 50, 151 

Neutral, visit and search in, forbidden 39 

Norway, regulations defining 118 

Rivers, navigation of 49 



240 Index. 

Territorial waters —Continued. Page. 

Roadsteads, Swedish 150 

Swedish note relating to 153 

Use of radio-telegraphy in f. 86 

(See also Ports.) 
Territory: 

Belligerent, control of property within 169 

Evacuation of. (See Armistice.) 
Trade with the enemy: 

Prevented 91 

Vessels engaged in, liable to capture 40, 42 

United States act prohibiting 193 

(See also Commercial restrictions.) 
Transfer of flag. (See Transfer of vessels.) 
Transfer of vessels: 

Canada, act relating to 87 

France, law relating to 47, 48 

Great Britain, law relating to 87, 88 

Incomplete, evidence of enemy character 39 

Italian decree, relating to 105 

Japanese ordinance relating to 114 

Penalty for 48 

Prohibited during war 47, 205 

Procedure for 48, 122, 206 

Restrictions applied to transfer of mortgages ' 88 

To neutral flag forbidden by armistice 67 

United States proclamation relating to 165 

Means of, may be taken over by Government 190 

Means of, not to be established in neutral territory 152 

Means of preventing divulgence of military information 176, 177 

To enemy, forbidden 172 

To enemy, liability of vessels engaged in 49, 123, 121, 130 

Transportation. (See Armistice, Navigation regulations.) 
Treaties: 

Armistice. (See Armistices.) 
Commercial- 
Denmark- United States 194 

Netherlands- A Hies 167 

Netherlands-United States •- 194 

Norway-Great Britain 194 

Norway- United States. 194 

Sweden- United States 194 

Switzerland-United States 193 

Peace — 

Treaty of Bucharest, Roumania-Central Powers (1918) 62 

Treaty of Brest- Litovsk, Russia-Central Powers (1918) 145 

Treaty of Lausanne, Italy-Turkey (1912) 103 

Prisoners of war 61 

Radiotelegraphy, treaty of Berlin 213 

Triple Entente, separate peace repudiated (1914) 103 

War— Italy-Allies, conditions of entering war (1915) 101 

(See also Declaration of London, Geneva Convention, Hague Conventions.) 
Treaty: 

Accession to 149 

Secret 103 

Violation of 90 

Trentino, Italy to receive 101 

Trieste, Italy to receive 101 

Tripolitania, surrender of ports in 161 



hhdm\ &k£ 

.beuutiaoO- zstetB bp^V 

Tr^ndhjem, Norway, military port : rftwft?. *£«T ttW ny 

Tfpops, transport of, liability of vessel Sot .-,,....-..-.,-., : .- .-.-.J?™K> 8 1%|, 124, 130 

roj (Sec also Armistice.) v.oiloq lo .ttoqoH 

mm\w^'-' - i^^lw 

gei Armistice ,,, ..,,,, J.xomJoOo|)£iT.iBY^ 159 

' Asiatic/preservation of ;#J™ Untojanflli 

081 Offf L ^f {3i e fe n sive sea area., , „ JPJ pJ?§?QY.I°. X.^^ 1 159 

^ ei Export to, pr^bited.............,..,,,.,^ 199 

. ;0S Import from, prohibited ........ t ,, , Bijnlmjd. bo?isy<yi .ad f& M fcegBgns EbaeV 2 oi 

" MnLe,i^4^p£p#aBt gfcfeaknanfitflV* ^jraff9.,8noRra^— 79*Q«W4&-Ym>ff?. ?**».»&) 48 

Partition of G?gpoTT 102 

Tyrol, Italy to receive : " ;T.*WRS 

Tyrrhenian Sea, mine fields &„„,,,,...„.... .'{dqt'iS»I.9J. OttW.tftawed ] 07 

Beanie: gl9E89v lo £ioiJi8u:p9i ,99100a 

eei %plaration of independence ,-„,„„ *-, — JbQtidiriq-iq .,P J. taqqxa ] 2. 

^ Recognition of*. * '. ].';]'„.'."..,„,,„,„„ . .bartdUteia 1 motf taogmfe, 54 

Spited States:' '....*." '{«^^° ri * iw . aaoilclsfl 

TII Effect of breaking diplornatic relations. with nermanfrio.q y,\8±ilw.Cl&J'.™YL jOoin^J- 

Effect of entering war .^V^^ 

Q8I Emergency Fleet Corporation.,.,. .... . , . J)9iidLficnq.,o.;UlQqxa 205 

j Og Espionage act, referred to. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......,,,,,,,. beild jdoaq. »rao*il 1'ioqinl 192 

Executive order, creating Exports Council .:?I983»1? 

Executive order, defensive sea area — b.ajJIA 164 

P£, Executive order, requisition of vessels. .. . : . , , ..«o .a&oQj.^niQtt'i'ta .v.iiJidJBiJ 170, 171 
»k, Exports Administration Board . . . t ..........„;„ -ni no- boixieo.od.Qd aheiT. . 202 

! SI Exports 1 Councii.\\".'.\\°...............,.....,..,.., l .. l , l ioI&zieiqqA 192 

. . Gene'ral'order, divuigence of naval information.^eigao-v 3fl.w.as Jb.aa&sIo.^.'iGiJi^A 176 . 
.„. Law,' application of neutrality laws to c9pelhge{(e]ateK>t08-,eJr^)2-Tta elaiila gflOBsrt 162" 
IS j \$w,' prohibiting export ; of corm^odittes # .^ e . H ^| ^ e 8.,2 ?9 9iffo.oj4^£maLqih srrndSS, 197 
p . Law, prohibiting import of commodities . . . . , . .. . , ...-fnuJqso- moil iqiitax9 ., lallsO 199 

~ . Law," violation of defensive sea area. ........ ...4a&i9^iil9<S-o3isiiuen -Y-d.i'il't&dO 161 

s ^ Note, terms of armistice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 ^q^o moil 4qm9X9-,gxiLa'3£t.lafioO 21 1 

SQi Order J operation of cables . . . _. . . . . . . . . ■ashbi&KA-'ieBWQ -n^iaiol-iol aoJttojrtterioO 191 

t » postmaster "General to operate cables , . , _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ^ ^ Q ^ndsii t ^m9aa 190 

' Proclamation,' requ^^ijo^^^fs^s^) . -. nfiW -i < >tftfOT<J;taG.tB Jaam3&a.Ti. r i:aioti& 166 
^„ . Proclamation, taking over of cables . . . . . . . . . . . . .,.,. ,. . .. , . , ,^ -sioUs^ua. ^aidzVi. 190 .1 

g, , (See 'also Armistice, Cable, Censorship, RadjptjJ^gSBd^rfglJ^^fg^^jsfffeiaeH 

•3 pjaptiohe.') ..... .lo noi}oin^29G' 

„" ' Proclamation; trade prohibitions ;; . .. . .. . . . . . < j W j<^fi3.iaoTfl-tqiii9KS, 197, 199' 

go Proclamation, transfer of vessels , , , , , to ozuuM.. . 165- 

Recognition of Sta^e^Y,,^^ ^^^00 sgoif> boa-fcme**8HiiJi^«9%iffl8, 209, 212 

' « r Regulations, bunker coal : ........... ...... ....,, to 4nuo>{Q%- - 202 

Regulations', cable censorship '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. . '. . '. oi ^^^^ noti%fa¥&f)Wfffl®&&®> m > 189 
Regulations, cargo of sailing Vesselg^^n^g^ e * tw »sai£teiH8nkteil).V) «aU. - 207 
Regu&fibrisYdurinage export . . . : .. :; .- : ........... .... .-.-.-.-.-.■.-.- .-.-Ao-flOTfioa-bttS iiaiV- - 206 

gIg Regulations, license to^saitog vessel)".'. . :n0 .[„ 5S iq. do* fnaan-teBnsybwntiiil 201 
£ { " Reguratlbhs, navigation .' .' .' '. ". ". . . . . . . . . . . . . . wrimC) nHyA-Jqfliexe- pmbsti 4«oo J 162 

Regulations, registration of vessels —SistitkmV. 205 

. Secretary of Commerce, to issue export licenses .-.-.-.•.-.-.-.-.-.-Io-Hoiai9voo9 192, 197 

8c 4 e6fdtdry 6f the Nav y- " .". .. . .anoiieltraei nsrrrwQ ^iomedo vraona 

To censor cable lines .-.-.-.'.-.-.-flm-bwft »d-o4-okf ski- - 172' 

To Issue" war time radio instructions. ..... . ;birsdfilJfif 204 

Secretary of War, to censor telegraph and telephone lines ta 172- 

Shipping Board... .^^0^^02,203,205,206 

- Statements; requisition of vessels ""• ' MaoHKf rrnr-jn lb7, 17 ° 

Terms of armistice suggested by ... . . ;.;.;??? ? . •;, , 1 . . 211 

Trading with the enemy act, referred to 183: 

Treaties tSer Treaties) 

ircatics. {ace ireaties.) bslroo wf o* aftsiT 

116506 — 19 16 rfji// gnibBiT 

. . .o3"tsolo JnoraJfieiT 



242 Index. 

United States— Continued. 

War Trade Board— Page. 

Personnel 194 

Report of policy 193 

Supervision by 192 ; 203, 204, 205 

War Trade Council 192 

Unneutral service: 

liability of vessels for 42, 123, 124, 130 

Vessels engaged in, not permitted in convoy 154 

Vessels engaged in, to be refused bunkers 203 

(See also Enemy character— Persons, enemy— Transmission of intelligence- 
Troops.) 
Uruguay: 

Decree, radio telegraphy 212 

Decree, requisition of vessels 213 

Export to, prohibited. , 197, 199 

Import from, prohibited 201 

Relations with Germany 11 

Vardoe, Norway, military port 117 

Venezuela: 

Export to, prohibited 197, 199 

Import from, prohibited 201 

Vessels: 
Allied- 
Liability of enemy goods on 129 

Trade to be carried on in 143 

Appraisal of 127 

Auxiliary, classed as war vessles 45 

Bearing chiefs of state, sojourn of 50, 121 

Bearing diplomatic officers, sojourn of 50, 121 

Cartel, exempt from capture 42 

Charter by neutral to belligerent 168 

Coast fishing, exempt from capture 42 

Construction for foreign owner forbidden 165 

Enemy, liability of 43, 44 

Enemy, treatment at outbreak of war. (See Days of grace.) 

Fishing, navigation of 137 

Hospital, distinguishing marks 149 

Destruction of 89, S© 

Exempt from capture 42 

Misuse of 89 

Note of International Red Cross Committee in reference to 90 

Sojourn of 151 

Swedish proclamation relating to 149 

Use of distinguishing marks discontinued 91 

Visit and search of 90 

Interned, armed guard to be placed on 1 213 

Local trading, exempt from capture 42 

Merchant — 

Conversion of 113 

Enemy character, German regulations 52, 53 

Liable to be fired on - - 88 

Not considered contraband 125 

National — 

Bunker restrictions 203 

Liability of enemy property on 129 

License requirements 1° 6 

Permitted to navigate in mined area 157 

Trade to be carried on, in 143 

Trading with the enemy, liability of 42 

Treatment of cargo 128 



Index. 243 

Vessels— Continued 

Neutral— Page. 

Bunkers to, restricted 203 

Liability of 123 

Liability of cargo 124 

(See also Enemy goods on neutral vessel.) 

Registration of 205 

Sailing — 

Cargo on, restricted 207 

Definition of. 202 

Forbidden in war zone 201, 202 

Licenses to prohibited 201 

Scientific, philanthropic, and religious: 

Exempt from capture 42 

Sojourn of 50, 151 

Small, navigation of 138 

Submarine. (-See Armistice; Submarine vessels.) 

Surrender of. (See Armistice.) 

Transferor (See Transfer of vessels.) 

War, definition 45 

V irgin Islands, enemy vessels in, not to be requisitioned 171 

Visit and search: 

Examination of papers 40 

Forbidden in neutral waters 39, 50, 151 

Great Britain, notice relating to 87 

In belligerent waters 163 

In port 94 

Japanese instructions relating to 113 

Liability for disobeying orders 88 

Liability for resistance to 44, 123 

Of hospital ships 90 

Procedure for 40,88,113 

Release of innocent vessel after 41 

Right of 39 

Vessels subject to 40 

Vistula, river 62 

Vital interests 102, 108 

War, state of, proclaimed 166 

Warship, definition 45 

War Trade Board. (See United States.) 

War Trade Council. (See United States.) 

War zone: 

Effect of 93, 94 

Germany, declaration of. 51, 168 

Navigation restrictions in ! 201, 202 

Treatment of hospital ships in 89 

Treatment of neutral ships in 52 

Vessels entering, without knowledge 52 

War zones: 

Bay of Biscay '. 201 

Mediterranean Sea , 52, 201 

Waters around Azores 51 

Waters around England and France 51 

White Sea, mines in 133 

William, German Emperor, abdication of 12, 55 

Wilson, President: 

Fourteen points of peace, referred to 210, 211 

Statement with reference to Dutch ships 167 

Proclamations and Executive orders by. (See United States.) 

Yemen, surrender of garrison in 161 

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